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The mid-Tertiary Azuara and Rubielos de la Cérida paired impact structures (Spain)
We report on the Azuara impact structure and its Rubielos de la Cérida compa- nion crater, which establish the largest terrestrial doublet impact structure presently known. Both structures have diameters of roughly 35 - 40 km and they have been formed in a purely sedimentary target. From stratigraphic considerations and palaeontologic dating, an Upper Eocene or Oligocene age is very probable Geological mapping has established abundant geologic impact evidence in the form of monomictic and polymictic breccias and breccia dikes, megabreccias, dislocated megablocks, remarkable structural features, extensive impact ejecta and impact sig- natures even in distant autochthonous deposits. The most striking impact evidence for both structures is given by strong shock metamorphism, including melt and dia- plectic glass, planar deformation features (PDFs), different kinds of impact melt rocks (from former silicate melt, carbonate melt, carbonate-phosphate melt) and suevite breccias. Glassy amorphous carbon particles in a solid C-O compound may be related with fullerenes and may originate from a quenched melt of extremely shocked coal or from extremely shocked limestones. It is assumed that the impact had considerable influence on the Mid-Tertiary regional geology of the Iberian System, and we suggest that respective geologic models which have so far not con- sidered this peculiar and far-reaching event, need considerable revision.