Prognostic Value of Peritoneal Cytology and the Combination of Peritoneal Cytology and Peritoneal Dissemination in Colorectal Cancer

Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan 2 Department of Surgery, Teikyo University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
Diseases of the Colon & Rectum (Impact Factor: 3.75). 12/2009; 52(12):2016-21. DOI: 10.1007/DCR.0b013e3181b4c46e
Source: PubMed


The value of positive peritoneal cytology in colorectal cancer has been controversial. In this study, we aimed to clarify the prognostic significance of peritoneal cytology and the impact of the combination of peritoneal dissemination and peritoneal cytology on the prognostic evaluation of colorectal cancer.
From January 1997 to December 2005, intraoperative peritoneal cytology was performed on 410 patients who had at least serosal invasion.
Thirty-one patients (7.6%) had positive peritoneal cytology. Patients with negative cytology showed a significantly better survival rate at five years than those with positive cytology (negative cytology, 68.0%; positive cytology, 20.6%; P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that peritoneal cytology is one of the significant prognostic factors. Sixty percent of patients with positive cytology and 30.4% of patients with negative cytology recurred (P = 0.08). Regarding the recurrence site, patients with positive cytology showed a significantly higher recurrence rate of peritoneal dissemination than those with negative cytology (P = 0.0038). Some patients with positive cytology but without evident peritoneal dissemination achieved long-term survival. Additionally, some patients with macroscopic peritoneal dissemination and negative peritoneal cytology also achieved long-term survival. But for those patients with both positive cytology and evident macroscopic peritoneal dissemination, the five-year survival rate was zero.
Patients with negative peritoneal cytology had a significantly better five-year survival rate than those with positive peritoneal cytology. In some cases in which either peritoneal cytology or peritoneal dissemination was negative, long-term survival could be achieved.

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    ABSTRACT: Background The clinical significance of peritoneal lavage cytology for patients with gastric cancer is recognized, whereas that for patients with colorectal cancer remains controversial. The present study used a nationwide registry to clarify the prognostic significance of peritoneal lavage cytology in patients with colorectal cancer. Methods We retrospectively analyzed factors associated with recurrence and survival in patients with T3–T4 colorectal cancer without distant metastasis taken from the nationwide registry of the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum between 1984 and 1999. Results Among 34,554 patients in this study, not all of whom received peritoneal lavage cytology, 35 had positive peritoneal lavage cytology. Gender (P = 0.0004), tumor location (P < 0.0001), histological grade (P < 0.0001), depth of tumor invasion (P < 0.0001), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.0001) and peritoneal cytology (P = 0.015) were risk factors for peritoneal recurrence. Multivariate analysis revealed that tumor location (P < 0.0001), histological grade (P < 0.0001), depth of tumor invasion (P < 0.0001) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.0001) were independent risk factors for peritoneal metastasis. Gender (P < 0.0001), tumor location (P < 0.0001), age (P < 0.0001), histological grade (P < 0.0001), depth of tumor invasion (P < 0.0001), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.0001) and peritoneal cytology (P = 0.0004) were independent prognostic factors according to the Cox proportional hazards model. Conclusion Positive peritoneal lavage cytology was associated with poorer survival in patients with stage II and III colorectal cancer. Positive cytology might be a good indicator of candidates for intensive adjuvant chemotherapy. The benefit of intensive adjuvant chemotherapy for such patients should be validated in prospective trials.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · International Journal of Clinical Oncology

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