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Il Database Pedologico Georeferenziato e la Carta dei Suoli della Sardegna



Tha authors have made a Georeferenced Soil Data Base for Sardinia and related soil map at 1: 250.000 scale. This study, carried out in the Ecopedological map of Italy, is based on the Georeferenced Soil Data Base for Europa, Manual of Procedures, (vers. 1.0), directives. by European Soil Bureau. The database is jointed in Soil Regions and subRegions, every differentiated on geological and climatic features. The Soil Region or Soil subRegion, are costituited by one o more Soilscape differentiated on morphological features. The Soilscapes are described by Soil Body, definited as a portion of soil cover with diagnostic characteristic resulting from similar process of soil genesis. In the island the authors have recognized 7 Soil Regions, 2 or Soil subRegions and 285 Soil Scapes; 62 of these are described by one o by more Soil Body. For every Soil Region, Soil subRegion, Soilscape and Soil Body the authors have made a XLS file card, based on the Manual of Procedures. The map (in MAPINFO file) and the file cards are only the first step for the implementation of soil data base. The next phase will be the description of the existing Soilscape by new Soil Body and all soil profiles surveyied in Sardinia.
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... The sites were different for geographical , litho - pedologic , thermo - pluviometric conditions and for land use . In Ottana , the soils are poorly drained and classified as Typic Aquic and Ultic Palexer - alf ( Madrau et al . , 2006 ) , according to the USDA Soil Taxonomy . ...
... an climate with a mean annual rainfall ( 1998 – 2008 ) of 458 mm that mainly occurs during the autumn and spring months , and with average number of frost days per year of 16 . The most common land uses are pasture and naturally occur - ring Mediterranean maquis . In Ottava , the soils are well drained and mostly classified as Lithic Xerorthents ( Madrau et al . , 2006 ) , accord - ing to the USDA Soil Taxonomy . The site has a typical Mediterranean climate with a mean annual rainfall ( 1958 – 2004 ) of 554 mm that mainly occurs from October to December , and with average number of frost days per year of 2 . The most common land uses are cereal and forage crops and naturally occurring Mediterranean ma ...
The DSSAT Cropping System Model (CSM-CROPGRO) was used to adapt a new model for rapeseed (Brassica napus L. var. oleifera D.C.) and to evaluate it at a field scale under Mediterranean conditions. Model coefficients used to describe growth and development of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] were chosen as initial reference values. Information on rapeseed from the literature was then used to replace the parameters of the model. Phenology, growth, and partitioning were evaluated using experimental data from two locations of Sardinia (Italy) that were collected in 2007 and 2008. The simulated crop cycle (flowering, first pod, first seed and maturity date), leaf area index (LAI), specific leaf area (SLA), aboveground biomass and pod mass production, yield components, and grain yield and composition (oil and nitrogen content) of rapeseed were compared with specific observations for the early maturity cultivar Kabel, chosen among the most promising under Mediterranean conditions. Base temperatures for processes of this species are typically between 0 and 5 °C for photosynthetic, vegetative, and reproductive processes while corresponding optimum temperatures vary from 21 to 25 °C. Crop cycle was simulated with a RMSE of 0.8 days (d-index = 0.96). Mean predicted aboveground biomass at final harvest was 3825 kg ha−1, with a RMSE of 1582 kg ha−1 (d-index = 0.92). The model estimated SLA with a RMSE of 42.3 cm2 g−1 (d-index = 0.78). Predicted grain yield of rapeseed was 2791 kg ha−1 and was in agreement with the observed data. The results obtained from this model adaptation for rapeseed revealed satisfactory predictions of phenology, growth, and yield of rapeseed and hence suggested that the CSM-CROPGRO model can be used for simulation of rapeseed production in Mediterranean environments although further evaluation for water and nitrogen limiting environments is needed.
... The field trial was conducted in Sardinia (Italy) at Ottava (40 • 46' N, 8 • 29' E, 81m asl) over four consecutive years from 2015 to 2018. The soils were well drained and mostly classified as Lithic Xerorthents (Madrau et al., 2006) according to the USDA Soil Taxonomy. Soil texture was classified as sandy clay loam (Deligios et al., 2013). ...
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the most cultivated oil crops in the world. Given its high dependence on water availability, its cultivation in the Mediterranean area is severely threatened by climate change: very hot and dry weather conditions currently occurring in the Mediterranean area have a negative impact on sunflower yield. Many studies have pointed to earlier sowing dates as a promising strategy to prevent summer drought stress causing sunflower yield losses, but the literature on winter sowing dates is scarce. The aim of this research was to quantify the interplay between sowing date (winter time included) and water regime to sustain sunflower cultivation in the Mediterranean area. A field experiment and a modeling study were carried out to evaluate the effects of different sowing dates (00SD: ‘conventional sowing date’ in March/April and ‘earlier sowing dates’ in December-January-February, depending on years) under two different water regimes (irrigated vs. rainfed) on quantitative traits of high oleic cultivars of sunflower. Field experiments revealed that sowing in late February - mid March was the most effective strategy in terms of achene productivity. Achene production by sunflower was also simulated using EPIC under a baseline climatic scenario and for 4 hypothetical sowing dates (D1: 10th January, D2: 10th February, D3: 10th March, D4: 10th April) and different irrigation strategies. The most effective sowing date was D3 under rainfed conditions, confirming the results of the field study. Irrigation from 20 days before anthesis up to flowering significantly improved achene yield for the early sowing dates (D1 and D2), which almost reached their respective yield potentials. This confirms that an earlier sowing date could be a viable management strategy in Mediterranean areas with little water availability.
... In the Ottava site, soils are poorly drained [31,32] with a clay-loam texture, a phosphorous and an organic matter content equal to 38 ppm, and 1.7%, respectively. Soil depth ranges from 50 to 80 cm. ...
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The oilseed rape conventional system can be moved to a more sustainable one by reducing herbicide application whilst ensuring at the same time effective weed control, maintaining oilseed rape yield, and quality and increasing profitability. Over three growing season periods, two field experiments at two different Southern Italy locations were carried out. In both sites, a conventional weed-control management system (recommended label dose), four alternative low-herbicide treatments, and an untreated control were compared. We monitored weeds and crop response to herbicide treatments, and calculated the net economic return, within site and year, for each treatment. In experiment 1, a half dose of herbicide did not show any significant difference in seed yield with respect to conventional treatment in two of three growing seasons. In experiment 2, compared with the conventional system, weedy control and the lowest applied herbicide dose treatment (25% of the recommended label dose) did not underline significant differences with regard to yield level. Net returns from the half dose of metazachlor herbicide were not significantly lower than net returns from conventional treatment in experiment 1 (on a three-year average 748 vs. 812 € ha⁻¹, respectively). Our findings suggest that the herbicide dose might be cut by at least 50% in order not to jeopardize negative effects on production and economic performances.
... A digital elevation model with a resolution of 20 m was produced using the Regional Technical Map of Sardinia (1 : 10 000) and was used to identify the characteristics of exposure, slope and elevation of the monitoring sites. The predominant host tree species was determined by visual inspection of trees at each monitoring site (Luciano, 1989), whereas the pedological features of the sites were taken from the Soil Map of Sardinia (1 : 250 000) (Madrau et al., 2006). The data sets were combined in a geographic information system (GIS) using arcgis, version 9.0 (ESRI, 2004). ...
• Spatial fluctuations of the Sardinian population of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) were characterized using geostatistical and climate models. Data on gypsy moth egg mass abundance recorded at 282 permanent monitoring sites from 1980 to 2004 were incorporated in a geographic information system with the vegetational, geomorphological and pedological features of the sites. • Statistical analyses revealed that the relative outbreak frequency was related to the predominant host tree, slope and elevation of the monitoring sites, whereas there was no correlation between outbreak frequency and exposure and soil type. • By using bioclimatic modelling, probability maps of gypsy moth outbreaks were generated. The model identified a probability surface with climatic conditions favourable to gypsy moth outbreaks and thus potentially subject to defoliation. The maps included 92 sites where outbreaks never occurred, suggesting that the Sardinian climate may not be a determinant factor for gypsy moth outbreaks. • The geostatistical method cokriging with outbreak frequency as a covariate was found to be the most suitable technique to estimate gypsy moth egg mass abundance. Semivariograms showed spatial correlation of egg mass abundance within the range 18.5–53 km. The results obtained were used to create regional gypsy moth distribution maps by cokriging, which demonstrated the outbreak foci and different infestation levels at each monitoring area. These results can help to delimit the treatment areas and develop rational gypsy moth management programmes.
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The purpose of this study is to contribute to the knowledge of the effects of the climatic trends on the cork oak system and to furnish a base of prediction models related to the wood growth. The area of the study is located in the centre of Sardinia. The area covers an overall surface of 9 Km2 for the statistic analysis and of 25 Km<sup>2</sup> for the simulation. We have collected the measures of trees with diameter at breast height between 15 and 30 cm. The statistic analysis has concerned: 1) the classification of the statistic variables; 2) the treatment of the satellite images MODIS for the extraction of space- temporal variables related to temperatures at ground level, the water content and the mass vegetation; 3) the definition of the samples with a high possibility of error; 4) Annealing simulation for the optimization of the model and of data. Finally we have create one prediction model for a vast area. The Pearson correlation of show that the average increases of a sample group of trees are tightly tied to thermometric trend. The analysis with geo-statistics technique has brought to verify that there is a clear correlation with the content of water, with the daytime temperature, and with the biomass. While the increases, on the other hand, are negatively correlated with the night-temperatures and the EVI. The results of the simulations have brought, finally, to the possibility to build prediction maps with annual, biennial and cumulative scale.
-I suoli della Sardegna con allegati cartografici in scala 1:250
  • A Aru
Aru A. et al. 1967.-I suoli della Sardegna con allegati cartografici in scala 1:250.000.
Sassari -Aru A. et al. 1986. -I suoli delle aree irrigabili della Sardegna. Regione Autonoma della Sardegna -Piano Generale delle Acque
  • Studi Sassaresi
  • Sez
  • Annali Iii
  • Fac
Studi Sassaresi, Sez. III, Annali Fac. d'Agraria. vol. XV, fasc. 2: pp.1-59, Sassari -Aru A. et al. 1986. -I suoli delle aree irrigabili della Sardegna. Regione Autonoma della Sardegna -Piano Generale delle Acque. Cagliari -Aru A., Baldaccini P. et al. 1992 -Carta dei suoli della Sardegna alla scala 1:250.000.