To date, molecular genetics and population studies in Tibetan sheep (Ovis aries) have been limited, and little is known about the phylogenetic evolution and phylogeography of Tibetan sheep populations. The aim of the present research was to explore phylogeography and phylogenetic evolution of Tibetan sheep populations, on the basis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene MT-CYB (1140 base pairs). Our ... [Show full abstract] dataset consisted of 641 MT-CYB sequences from the same amount of animals belonging to 15 populations of Tibetan sheep living in the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, China. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities were 0.748 ± 0.010 and 0.003 ± 0.001, respectively. The analysis of phylogeography revealed the presence of two formerly described haplogroups in 15 populations of Tibetan sheep, however only one haplogroup was present in Awang sheep. Moreover, 641 Tibetan sheep were distributed into a minimum of two clusters by clustering analysis. The 15 Tibetan sheep populations and 19 reference populations of 878 individuals were separated into six main groups based on their substitutions per site, from which we constructed a phylogenetic tree. Minor differences in branching order of various taxa between trees acquired from either gene were observed. This study provides insights on the origins and phylogenetic evolution of populations residing in the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, which will aid information of future conservation programs aimed at conserving this valuable genetic resource.