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Amino acid scoring patterns

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Amino acid scoring patterns

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... Similar results were observed by Ezekiel et al. (2010) when cassava peels were fermented with Trichoderma viride. Chemical score of S. cerevisiae (BY4743) enriched yam peels is presented in Table 5using FAO/ WHO amino acids reference pattern and it varied from 18.18 to 35.0% (Harper, 1981). The limiting amino acids are methionine and isoleucine and their chemical scores were 18.18% and 20.71% respectively. ...
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Conventional sources of protein are becoming inadequate for protein-based food supply. Non-conventional sources are of much concern, but literature is sparse on the protein quality of yam peel biomass. Solid state fermentation (with and without ammonium sulphate) of yam peels was carried out for 96h, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (BY4743). Samples from fermented biomass were collected at 24h interval for 96h, oven dried at 60°C, cooled, milled and assayed for chemical and amino acid composition. The crude protein, true protein, fat and ash contents increased significantly from 6.60%, 4.38%, 1.12% and 4.45% to 15.54%, 13.37%, 2.09% and 8.02% respectively when fermentation reached 96h in the presence of ammonium sulphate. High protein content with good amino acids profile (leucine, valine, lysine and threonine as essential amino acids) was recorded in ammonium sulphate supplemented peels fermented for 96h. Remarkable increase in protein and amino acids suggested that ammonium sulphate supplement influenced the biomass protein yield and quality.
... Going one step higher in the food chain, MP is meeting the FAO/WHO requirements in terms of essential amino acid scoring pattern for human nutrition (Figure 1.1) and therefore, also humans could benefit greatly from the use of MP directly as food. [22,23] Microalgae are reported to have supported the life of ancient populations living close to the sea for millennia, providing a constant source of protein and vitamins. They are currently used as food and food supplements in food industry [6,24], with a global production achieving 9000 ton DM/year (see Table 1.2) with a market value estimated about 2.4 billion Euro with a projected yearly growth of 10%. ...
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Jack beans are one of the legumes with a high protein content to make protein isolates. This research aimed to evaluate the physical, sensory and proximate qualities of chicken sausages with jack bean protein isolate (JBPI) and the combination of JBPI and soy protein isolate (SPI) as a binder to improve the quality of the chicken sausages. This research included the preparation of JBPI and chicken sausages. The treatments were formulated as follows: control (without JBPI and SPI); T1 (SPI: JBPI = 100: 0); T2 (SPI: JBPI = 80:20); T3 (SPI: JBPI = 60:40); T4 (SPI: JBPI = 40: 60); T5 (SPI: JBPI = 20: 80); T6 (SPI: JBPI = 0: 100). The analysis of the physical, sensory, and proximate properties of sausages have been performed. The results showed that the JBPI protein content was high at 93.98% db, and contained higher essential amino acids than the FAO/WHO standards, i.e., leucine, lysine, phenylalanine + tyrosine, threonine. The combination of JBPI and SPI improved emulsion stability, lightness, yellowness, texture properties, protein content, and reduced cooking loss and redness of chicken sausages compared to control (p<0.05). The results of the sensory evaluation showed that the overall preference, slice properties, and texture attributes of chicken sausage with the addition of a combination of SPI and JBPI were 40:60 (T4) significantly different from the control received by the panellists (p<0.05). The formulation with the addition of a combination of SPI and JBPI of 40:60 was the optimal treatment because it improves the overall physical, sensory, and chemical characteristics of the resulting chicken sausage. JBPI had the potential as an alternative to substitution for SPI.
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Soy protein concentrate (SPC) is a key ingredient in fish feed and most of it originates from Brazil. However, the Brazilian soy industry has reportedly resulted in significant environmental problems including deforestation. Consequently, new sources for protein are investigated and protein extracted from farmed seaweed is considered an alternative. Therefore, we investigate how seaweed protein product (SPP) can compete against SPC as a protein ingredient for fish feed. The study uses the positioning matrix, cost analyses involving the power law, and uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo simulations, and key research challenges are identified. The initial finding is that, with the emerging seaweed industry, the cost of producing SPP is too high to be competitive for fish feed applications. To overcome this challenge, two solutions are investigated. First, substantial investments in cultivation and processing infrastructure are needed to accomplish scale, and a break-even scale of 65,000 tonnes is suggested. The second but more promising avenue, preferably in combination with the former, is the extraction of seaweed protein and high-value seaweed components. With mannitol and laminaran as co-products to the SPP, there is a 25–30% probability of a positive bottom line. Researches on extraction processes are therefore a necessity to maximize the extraction of value-added ingredients. Over time, it is expected that the competitive position of SPP will improve due to the upscaling of the volume of production as well as better biorefinery processes.
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Microbial biotechnology has a long history of producing feeds and foods. The key feature of today's market economy is that protein production by conventional agriculture based food supply chains is becoming a major issue in terms of global environmental pollution such as diffuse nutrient and greenhouse gas emissions, land use and water footprint. Time has come to re-assess the current potentials of producing protein-rich feed or food additives in the form of algae, yeasts, fungi and plain bacterial cellular biomass, producible with a lower environmental footprint compared with other plant or animal-based alternatives. A major driver is the need to no longer disintegrate but rather upgrade a variety of low-value organic and inorganic side streams in our current non-cyclic economy. In this context, microbial bioconversions of such valuable matters to nutritive microbial cells and cell components are a powerful asset. The worldwide market of animal protein is of the order of several hundred million tons per year, that of plant protein several billion tons of protein per year; hence, the expansion of the production of microbial protein does not pose disruptive challenges towards the process of the latter. Besides protein as nutritive compounds, also other cellular components such as lipids (single cell oil), polyhydroxybuthyrate, exopolymeric saccharides, carotenoids, ectorines, (pro)vitamins and essential amino acids can be of value for the growing domain of novel nutrition. In order for microbial protein as feed or food to become a major and sustainable alternative, addressing the challenges of creating awareness and achieving public and broader regulatory acceptance are real and need to be addressed with care and expedience.
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Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities were examined for methanol (M), chloroform (C), ethyl acetate (E) and aqueous (A) extracts of Turbinaria ornata, Kappaphycus alvarezii, Acanthophora spicifera and Gracilaria corticata, using 2, 2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, beta‐carotene bleaching inhibition, ferrous ion chelation, total reducing activity and resazurin‐based growth inhibition (in A549, HCT‐15, MG‐63 and PC‐3 cell lines) assays. Higher growth inhibition was observed in A549 and MG‐63 cells with higher values of total flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging and total reducing activities, and in PC‐3 cells with higher beta‐carotene bleaching inhibition. Positive correlation (P Document Type: Research Article DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12029 Publication date: February 1, 2014 $(document).ready(function() { var shortdescription = $(".originaldescription").text().replace(/\\&/g, '&').replace(/\\, '<').replace(/\\>/g, '>').replace(/\\t/g, ' ').replace(/\\n/g, ''); if (shortdescription.length > 350){ shortdescription = "" + shortdescription.substring(0,250) + "... more"; } $(".descriptionitem").prepend(shortdescription); $(".shortdescription a").click(function() { $(".shortdescription").hide(); $(".originaldescription").slideDown(); return false; }); }); Related content In this: publication By this: publisher In this Subject: Agriculture/Food Sciences , Biochemistry By this author: Murugan, Kavitha ; Iyer, Vidhya V. GA_googleFillSlot("Horizontal_banner_bottom");
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Available lysine, in vitro protein digestibility and lactulose values were determined in 23 commercial infant formulas. The mean available lysine content of the formulas based on dairy proteins was 66.7±9.5 mg g−1 protein, similar to that of human milk, while that of soy based formulas was considerably lower (45.0±8.3 mg g−1 protein). In vitro protein digestibility values ranged 85.5–88.9% for soy-based formulas and 90.5–98.3% for formulas based on dairy proteins. Formulas based on milk enriched with whey had higher lactulose content than those based on cow's milk. However, all values were below the limit of 600 mg L−1 recommended for UHT milk.
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Background The objectives of this study were to examine protein and amino acid composition, lipid and fatty acid composition, along with a range of essential minerals in common Norwegian seaweed species representing the red (Palmaria palmata and Vertebrata lanosa), green (Cladophora rupestris, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva lactuca) and brown (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus vesiculosus and Pelvetia canaliculata) classes and assess their potential as alternatives to cereals in food and feed. As macroalgae accumulate heavy metals, arsenic, cadmium and mercury were also analyzed.ResultsProteins ranged from 34 – 123 g kg−1 dry weight (DW) and the essential amino acid levels may cover both human and salmonid requirements. Lipids were low (6 – 58 g kg−1 DW), but the red algae had high relative content of long-chained omega-3 fatty acids (32 – 34 % of the fatty acids). Iodine contents were particularly high in the Laminaria species. Of the heavy metals only arsenic levels may be of concern.Conclusion In total, the red alga P. palmata was regarded as the best alternative to cereals in food and feed. For several of the other species, single component extraction for the ingredients market may be better than using the whole product.
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Total amino acid (AA) profiles of heat-processed fresh Elaeis guineensis and Raphia hookeri wines were studied. Heating their fresh wines to 85°C, cooling and diluting to original volumes distilled off ethanol, but did not change their moisture and nitrogen contents. R. hookeri wine contained more (p<0.05) Phe, Val, Ala, Gly, Pro, Asp, Asn, His and Lys than E. guineensis wine which contained more (p<0.05) Met, Cys, Glu, Gln, Ser and Arg. Tyrosine, Leu, Ile and Thr contents did not vary (p>0.05). Glycine and Pro contents were low suggesting high globular protein concentrations. ∑basic AA/∑acidic AA ratios were >1 suggesting high basic protein contents. The E. guineensis and R. hookeri wines contained 58.25±0.56% and 56.79±0.4% essential AAs, respectively. Essential AA scores suggested Leu as their limiting AA. In conclusion, the wines can adequately meet daily nitrogen and essential AA needs when a 70kg adult drinks 1425.45ml.
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