Memory, metamemory and their dissociation in temporal lobe epilepsy

School of Psychology, University of Plymouth, United Kingdom.
Neuropsychologia (Impact Factor: 3.3). 11/2009; 48(4):921-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.11.011
Source: PubMed


Patients with temporal-lobe epilepsy (TLE) present with memory difficulties. The aim of the current study was to determine to what extent these difficulties could be related to a metamemory impairment. Fifteen patients with TLE and 15 matched healthy controls carried out a paired-associates learning task. Memory recall was measured at intervals of 30min and 4 weeks. We employed a combined Judgement-of-Learning (JOL) and Feeling-of-Knowing (FOK) task to investigate whether participants could monitor their memory successfully at both the item-by-item level and the global level. The results revealed a clear deficit of episodic memory in patients with epilepsy compared with controls, but metamemory in TLE patients was intact. Patients were able to monitor their memory successfully at the item-by-item level, and tended to be even more accurate than controls when making global judgements.

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Available from: Pilar Andres, Sep 29, 2014
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    • "For example, when related word pairs were compared with unrelated word pairs (Dunlosky and Matvey, 2001), common concrete words with rare abstract words (Begg et al., 1989), massed repetition with spaced repetition (Simon and Bjork, 2001), the former learning material or learning method was judged as easier but in fact showed worse performance than the latter. At the neural level, evidence from psychopharmacological (Dunlosky et al., 1998; Izaute and Bacon, 2004; Mintzer and Griffiths, 2005; Mintzer et al., 2010) and neuropsychological studies (Vilkki et al., 1999; Pannu and Kaszniak, 2005; Andrés et al., 2010; Howard et al., 2010) indicates that the memory and metamemory processes depend upon at least partially distinct neural circuitries (Chua et al., 2014). Both nitrous oxide and benzodiazepine lorazepam impair memory performance, but not the ability to form accurate JOLs (Dunlosky et al., 1998; Izaute and Bacon, 2004; Mintzer and Griffiths, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Judgment of learning (JOL) plays a pivotal role in self-regulated learning. Although the JOLs are in general accurate, important deviations from memory performance are often reported, especially when the JOLs are made immediately after learning. Nevertheless, existing studies have not clearly dissociated the neural processes underlying subjective JOL and objective memory. In the present study, participants were asked to study a list of words that would be tested 1 day later. Immediately after learning an item, participants predicted how likely they would remember that item. Critically, the JOL was performed on only half of the studied items to avoid its contamination on subsequent memory. We found that during encoding, compared to items later judged as “will be forgotten,” those judged as “will be remembered” showed stronger activities in the default-mode network, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and posterior cingulate cortex, as well as weaker functional connectivity between the left dorsolateral PFC and the visual cortex. The exact opposite pattern was found when comparing items that were actually remembered with those that were later forgotten. These important neural dissociations between JOL and memory performance shed light on the neural mechanisms of human metamemory bias.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Frontiers in Psychology
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    • "Our central hypotheses concerned the anterior PFC group, and the selection of temporal lobe patients to form a lesion control group was driven by their relative predominance in the patient database. Previous studies have reported negligible effects of temporal lobe damage on metacognitive accuracy in memory tasks (Prevey et al., 1991; Pannu et al., 2005; Howard et al., 2010, 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Humans have the capacity to evaluate the success of cognitive processes, known as metacognition. Convergent evidence supports a role for anterior prefrontal cortex in metacognitive judgements of perceptual processes. However, it is unknown whether metacognition is a global phenomenon, with anterior prefrontal cortex supporting metacognition across domains, or whether it relies on domain-specific neural substrates. To address this question, we measured metacognitive accuracy in patients with lesions to anterior prefrontal cortex (n = 7) in two distinct domains, perception and memory, by assessing the correspondence between objective performance and subjective ratings of performance. Despite performing equivalently to a comparison group with temporal lobe lesions (n = 11) and healthy controls (n = 19), patients with lesions to the anterior prefrontal cortex showed a selective deficit in perceptual metacognitive accuracy (meta-d'/d', 95% confidence interval 0.28-0.64). Crucially, however, the anterior prefrontal cortex lesion group's metacognitive accuracy on an equivalent memory task remained unimpaired (meta-d'/d', 95% confidence interval 0.78-1.29). Metacognitive accuracy in the temporal lobe group was intact in both domains. Our results support a causal role for anterior prefrontal cortex in perceptual metacognition, and indicate that the neural architecture of metacognition, while often considered global and domain-general, comprises domain-specific components that may be differentially affected by neurological insult.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Brain
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    • "More recently, neuropsychological studies have examined metacognition in TLE focusing on the use of experimental tasks in episodic memory (Andrés, Mazzoni, & Howard, 2010; Howard et al., 2010). Howard et al. (2010) explored experimentally metamemory monitoring and control processes in TLE patients on a verbal episodic memory task. Howard et al. showed that TLE patients presented with a clear episodic memory deficit, and yet intact metamemory monitoring (Judgments-of-learning and FOKs) and control (study-time) processes were observed. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the level of metacognitive sensitivity previously observed in global Judgments-of-Learning (JOLs) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients could also be established when making item-by-item JOLs. Fourteen TLE patients and 14 control participants were compared on a memory task where 39 semantically unrelated word pairs were presented at three different levels of repetition. Thirteen word pairs were assigned to each level. A combined JOL and Feeling-of-Knowing (FOK) task was used to examine metamemory monitoring and control processes. The results showed that control participants outperformed TLE patients on recall and recognition. However, both groups were sensitive to repetition of the word pairs throughout the list, revealing intact online monitoring and control processes at encoding. These results are consistent with the findings of Howard et al. (2010) of intact metamemory in TLE patients and extend the findings of Andrés et al. (2010) of metamemory sensitivity from the global level to the item-by-item level. Finally, the current findings provide additional evidence of a dissociation between memory and metamemory in TLE patients. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1-10).
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
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