Article

The New Principles of a Swarm Business

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Abstract

In every large company, groups of creative individuals self-organize to explore and develop ideas that they care deeply about. These collaborative networks often include customers and others outside the company's boundaries. Take, for instance, the automaker BMW, which posts numerous engineering challenges on its Web site, enabling customers and company designers to network and collaborate on developing various features of future cars. Now collaborative innovation is being extended from the realm of idea generation and product development to the very essence of doing business. In fact, some companies have based their entire business models on collaborative networks. The classic example is Wikipedia, the free online encyclopedia that relies on a swarm of people to write, edit and fact check the information listed in its entries. According to the authors, these "swarm businesses" pick up where the e-business craze stopped, with one crucial difference: e-businesses were primarily concerned with eyeballs (getting as many people as possible to visit a particular Web site), whereas swarm businesses strive mainly to create real value for the swarm. As companies like BMW, IBM, Novartis and others are discovering, swarm businesses require a completely new corporate mindset. Specifically, to reap the benefits of swarm innovation, companies must (1) gain power by giving it away, (2) share with the swarm and (3) concentrate on the swarm, not on making money. Although these principles differ from the traditional ways of doing business in a number of fundamental ways, they are crucial for companies to succeed in this emerging era of increased collaboration among innovators both inside and outside the organization.

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... A number of conceptual frameworks on collaborative innovation have combined B2B and B2C stakeholders (Gloor and Cooper, 2007;Owen et al., 2008;Swink, 2006) and our research contributes to this work. "Swarm businesses" are a mix of crowd-sourced B2B and B2C relationships that allow companies to work towards the collective interest of stakeholders, including employees, customers, suppliers, partners and even competitors (Gloor and Cooper, 2007). ...
... A number of conceptual frameworks on collaborative innovation have combined B2B and B2C stakeholders (Gloor and Cooper, 2007;Owen et al., 2008;Swink, 2006) and our research contributes to this work. "Swarm businesses" are a mix of crowd-sourced B2B and B2C relationships that allow companies to work towards the collective interest of stakeholders, including employees, customers, suppliers, partners and even competitors (Gloor and Cooper, 2007). Swink (2006) argues that collaborative innovation capability includes both structured (i.e. ...
... Although most research focuses on either B2B or B2C co-creation contexts, customer centric organisations are likely to engage in a mix of both B2B and B2C co-creation activities, potentially involving both internal and external stakeholders in a variety of tasks (see Gloor and Cooper, 2007;Owen et al.;2008). The choice of B2B versus B2C co-creation, however, is in part a strategic decision and B2B may involve different choices, relationships and forms of engagement than B2C type cocreation. ...
Article
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to make a contribution to co-creation theory by integrating conceptual insights from the management and marketing literatures that are both concerned with co-creation phenomena. It aims to develop a reference model for comparing how different organizations organize and manage their co-creation ventures. It also aims to apply the authors' framework to four distinct cases that illustrate the differences in co-creation practice within different co-creation environments. Design/methodology/approach – The authors compare four different companies based on case profiles. Each company is employing its own distinct approach to co-creating. The authors employ a method mix including literature analysis, structured interviews, document and web site analysis, as well as participation. Findings – The reference model offers a set of useful dimensions for case-based inquiry. The case comparisons show how firms may decide to systematise and manage a mix of co-creation activities within B2B versus B2C contexts, utilising either crowd-sourced or non-crowd-sourced approaches. Further, the case comparisons suggest that there are less differences in B2B versus B2C co-creation as compared with crowd-sourced versus non-crowd-sourced approaches. Ultimately, implementation decisions in one dimension of co-creation design (e.g. whom to involve in co-creation) will affect other dimensions of implementation and governance (e.g. how much intimacy) and thus how co-creation needs to be managed. Originality/value – The paper presents case comparisons utilising B2B versus B2C, as well as crowd versus non-crowd-sourcing examples of co-creation and an original decision support framework for assessing and comparing co-creation choices.
... A meaningful purpose may unleash tremendous amounts of psychological energy and be much more gratifying for talented people than standard management goals. In fact, members of a swarm " typically reject the traditional business notion of building shareholder value as the basis for their decisions and actions " (Gloor and Cooper, 2007: 81). Strategizing " at the edge of chaos, where complexity lives " (Gribbin, 2004, p.103) represents a major challenge for both scholars and practitioners. ...
... Distributed intelligence prevails, rather than strict managerial intelligence (Marion and Uhl-Bien, 2003). In managerial terms, this may result from three processes previously identified in the literature: heed (Weick and Roberts, 1993), swarm intelligence (Gloor and Cooper, 2007) and improvisation (Crossan and Hurst, 2006). ...
Article
“In the midst of order, there is chaos; but in the midst of chaos, there is order”, John Gribbin wrote in his book Deep Simplicity (p. 76). In this dialectical spirit, we discuss the generative tension between complexity and simplicity in the theory and practice of management and organization. Complexity theory suggests that the relationship between complex environments and complex organizations advanced by the well-known Ashby’s law, may be reconsidered: only simple organization provides enough space for individual agency to match environmental turbulence in the form of complex organizational responses. We suggest that complex organizing may be paradoxically facilitated by a simple infrastructure, and that the theory of organizations may be viewed as resulting from the dialectical interplay between simplicity and complexity.
... Admittedly, organisations engaged in the invention stage are increasingly wishing for fast realisation and propagation of their eventual "prototype." Thus, customers, partners, suppliers, and even competitors are increasingly thought of as collaborative members in the value chain of organisations (Bonabeau & Meyer, 2001;Chesbrough, 2003;Gloor & Cooper, 2007;Hargadon, 2003). The initiating company attempts to multiply the value of the invention by diffusing it to the internal, as well as the (Birkinshaw & Sheehan, 2002). ...
... This model is consistent with the emerging role of social networks in relation to innovation. Networked innovation is seen as an increasingly important factor for enhanced organisational performance (Gloor & Cooper, 2007;Scarbrough, 2003;Swan & Scarbrough, 2005). Ideas and knowledge are continuously dispersed across organisational boundaries. ...
Chapter
The increasing pressure of today's highly globalised markets has lead organisations to continuously compete for knowledge and innovation. Despite the fact that there is extensive analysis of the concepts of knowledge and innovation management as autonomous areas of research, there is limited investigation for identifying and managing knowledge innovation as an integrated concept. The aim of this chapter is to conceptualise an amalgamation between innovation and knowledge process management models. This study is based on a single case, selected to provide description and generate theory around the introduced knowledge innovation lifecycle model. Skandia was conceived as an appropriate example, since it has significant reputation both on knowledge and innovation management strategy. The proposed conceptual model of highly interlinked and recursive knowledge and innovation processes flow is believed to offer enhanced utilisation of knowledge and innovation management in organisational settings.
... "Motivating workers to accomplish such tasks can be challenging, and may lead to reduced engagement with the system" [17]. Attracting and motivating crowdsourcees is important to increase their interest in the collaborative task and shows qualitative impact on the outcome [2,10,16,20,25,27]. ...
Conference Paper
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Crowdsourcing is used for collaborative problem solving in different domains. The key to optimal solutions is mostly found by collaboration among the crowdsourcees. The current state of research on this field addresses this topic mainly with an explorative focus on a specific domain, such as idea contests. We gather and analyze the contributions from the different domains on collaboration in crowdsourcing. We present a framework for a general collaboration process model for crowdsourcing. To derive this framework, we conducted a literature review and set up a database, which assigns the literature to the process steps that we identified from interaction patterns in the literature. The framework considers phases before and after the collaboration among crowdsourcees and includes relevant activities that can influence the collaboration process. This paper contributes to a deeper understanding of the interaction among crowdsourcees and provides crowdsourcers with grounding for the informed design of effective collaborative crowdsourcing processes.
... Second, while many studies adopt the perspective of the organization or the brand behind the co-creation initiative, we were interested in understanding the outcomes of co-creation from the consumer standpoint. 43 Previous research has studied the expectations and motivations of consumers to act as co-creators 44 but there is still scarce research on the changes in their attitudes towards the brand during and after involvement in a co-creation process. Building on Fournier's work on brand intimacy and relationships, we wanted to establish whether participation in a brand community made people feel more engaged and closer to the brands that they helped to co-create and how this affected their expectations of the brand owner. ...
Article
Co-creation is a rapidly emerging area of research. However, there is a lack of understanding as to how organizations use co-creation to build relationships and generate value. How does participation emerge and what outcomes does it deliver? To generate insight into the co-creation process, we created an online brand community. Our findings show that people participate in a community because it offers them the chance to find fulfillment, to express their creativity, and to socialize. The findings have significant implications for marketing, branding, and research professionals because the research shows that managers have to see participants as integral to the brand.
... It relinquishes the power to users and shares the benefit with them. 29 In this situation, users participate as collective intelligence in the innovation. With collective intelligence, innovation is achieved at low cost for the enterprise. ...
Article
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... Realizing that scale economies will have to happen through shared infrastructure systems with other entities such as businesses and civic and financial institutions, corporations that will flourish in tomorrow's world are those that are modular, decentralized, and allowed to grow where problems, solutions, and potential profits pop (Gloor & Cooper, 2007). To realize fast-emerging profits, the Cambrian corporation will need to govern itself in such a way that agility, sensing, and capacity for quick pivots when necessary are the overriding organizational Expect lots of experimentation, alignment, misalignment, and realignment between corporations and other sets of stakeholders that contribute to or are impacted by the convergence issues. ...
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What might be the future of “the innovative global corporation”? There has been a profound evolution of the corporation over the last hundred years. Corporations have, willingly or unwillingly, developed an ever-greater macro and micro role in societies. In many parts of the world, they have become more powerful and wealthy than governments, and their global influence, by any account, is massive. As engines of economic growth, innovation, and technological progress, they have brought much good to humanity.
... The internet is one example, as its tangible infrastructure is driven moment-by-moment by the individual choices of a crowd of participants, all forming a functioning network through standardized connecting protocol. The strategy of reliable self-organization has been gaining attention since the advent of the internet (see, for example, Gloor and Cooper (2007)), but swarm operations are not restricted to this technology. Air traffic control provides another example, reliably coordinating the simultaneous use of airspace and airport infrastructure by multiple participants. ...
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Disaster response is not readily categorized by the influential taxonomies of operations management (OM), symptomatic of a broader lack of theory relating OM’s multiple research areas. Through the inductive research technique of iterative triangulation, we identify patterns of evidence in case studies and other literature to develop a new taxonomy for OM, one which explicitly positions emergency related operations relative to other industries. This new taxonomy divides the OM domain into four broad categories, each with its own strategic focus. The taxonomy provides explicit categorization of emergency and disaster response, but also illustrates the broader evolution of OM research, the relationship of temporary organizations to OM, and the commonalities between emergency response and creative industries. These patterns suggest research opportunities to further OM’s understanding of how best to operate in a highly uncertain environment, findings of potential value to both emergency response and any ‘normal’ business that might suffer disruption.
... Distributed intelligence prevails, rather than strict managerial intelligence (Marion and Uhl-Bien, 2003). In managerial terms, this may result from three processes previously identified in the literature: heed (Weick and Roberts, 1993), swarm intelligence (Gloor and Cooper, 2007) and improvisation (Crossan and Hurst, 2006). ...
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... A precondition for this to happen is a bottom up construction of a common social identity (a low degree of diversity) and a low degree of strategic decision making. In this sense we can find self-organising settings in modern ideal type organisational forms like COINs (Collaborative Innovation Networks) , smartmobs, and swarming (Gloor, P. A. and S. M. Cooper (2007). "The New Principles of a Swarm Business." ...
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What features of institutional change do voluntary organisations contain? This question is debated in the civil society literature, but often under different headlines, like social entrepreneurship or social movement theory. The question of voluntarism is often not taken into account. This paper builds upon the premise that institutional dynamic is connected to peoples ability to act according to their free will. But only in the ideal version are they able to make a complete connection between free will and action. This is also the case for volunteers. The loose-coupled connection to the organisation may give volunteers special opportunities to choose, not only where and when, but also how they will perform. But in praxis the volunteer’s ability to perform is structured by the institutional settings of the specific voluntary organisation as well as the organisational field of voluntary organisations. I establish a theoretical frame of institutional dynamic, build primarily on J.G. March’s theory on exploration and exploitation. I focus on two organisational arrangements drawn from the theory: The degree of strategic decision-making and the degree of diversity among the volunteers. I use this theoretical frame to analyse case studies of three voluntary organisations. As a part of the analysis I describe four sets of institutional settings that can influence voluntary organisations ability to create institutional dynamic: institutionalization, moderation, self-organisation and loose-coupling.
... The probability of the favorable scenarios here actually increases with academicians and policy makers encouraging the relevant behavior. In an inspiring article about the new principles of a swarm business, Gloor and Cooper (2007) identified three main principles underlying successful swarming for a common purpose: (1) gain power by giving it away, (2) share with the swarm and (3) focus on the swarming, not on making money. They suggested that following these principles and applying the swarming approach in creative business, which means that no managerial hierarchy should be implemented, no ownership over the ideas should be established (only over the processes) and even small innovations and decisions in general may ultimately change the world, could direct behavior towards collective interests and, eventually, generate satisfaction for all stakeholders. ...
Article
We argue that human and social capital management models, based on complexity theory as a metaphor, may contribute to sustainable development in the long run, while at the organizational level they serve as an umbrella for strategic alignment of employees’ behavior. We propose possible linkages among complexity, a variety of constructs, and human and social capital, to stimulate creation of a sustainable management mentality based on understanding of the worldview concept, with factors that influence it more instantly (terror management), or more incrementally (simulacra), in the ways exhibited in some natural or historical phenomena (such as swarming). In this light, throughout the paper we provide novel solutions for different governance and management systems (environmental, HR, marketing, social responsibility etc.) outside their frontal actions to conclude how policy makers may use this paradigm shift to achieve stronger stakeholder engagement and establish sustainable equilibrium among human, social and other forms of capital.
... Examples of co-creation practices abound across industries. Companies such as BMW [32], Ducati, Samsung [50], IBM [9], LEGO [74], Starbucks [48], Proctor & Gamble [38], and Dell [22] have all been successfully leveraging creative ideas contributed by internet users. Co-creation seems to be an effective way to enhance customer relations and improve business process efficiency (e.g., [55]). ...
Article
Co-creation communities allow companies to utilize consumers’ creative thinking in the innovation process. This paper seeks to understand the role of sentiment in user co-creation. The results suggest that management style can affect the success of co-creation communities. Specific employees’ communication styles, the sentiments embedded in the messages, task-oriented content, and proactiveness can all influence individual user sentiment. The aggregation of these individual user sentiments, resulting in collective sentiments, affects co-creation performance. Increasing negative collective sentiment results in decreased subsequent creativity and increased future participation. Conversely, growing positive collective sentiment leads to a lower level of participation.
... The second centres on idea generation and product development opportunities provided by instantaneously swarming to carry out innovative tasks. Such clusters, termed 'collaborative innovation network' (Gloor and Cooper 2012) or 'collaborative manufacturing networks' (Johansen, Comstock, and Winroth 2005;Lin et al. 2012) enhance value chain inputs, design and production process (Love and Roper 2001;Serrano and Fischer 2007;Felzensztein 2008). The third originates from 'cluster policies' (Mcdonald et al. 2007;Nishimura and Okamuro 2011) that are set in place by policy-makers in countries for interorganisational collaboration. ...
Article
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Collaborative networks (CNs) leverage the improving sociability and usability features of information technology to enable and enhance partnering that delivers competitive solutions. This partnering is motivated by business, supply chain, market and technological evolutions that create uncertainty and pressure on independently operating firms. Accordingly, literature on CNs has enhanced practice by shedding light on the collaboration patterns that underlie CNs and the different management mechanisms that are required to cope with the complexity of CNs. The purpose of this article is to systematically review the state-of-the-art of research for CNs with a view to identifying future research potentials and directions. It offers an assembling, critical appraisal and synthesis of the literature on CNs and focuses on the logic and management of CNs. It contributes to knowledge by outlining a multi-level framework of CNs based on the review findings. It is anticipated that the review will serve as the foundation for breaking new grounds in research and further advance the discipline of CNs.
... In fact, being a lone hero may be an optimal strategy for portfolio building. Also, while there are methodologies for cyber-teams allowing people to work collectively [60,61], open-collaboration communities in general, and open-software development in particular, attract people who avoid hierarchy and prefer individual work [62,63,64]. Our findings support this perspective. ...
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... Além disso, trabalham de forma ágil, em busca da assertividade dos processos, com estrutura enxuta e desmaterializada (Child & McGrath, 2001;Mowshowitz, 1994;Ribeiro, 2016). Enquadram-se na descrição anterior conceitos de organizações pós-modernas (Clegg, 1990(Clegg, /1998, emergentes (Brafman & Beckstrom, 2006;Gloor & Cooper, 2012), e virtuais/virtualizadas (Davidow & Malone, 1992/1993Mowshowitz, 1994;Trevisan, 2006). ...
Conference Paper
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Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar uma análise dos estudos consti-tuídos à volta da ideia de organização virtual na relação com as escolas de pensamento que advogam o princípio da comunicação como constitutiva da organização, procurando pontos de convergência e de divergência. Isso se deu a partir do entendimento de que a aceleração da virtualização das orga-nizações, ocorrida nos últimos 2 anos por conta da pandemia da COVID-19, fez surgir novos desafios para a comunicação, trazendo à tona a necessidade da academia se debruçar sobre o conceito da organização virtual no contex-to do campo teórico da comunicação organizacional. A nossa intenção foi mostrar que essas são realidades comunicativas e discursivas em afirmação e tão complexas quanto as tradicionais, enquadrando esta reflexão na teoria da comunicação como constitutiva da organização. Identificamos na orga-nização virtual o funcionamento de uma organização clássica, uma vez que as ferramentas tecnológicas atuam como facilitadoras do processo comuni-cativo organizacional e integram uma série de atribuições que antes só eram possíveis de executar em espaços físicos, convertendo-se em escritórios que operam em qualquer lugar ou hora, desde que haja tecnologia e internet.
... This requires more empowerment of middle and lower level managers who are currently unprepared to take risky decisions and prefer to rely on the 'higher authorities' . From this perspective, managers may gain power by giving power away (Gloor & Cooper, 2007, p. 81). In this case, power and, namely the power to decide, is not a privilege to conserve but a force to expand organizational talent, as our interviewees told: ...
Article
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The study departs from two assumptions. First, it considers that organizations, their leaders and the HRM function are inherently paradoxical and that, in that sense, dealing with paradox is a necessary component of the leadership process which requires ambidexterity capabilities. Second, it explores whether the paradoxes of leadership may manifest differently in different contexts. We explore the emergence of paradox in the leadership of Angolan organizations. Angola is an economy transitioning from a centrally planned to a market mode, and this makes it a rich site for understanding the specificities of ambidextrous paradoxical processes in an under-researched, ‘rest of the world’, context. The findings of our inductive study led to the emergence of four interrelated paradoxes and highlight the importance of ambidextrous paradoxical work as a HRM contingency.
... BMW is a good example of a company that uses the collective intelligence of its employees and customers to innovate. The company posts various engineering challenges on its website, which enables the company's designers to network and collaborate with customers to arrive at innovative solutions (Gloor et al., 2007). Another example is Eli Lilly, which established a large network of external partners in the biotech sector, academia, and other innovation centres, as part of its overall innovation strategy (Owen et al., 2008). ...
Article
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This study analyzes the shared values and concepts of quality management, corporate social responsibility, and the feminist ethics of care through an integrative review of literature and examines their commonalities, differences, and complementarities to identify opportunities for research and practice. We use the Baldrige Award core values and concepts as a framework for analysis, since they embody many of the shared concepts of these domains. We also use stakeholder theory as the underlying theory for this analysis. This study takes a novel, interdisciplinary approach and argues that the feminist perspective to stakeholder theory offers new perspectives for both fields. The feminist perspective is missing from the quality management and operations management literatures, and it is only recently emerging in the corporate social responsibility field. This study contributes to the literature by identifying gaps in our understanding of the relational perspectives embedded in the feminist ethics of care within the contexts of quality management and corporate social responsibility and offers a new lens through which quality management and corporate social responsibility implementations can be viewed. It also points out areas of research where opportunities for the development of expanded frameworks for these implementations exist.
... Além disso, trabalham de forma ágil, em busca da assertividade dos processos, com estrutura enxuta e desmaterializada (Child & McGrath, 2001;Mowshowitz, 1994;Ribeiro, 2016). Enquadram-se na descrição anterior conceitos de organizações pós-modernas (Clegg, 1990(Clegg, /1998, emergentes (Brafman & Beckstrom, 2006;Gloor & Cooper, 2012), e virtuais/virtualizadas (Davidow & Malone, 1992/1993Mowshowitz, 1994;Trevisan, 2006). ...
... However, these motives are not always effective in attracting participants to crowdsourcing projects. Gloor and Cooper (2007) identified three principles of "(i) gain power of giving it away; (ii) share with swarm; and (iii) concentrate on swarm, not on making money" as the main principles which can help businesses to leverage the open model of generating innovation. ...
Chapter
The main objective of the chapter is to provide an insight into the motivation mechanisms for the crowd to participate in crowdsourcing projects. For this to happen, the authors investigate the factors which have been suggested in the literature as influencing the motivation of the crowd and the task type in each study in the related literature and contrasted the motivation factors in various contexts. The systematic literature review method has been used for the purpose of this study. This involved a comprehensive search in five scientific databases which resulted in 575 papers. This initial pool of studies has been refined in various rounds and ended in identification of 37 studies which directly targeted the topic of motivation in crowdsourcing. The study introduces various categories of motivations and investigates the factors which have been utilized in each context. Finally, possible implications for practice and potential research gaps are discussed.
... The second centres on idea generation and product development opportunities provided by instantaneously swarming to carry out innovative tasks. Such clusters, termed 'collaborative innovation network' (Gloor and Cooper 2012) or 'collaborative manufacturing networks' (Johansen, Comstock, and Winroth 2005;Lin et al. 2012) enhance value chain inputs, design and production process (Love and Roper 2001;Serrano and Fischer 2007;Felzensztein 2008). The third originates from 'cluster policies' (Mcdonald et al. 2007;Nishimura and Okamuro 2011) that are set in place by policy-makers in countries for interorganisational collaboration. ...
... In crowdsourcing, it is the wisdom and collective intelligence that gain importance. The crowd becomes wise, rational, kind, and useful (Gloor & Cooper, 2007;Wexler, 2011). Most authors acknowledge that a crowd is a general group, usually an undefined, large group of people -an online public (Kleemann, Voß, & Rieder, 2008) which is often called users, consumers, clients, voluntary users, or online communities (Chanal & Caron-Fasa, 2008;Whitla, 2009). ...
Article
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Crowdsourcing is a relatively new concept and, despite the interest of researchers, still little is known about it. At the same time, one observes difficulties of a cognitive and practical nature. This has become a premise for a reflection on the methodology of research on this subject. The subject of the article is the identification of the existing procedures of studying crowdsourcing, with particular inclusion of the methodological challenges that researchers of this concept may face. The article was written based on a systematic literature review. Its results enabled the formulation of some methodological guidelines for further research. Research should be conducted taking into account three levels of crowdsourcing: organization, technology, and participant. In addition, a quantitative and qualitative approach will enable the expansion of knowledge about crowdsourcing.
Article
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Customer-oriented companies pride themselves on their ability to understand the experiences and insights of the marketplace and then integrate the best ideas into future products. But what would it be like if you found that you had hundreds, if not thousands, of knowledgeable users ready and eager to spend nights and weekends acting as extensions of your research and development department? For the Lego Group, the Danish maker of children's creative construction toys, this close bond with the user community - not just children but a large coterie of adults who have been using its products for years - is not a pipe dream but a reality. The authors examine Lego users' long tradition of innovation and sharing innovations with one another - activities that the Internet has made much easier. As Lego management became more aware of the adult user communities, it realized that at least some of their ideas would be interesting to the core target market. Through trial and error, Lego has developed an understanding of what it takes to build and maintain profitable and mutually beneficial collaborations with users. The article, based on an eight-year multisite research program, examines the emergence of Lego's user communities, how management's involvement with user groups has evolved and the core principles that Lego has formulated for successful interaction with its user groups. Lego's products were historically aimed at children. As young users grew up, they generally lost interest in Lego. However, beginning in the late 1990s, two things happened: (1) the company introduced a series of new products that appealed to older users, and (2) the Internet enabled people to connect in completely new ways, prompting many adults to return to Lego play and transforming their play experiences into a serious and demanding adult hobby. Many of the fan innovations have improved and extended the Lego building system or introduced new ways to use it that dovetail well with how Lego itself thinks of its products. Cumulatively, the fan activity has created a library of free ideas available to anyone. Although management initially saw risks in interacting with user communities, it concluded that collaboration offered significant advantages. Based on its experience, Lego management has developed a set of principles for working successfully with outside innovators.
Thesis
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Motivation: Im Rahmen von offenen Innovationsprozessen stellen Open Innovation (OI)- Communities für Unternehmen ein nahezu unerschöpfliches Potenzial an Kundenwissen dar. Jedoch ist die Absorptionsfähigkeit bzw. die Absorptive Capacity (AC) dieser Unternehmen aufgrund limitierter finanzieller, zeitlicher, organisatorischer und kognitiver Ressourcen begrenzt, so dass nur ein kleiner Bruchteil der von OI-Community-Mitgliedern generierten Ideen tatsächlich in der Innovationsentwicklung berücksichtigt werden kann. Die Ideenselektion erwächst damit zur zentralen Herausforderung bei der Nutzung von OI-Communities. Dieses Spannungsfeld wird in dieser Arbeit aus zwei sich gegenseitig ergänzenden Perspektiven betrachtet. Auf einer Makroebene wird die Ideenselektion in den weiteren Kontext der Absorptionsprozesse und -kompetenzen der Betreiber von OI-Communities gesetzt. Auf einer Mikroebene werden Klassifikationsgüte und Akzeptanz von Mechanismen der kollektiven Ideenbewertung untersucht, mit denen Community-Mitglieder die in OI-Communities eingereichten Ideen bewerten können. Diese Mechanismen können Betreiber von OI-Communities bei der Selektion von Ideen unterstützen und so deren AC steigern. Methodik: Im Rahmen der AC-Betrachtung wird ausgehend vom aktuellen Forschungsstand zu OI-Communities ein systematischer Review der AC-Literatur erstellt, ein Ideenabsorptionsmodell für OI-Communities entwickelt sowie IT-basierte Absorptionskompetenzen abgeleitet, die es Community-Betreibern ermöglichen, ihre AC zu steigern. Darauf aufbauend werden das Ideenabsorptionsmodell und die IT-basierten Absorptionskompetenzen in vier qualitativen Fallstudien validiert und verfeinert. Zur Untersuchung der Mechanismen der kollektive Ideenbewertung werden drei Web-Experimente (n = 219, n = 313 und n = 120) durchgeführt, bei denen die Ideenbewertungen der Teilnehmer mit einer Umfrage zur Akzeptanz der Mechanismen sowie Experteneinschätzungen zur Bestimmung ihrer Klassifikationsgüte trianguliert werden, um Methodeneffekte zu vermeiden. In Forschung und Praxis wurden mit Bewertungsskalen und Informationsmärkten zwei unterschiedliche Konzepte zur kollektiven Ideenbewertung eingesetzt. In den Experimenten werden daher (1) die Gestaltung von Bewertungsskalen, (2) die Gestaltung von Informationsmärkten und (3) die relative Leistungsfähigkeit der beiden Mechanismen untersucht. Um verzerrende Industrieeffekte zu vermeiden, erfolgen alle Untersuchungen ausschließlich im Kontext der Softwareindustrie, bei der das AC-Konzept aufgrund der hohen Innovationsdynamik eine besondere Bedeutung besitzt. Ergebnisse: Aufbauend auf dem entwickelten Ideenabsorptionsmodell können die Absorptionsprozesse der Community-Betreiber freigelegt, IT-basierte Absorptionskompetenzen abgeleitet und Mechanismen zu deren Umsetzung in der Praxis identifiziert werden. Die Fallstudien zeigen, dass unterschiedliche Absorptionspfade – im Detail ein zentraler und ein peripherer Absorptionspfad – für die Ideen der Community-Mitglieder existieren und IT-basierte Systematisierungs-, Koordinations- und Sozialisierungskompetenzen die Konfiguration dieser Prozesse ermöglichen. Zudem kann in den Fallstudien die große Bedeutung von Mechanismen zur kollektiven Ideenbewertung im Rahmen von Absorptionsprozessen herausgestellt werden. Die Experimente implizieren, dass die getestete, mehrdimensionale Bewertungsskala, bei der Ideenqualität in mehreren Teildimensionen, wie z.B. Umsetzbarkeit oder Neuartigkeit, bewertet wird, die höchste Klassifikationsgüte und Akzeptanz bei den Teilnehmern besitzt. Dieser Vergleich wurde auf Basis zweier vorhergehender Experimente durchgeführt, bei denen von zwei unterschiedlichen Bewertungsskalen (Variation des Faktors „Kriteriengranularität“) und sechs unterschiedlichen Informationsmärkten (Variation der Faktoren „Marktdesign“ und „Preiselastizität“) jeweils valide Konfigurationen ermittelt wurden. Implikationen: Aus einer theoretischen Sicht können drei Implikationen abgeleitet werden. (1) AC und OI werden in ein gemeinsames, theoretisches Modell integriert. Damit kann die AC-Forschung durch ein bisher fehlendes, qualitatives Verständnis von AC-Prozessen sowie IT-basierte Absorptionskompetenzen erweitert werden. Aus einer OI-Perspektive wird die Fragestellung der Wertaneignung in OI-Communities adressiert. (2) Die drei Experimente helfen Wirkungsweise und Akzeptanz von Mechanismen der kollektiven Ideenbewertung zu verstehen und tragen damit dazu bei, eine umfassende Theorie der kollektiven Intelligenz aufzubauen. (3) Ein weiterer Beitrag kann für die Kreativitätsforschung gemacht werden, in dem bestehende Übereinstimmungsmaße für die Messung der Übereinstimmung von Laien und Experten durch die Berücksichtigung von Klassifikationsfehlern erweitert werden. Für die Praxis werden Handlungsempfehlungen für die Ideenabsorption und die Gestaltungsempfehlungen für Mechanismen der kollektiven Ideenbewertung angeboten, die helfen sollten, die AC von Betreibern von OI-Communities zu verbessern. Limitationen: Das Ideenabsorptionsmodell und die IT-basierten Absorptionskompetenzen unterliegen den Einschränkungen qualitativer Forschung. Bezüglich der Experimente wurde auf Studenten als Teilnehmer zurückgegriffen und Experteneinschätzungen als wahres Qualitätsmaß für die Ideen herangezogen. Fallstudien und Experimente wurden ausschließlich im Kontext der Softwareindustrie durchgeführt, wodurch sie prinzipiell in anderen Kontexten repliziert werden müssen.
Conference Paper
Open innovation, the innovation model characterized by permeable firm boundary for innovations is gaining popularity. At the intersection of open innovation and collective intelligence lies collective innovation, an approach of innovation from crowd. First, some relevant topics, such as open innovation and crowdsourcing, are reviewed to present a big picture. The concept of collective innovation is differentiated from similar terms. Then different aspects of collective innovation are reviewed, including its advantage, typology, mechanisms, tools, motivation of the crowd, and the performance. Finally, future research directions are discussed.
Conference Paper
The inverse problem of collective intelligence is the problem of designing a collective intelligence system that is fit to overcome a given challenge. In this paper we propose a design science approach to this problem. We carry out the first steps of the design science research process showing the relevance of the problem and the objectives of a tool supporting the solution. While this can be seen as progress towards an agenda and methodology for long-termed research, as an immediate result we also present a conceptual model of the collective intelligence domain which provides new insight into the ontology of collective intelligence. The conceptual model may inform the design of collective intelligence systems independent of the supporting tool. It also illustrates the difference between collective intelligence systems and traditional information systems.
Article
Full-text available
Technology-oriented skunkworks projects aim at facilitating radical innovation through approaches different from ‘normal’ research and development processes and have their specific organisational challenges. Joint human resource management (HRM) and innovation management research on HRM requirements for technology-oriented skunkworks is so far scarce, revealing a timely research gap and propelling our research question: what are the human resources (HR) practices that best support secret technology-oriented skunkworks projects (compared to HR practices in innovation contexts)? An exploratory case study of a skunkworks project at PSA Peugeot-Citroën (currently Groupe PSA) reveals seven skunkworks-boosting HR practices: extreme empowerment and autonomy in job design and task development, extensive team-based training, creativity-based performance appraisal, participative decision-making systems, ultra-open job descriptions, ‘undercover’ (extremely discreet) recruitment and selection processes and turbulence-oriented employee flexibility. Managers responsible for technology-oriented skunkworks projects are offered guidance. Overall, our investigation enriches the promising research stream on skunkworks in action and their HR-related challenges, also opening further research opportunities on skunkworks managerial success conditions.
Article
This article reviews the literature on business models in process industries. The review reveals that the business model concept has gained an increasing amount of attention in process-industrial research, but it also shows that the literature exhibits a lack of construct clarity and that it is developing in different domains, depending on the perspectives scholars have taken to study business models in process industries. Specifically, while innovation management scholars have explored the relationship between technological innovations and business models as well as the process and outcomes of business model innovation, scholars from the domain of production management have focused on value chain (re)configurations and taken a system-based perspective to consider boundary-spanning exchanges with key stakeholders in the design of business models. However, despite variance in the perspectives, the review further shows that works in these divergent domains point to a family of emerging themes and to common ideas that have not been explored together. This allows us to identify the particularities of business models in process industries and develop a definition of process-industrial business models, which extends prior business model literature into the process industry context. Furthermore, we synthesize these connections to develop an agenda for future, cross-disciplinary research on business models in process industries that assists cumulative theorizing and subsequent empirical progress.
Article
Collective intelligence (CI) has become a popular research topic over the past few years. However, the CI debate suffers from several problems such as that there is no unanimously agreed-upon definition of CI that clearly differentiates between CI and related terms such as swarm intelligence (SI) and collective intelligence systems (CIS). Further-more, a model of such CIS is lacking for purposes of research and the design of new CIS. This paper aims at untangling the definitions of CI and other related terms, especially CIS, and at providing a semi-structured model of CIS as a first step towards more structured research. The authors of this paper argue that CI can be defined as the ability of sufficiently large groups of individuals to create an emergent solution for a specific class of problems or tasks. The authors show that other alleged properties of CI which are not covered by this definition, are, in fact, properties of CIS and can be understood by regarding CIS as complex socio-technical systems (STS) that enable the realization of CI. The model defined in this article serves as a means to structure open questions in CIS research and helps to understand which research methodology is adequate for different aspects of CIS.
Article
Crowdsourcing, originally defined as "taking a job traditionally performed by a designated agent (usually an employee) and outsourcing it to an undefined, generally large group of people in an open call," is a distributed, collaborative, crossorganizational process seeing increased use among practitioners. As such, crowdsourcing presents great opportunities for information systems (IS) and business-related research. This paper presents preliminary findings from a foundational literature review of published crowdsourcing research from 2006 onward. We identify what crowdsourcing research is going on, where it is going on, and its foci. Our findings document increasing research interest in crowdsourcing and identify the primary publication outlets and home countries of authors involved in that research. Finally, we present a keyword analysis for identified articles, and relate those keywords to a preliminary framework describing crowdsourcing. These findings provide a good summary of current crowdsourcing research, and will help guide researchers interested in further crowdsourcing study. © (2013) by the AIS/ICIS Administrative Office All rights reserved.
Chapter
Innovatorische Freiräume werden nicht nur in der alltäglichen Führungsarbeit eingeräumt, sie fliessen auch in die Aufbau- und Ablauforganisation in Unternehmen ein. Die Gestaltung innovationsfördernder struktureller Bedingungen und die Berücksichtigung öffnender und schliessender Führungsweisen stehen im Kap. 7 im Fokus. Erstens werden Wahrnehmungen vom Führenden und Geführten in Bezug auf die innovationsfördernde Wirkung von Organisationsstrukturen präsentiert (Perspektiven aus der Praxis). Zweitens wird ein Blick auf grundlegende innovationsfördernde Strukturen und typische Prozessmodelle zur Gestaltung von Innovationsvorhaben geworfen. Drittens werden Implikationen für die jeweiligen Führungsaufgaben bei der Gestaltung innovationsfördernder Strukturen beschrieben.
Book
Research and development (R&D) as well as innovation are the drivers of change and the key determinants of growth in many industry and service sectors. In spite of the financial turmoil and restructuring of the world economy after 2008, investment in R&D is expected to grow further. Innovation competence will continue to be a major success factor for internationally operating companies. The book presents a state-of-the-art account of innovation management and the role of R&D and innovation strategy for corporate growth and renewal. It follows a top-down approach starting from corporate strategy, and describes the effective integration of corporate R&D, business unit projects and operational performance improvements. The book offers portraits of leading innovators and high-performing corporations and provides a rich collection of best-practice examples.
Chapter
There are many content websites rely on both the paid subscriptions and advertisement revenue model. Although they are making more profits now, to sustain in their business they need to co-create the value along with their users rather than focusing only on the content quality and the usability of the websites. The existing studies and techniques on user engagement provides platform to understand the users behaviour on the website. But, to drive the user engagement it’s still a real struggle. Many companies have started to focus on gamifications of their websites in order to drive in more user engagement. The innovative solutions provided by Badgeville for gamifications of websites are proving to be a real game changer in terms of driving user engagement. Most of the leading UK newspaper companies, who have pioneered in revolutionizing the paid content subscription model is also lacking behind in terms of user engagement. Although their website users share the popular articles in social platform the sharing metrics are not very high. The article commenting system doesn’t drive high number of comments in comparison to news feeds on social networking platform like Facebook etc. The purpose of this study is aimed at creating a co-creation value platform based on user’s behaviour to increase the user engagement on the news websites.
Chapter
Brand value has recently been shown to be a specific instance of value co-creation in which consumers contribute to the brand through their consumption experience and social interactions. We offer a model of brand value co-creation based on an epidemiological theory of cultural transmission that explains how consumers contribute to brand value. We identify two important drivers of brand value, relevance and the causality of cognitive and social processes. The model enables us to propose specific managerial implications and opens up opportunities for future work on brand value and value co-creation.
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The aim of this chapter is to give a vector to the background of e-business, and from that to highlight the areas which have driven the emerging practice of e-business. Every generation views the origins of development from its immediate past; the evolution is often lost in the passion for the future, but it is just this developmental trajectory that predicts the future. This Chapter therefore takes a historical perspective and looks at one root of "e-" and uses its overview to consider the direction and barriers to global acceptance in the interdependent globalised business community.
Poster
Full-text available
O papel da comunicação interna em organizações virtualizadas e o uso das plataformas digitais. Nos últimos 30 anos, com a evolução das Tecnologias da Informação e Comunicação (TICs), em resposta às necessidades de uma sociedade tecnologicamente conectada, vimos surgir novos formatos de organizações. Diferentemente das tradicionais, essas atuam de forma descentralizadas, priorizam o trabalho em equipa e em rede, são permeáveis e flexíveis, horizontais, caracterizam-se pela não presencialidade, são independentes, impermanentes e voltadas para a tecnologia e inovação. Além disso, trabalham de forma ágil, em busca da assertividade dos processos, com estrutura enxuta e Neste texto, iremos falar das organizações virtualizadas que, com o surgimento do novo coronavírus (SARS-CoV-2) em dezembro de 2019, em Wuhan, na China, ganhou uma outra dimensão com a crescente adesão às plataformas digitais em 2020. Com o eclodir da Covid-19, as organizações aceleraram a sua virtualização para criação de contexto de teletrabalho. Zoom, Teams, Meets e Workplace são alguns dos exemplos de que hoje a organização é virtual e que não precisamos tanto do espaço físico para realizar reuniões, dar feedbacks e desenvolver projetos em equipa. Esses ambientes virtuais reúnem inúmeras funções que antes só existiam no espaço físico, transformando-se em verdadeiros escritórios virtuais. Diante da complexidade que se apresenta, importa refletir sobre como essas plataformas digitais atuam como facilitadoras da comunicação interna nas organizações e auxiliam na participação. O termo 'organização virtual' surge no início dos anos 90 com Davidow e Malone (1992) no livro "The virtual Corporation", em que buscam definir esse novo tipo de organização que emerge para responder à necessidade do complexo mercado do século XXI. "A organização virtual começou com uma visão futurista, tornou-se uma possibilidade para teóricos da administração, e é agora uma necessidade económica para os executivos. (...) O que não apenas ressalta a inevitabilidade desse novo modelo de negócio, mas também indica a aceleração do tempo que o caracterizará", referem os autores (1992, p. 5). Foi por isso que, anos mais tarde, Trevisan (2006) afirmou que no universo da virtualização das organizações, umas já nascem virtuais, enquanto outras vão virtualizando seus processos gradativamente, atendendo às necessidades internas e externas (Trevisan, 2006). Assim, nas organizações virtualizadas a presença física é substituída pela participação numa rede de comunicação, com uso de recursos que favoreçam a cooperação (Trope, 1999). Mowshowitz (1997) afirma ser atributos-chave das organizações virtualizadas a impermanência, onde tudo é inconstante, e uma expressiva temporariedade e dispersão geográfica na composição de equipas, que são apoiadas pelas tecnologias.
Article
Because of two trends - rising R&D costs and decreased product revenues (due to shorter product life cycles) - companies are finding it increasingly difficult to justify investments in innovation. Business models that embrace open innovation address both issues. The development costs of innovation are reduced by the greater use of external technology in a firm's own R&D process. This saves time, as well as money. And the firm no longer restricts itself to the markets it serves directly. Now it participates in other segments through licensing fees, joint ventures and spinoffs, among other means. These different streams of income create more overall revenue from the innovation. To partake more fully in the benefits of open innovation, companies need to develop the ability to experiment with their business models, finding ways to open them up. Building that capability requires the creation of processes for conducting experiments and for assessing their results. Although that might seem obvious, many companies simply do not have such processes in place. In most organizations, no single person short of the CEO bears responsibility for the business model. Instead, business unit managers (who are usually posted to their jobs for just two to three years) tend to take the business model for granted. To understand how an organization can open its business model, the author provides case examples of IBM, P&G and Air Products, three companies that operate in different industries with vastly different technologies and products. Each used to function with a very internally focused, closed business model. And each has since migrated to a business model that is substantially more open.
Article
This book introduces a powerful new concept to the business world - Collaborative Innovation Networks (COINs). COINs have been around for hundreds of years, and many of us have already been a part of a COIN without knowing it. What makes COINs so relevant today is that the concept has reached its tipping point, thanks to the communication capabilities of the Internet and the World Wide Web. A COIN is a cyberteam of self-motivated people with a collective vision, enabled by technology to collaborate in achieving a common goal - an innovation - by sharing ideas, information, and work. Working this way is key to successful innovation, and it is no exaggeration to state that COINs are the most productive engines of innovation ever. This book explores why COINs are so important to business success in the new century. It explains the traits that characterize COIN members and COIN behavior. It makes the case for why businesses ought to be rushing to uncover their COINs and nurture them, and provides tools for building organizations that are more creative, productive, and efficient by applying principles of creative collaboration, knowledge sharing, and social networking. Through real-life examples of COINs in several business sectors, the book shows how to leverage COINs to develop successful products in R&D, grow better customer relationships, establish better project management processes, and build higher-performing teams. There is even a method offered for locating, analyzing, and measuring the impact of COINs on an organization.
A Skunkworks at BMW Builds Customized, High-Performance Screamers. It's Also Building a Better BMW
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Coolhunting: Chasing Down the Next Big Thing
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