Research Methodology Part 6 : Measurement and Scaling Techniques
This presentation material in PowerPoint is the sixth of an eleven-part package designed and used regularly for teaching research methodology particularly to post-graduate students and research scholars of Library and Information Science. An important aspect often overlooked in library research is measurement and scaling of data collection instruments. This tutorial explains measurement and types of scales. Sound measurement must be precise, unambiguous, free from errors, valid, reliable and practicable. Errors may crop up from respondent, situation, measurer or instrument. To test the soundness of the measuring instrument, the validity of the tool (in terms of content validity, criterion-related validity and construct validity), reliability (in terms of stability and equivalence) and practicality (i.e., economy, convenience and interpretability) have to be examined. Appropriate scaling techniques have to be used in case of measuring attitude, behaviour and personality and other qualitative and abstract concepts. The tutorial explains general measurement procedure. Scaling is a method which changes attributes (a series of qualitative facts) into variables (a quantitative series). In other words, scaling is a procedure for assignment of numbers or symbols to (i.e., quantitative measures of) subjective abstract concepts (or property of objects). There are scaling techniques like rating scales and ranking scales, scale construction approach like consensus, item analysis, cumulative scale and factor analysis approaches and already developed and ready to use scales like differential, summated, cumulative and factor scales which are rarely heard in librarianship. The tutorial enumerates scale construction techniques with their merits, demerits and illustrations. Earlier parts are accessible at: Part 1: http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00009276/ Part 2: http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00009533/ Part 3: http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00010170/ Part 4: http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00010879/ Part 5: http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00010880/
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