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    • "El enfoque anterior ha dado lugar a numerosos estudios de resolución de problemas en ciencias en general y en física en particular, muchos de los cuales tienen por objetivo poner en evidencia cuán lejos los estudiantes instruidos con problemas tradicionales están del proceder científico (Guisasola et. al, 2003, Becerra et. al, 2004). Los resultados muestran los hábitos o procedimientos inadecuados que poseen los estudiantes, los que, según los autores, serían revertidos si se los instruyera con el Modelo de Resolución propuesto por Gil Pérez et. al (1983). Otra vez, el punto real de partida de la propuesta de enseñanza no son los procedimient"
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    ABSTRACT: This study analyzes the mistakes made by university physics students when solving two problems on geometrical optics and two on magnetism. It also offers other contexts in which the same reasoning leading to these mistakes could lead to correct answers. Instructional implications are discussed on the basis of the previous results. The study is carried out using the concept of cognitive resources proposed by Redish (2004) and Hammer et. al (2004,2005). Results show that this construct is useful to characterize different kinds of �mistakes� made by students, and also that these mistakes can be regarded as a means of probing what students do know and this in turn can be used to direct the design of useful learning environments. Este estudio a) analiza la naturaleza de los errores de 8 estudiantes universitarios de física al resolver dos problemas de óptica geométrica y dos problemas de electromagnetismo, b) propone otros contextos en los que esos errores podrían dar lugar a respuestas correctas y c) discute implicaciones instruccionales a partir de los hallazgos anteriores. El estudio se lleva a cabo utilizando el concepto de recurso cognitivo propuesto por Redish (2004) y Hammer et. al (2004,2005). Los resultados muestran que el concepto de recurso cognitivo es útil porque permite caracterizar distintos tipos de �errores� en las producciones de los estudiantes, estos errores permiten relevar lo que los estudiantes sí saben, lo cual posibilita orientar el diseño de entornos de aprendizaje.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2008
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of teaching science at secondary school level is that of achieving the scientific literacy of all citizens. This must involve diverse objectives, among which may be found the development of procedural skills (thought, manipulative, communicative, etc.). The new curricula of many countries provide for these objectives. However, it is important to know to what extent the teaching staff consider them as true content to be taught. In this article, we analyse the opinions of secondary school teachers belonging to schools in north-western Spain with regard to how they value different types of procedures. Our findings show that the surveyed teachers establish differences between various procedural skills as far as the recognition of their presence in the classroom and their evaluation are concerned, although it may be said that they generally value procedural skills highly. These findings are discussed. In addition, the persistence of traditional conceptions in the teaching of science, as well as the difficulty of assuming that the changes promoted by new curricular approaches are addressed, are highlighted.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2005 · International Journal of Science Education
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    ABSTRACT: The study we present tries to explore how first year engineering students formulate hypotheses in order to construct their own problem solving structure when confronted with problems in physics. Under the constructivistic perspective of the teaching–learning process, the formulation of hypotheses plays a key role in contrasting the coherence of the students' ideas with the theoretical frame. The main research instrument used to identify students' reasoning is the written report by the student on how they have attempted four problem solving tasks in which they have been asked explicitly to formulate hypotheses. The protocols used in the assessment of the solutions consisted of a semi-quantitative study based on grids designed for the analysis of written answers. In this paper we have included two of the tasks used and the corresponding scheme for the categorisation of the answers. Details of the other two tasks are also outlined. According to our findings we would say that the majority of students judge a hypothesis to be plausible if it is congruent with their previous knowledge without rigorously checking it against the theoretical framework explained in class.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Research in Science Education
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