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Equidistant Letter Sequences in the Book of Genesis



It has been noted that when the Book of Genesis is written as two-dimensional arrays, equidistant letter sequences spelling words with related meanings often appear in close proximity. Quantitative tools for measuring this phenomenon are developed. Randomization analysis shows that the effect is significant at the level of 0.00002.
... The 99,999 different random permutations of 8 and 64 groups of nucleotide triplets (codons) were chosen in accordance with the Algorithm P of Knuth [35][36][37]. The pseudorandom generator required as input to the algorithm was that provided by Delphi 5 of Borland Inter Inc [36][37][38]. ...
... The 99,999 different random permutations of 8 and 64 groups of nucleotide triplets (codons) were chosen in accordance with the Algorithm P of Knuth [35][36][37]. The pseudorandom generator required as input to the algorithm was that provided by Delphi 5 of Borland Inter Inc [36][37][38]. The result of the models based on the binary patterns of nucleotide and amino acid coding of physicochemical properties (Fig. 1, Table 1) was added to the results of 99,999 randomly produced codes to obtain a total of 100,000 codes of both groups. ...
We describe new binary algorithm for the prediction of α and β protein folding types from RNA, DNA and amino acid sequences. The method enables quick, simple and accurate prediction of α and β protein folds on a personal computer by means of a few binary patterns of coded amino acid and nucleotide physicochemical properties. The algorithm was tested with machine learning SMO (sequential minimal optimization) classifier for the support vector machines and classification trees, on a dataset of 140 dissimilar protein folds. Depending on the method of testing, the overall classification accuracy was 91.43% - 100% and the tenfold cross-validation result of the procedure was 83.57% - > 90%. Genetic code randomization analysis based on 100,000 different codes tested for the protein fold prediction quality indicated that: a there is a very low chance of p = 2.7 × 10⁻⁴ that a better code than the natural one specified by the binary coding algorithm is randomly produced, b) dipeptides represent basic protein units with respect to the natural genetic code defining of the secondary protein structure.
... A curious controversy within the discipline of quantitative biblical studies provides an idea for watermarking LLM outputs. Some researchers believed to have detected a code in the book of Genesis in the form of an equidistant letter sequence (ELS) hidden among the 78604 letters of the canonical Hebrew text of this book (Witztum et al. 1994). This so-called Masoretic text, established by the end of the first millennium, was argued to contain coded information concerning famous rabbis of the following centuries, particularly the dates of their birth and death. ...
Watermarks should be introduced in the natural language outputs of AI systems in order to maintain the distinction between human and machine-generated text. The ethical imperative to not blur this distinction arises from the asemantic nature of large language models and from human projections of emotional and cognitive states on machines, possibly leading to manipulation, spreading falsehoods or emotional distress. Enforcing this distinction requires unintrusive, yet easily accessible marks of the machine origin. We propose to implement a code based on equidistant letter sequences. While no such code exists in human-written texts, its appearance in machine-generated ones would prove helpful for ethical reasons.
... For example, there was a (rather controversial) paper [12] on the so called Bible Code, claiming that the Bible contains statistically significant occurrences of various related words, occurring vertically and/or diagonally, in close proximity. Furthermore, there was an incident with a veto letter by the California State Governor [11]; Although it was considered a "weird coincidence", the first character on each line of the letter could be connected and interpreted as a very provocative message. ...
The equidistant subsequence pattern matching problem is considered. Given a pattern string $P$ and a text string $T$, we say that $P$ is an \emph{equidistant subsequence} of $T$ if $P$ is a subsequence of the text such that consecutive symbols of $P$ in the occurrence are equally spaced. We can consider the problem of equidistant subsequences as generalizations of (sub-)cadences. We give bit-parallel algorithms that yield $o(n^2)$ time algorithms for finding $k$-(sub-)cadences and equidistant subsequences. Furthermore, $O(n\log^2 n)$ and $O(n\log n)$ time algorithms, respectively for equidistant and Abelian equidistant matching for the case $|P| = 3$, are shown. The algorithms make use of a technique that was recently introduced which can efficiently compute convolutions with linear constraints.
... Other regularly appearing words have also been found later. This mathematically accurate systemic called Equidistant Letter Sequences (ELS) attracted scientific attention in the 1990´s when Witztum, Rips, and Rosenberg (1994) showed, based on statistics, that in the other religious writings containing the same kind of text (e.g. prayer books) these sequences just do not appear. ...
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This article aims for forming a plausible picture of the possible education of Jesus of Nazareth and his students. It discusses the educational ethos and practices at the beginning of the first century, pedagogical and didactic specialities in early Jewish education, and language used in the education in Palestine at the beginning of Common Era. Most probably Jesus was an exceptionally talented student who never attended the further education in upper level studies in bet ha-midrash or took tuition from any well-known Rabbi; he was said to be "un-learned" by the Scribal elite. It is plausible that his early educational path followed the well-known dictum from Talmud: "at five years Bible, at ten years Mishna".
Cambridge Core - Philosophy of Science - What Science Is and How It Really Works - by James C. Zimring
Data currently generated in the fields of ecology, medicine, climatology, and neuroscience often contain tens of thousands of measured variables. If special care is not taken, the complexity associated with statistical analysis of such data can lead to publication of results that prove to be irreproducible. The field of modern statistics has had to revisit the classical hypothesis testing paradigm to accommodate modern high-throughput settings. A first step is correction for multiplicity in the number of possible variables selected as significant using multiple hypotheses correction to ensure false discovery rate (FDR) control (Benjamini, Hochberg, 1995). FDR adjustments do not solve the problem of double dipping the data, and recent work develops a field known as post-selection inference that enables inference when the same data is used both to choose and to evaluate models. It remains that the complexity of software and flexibility of choices in tuning parameters can bias the output toward inflation of significant results; neuroscientists recently revisited the problem and found that many fMRI studies have resulted in false positives. Unfortunately, all formal correction methods are tailored for specific settings and do not take into account the flexibility available to today's statisticians. A constructive way forward is to be transparent about the analyses performed, separate the exploratory and confirmatory phases of the analyses, and provide open access code; this will result in both enhanced reproducibility and replicability.
As we enter the twenty-first century, we are witnessing an emerging Judaism that is radically altered from the century past. We are faced with a divided Judaism (orthodox vs. liberal, secular vs. religious, etc.), a deserted Judaism (“just Jewish” Jews, assimilated Jews, etc.), a mystic Judaism (Jewish Buddhists, New Agers, etc.), and a politicized Judaism that is influenced by geographic power shifts. How do these changes affect how we do Jewish missions? Areas addressed are the Messianic congregational movement, ministry to Russian Jews, mission agency relevancy, and the spiritually seeking, post-secular Jew.
This article makes two claims. The first is that Archimedes' On Floating Bodies included a punning reference, in its key diagrammatic figure AIIOA: the precise purpose of the pun may not be recovered by us, but even so it remains a powerful example of the playful in Archimedes' writing. The second is that Apollonius could have been (contrary to what is now the accepted chronology of Greek mathematics) Archimedes' younger contemporary. The outcome could be that we find Archimedes addressing a playful, hidden message to Apollonius, providing us with a unique insight into the communication of Greek mathematics.
Signs and symbols are different things. Signs are natural, while symbols are created. We’re not talking “STOP” signs, we’re talking signs that are natural indicators. For example, smoke can be a sign of fire, while a sore throat can be a sign of a cold. Conversely, symbols are referents made by us. The letter Q, the number 13, and the word “custard” are all symbols. In a sense, all languages are a kind of shared code. Sounds, letters, words, sentences, and all the components of language are symbolic. The symbol K is representative of the sound /k/, and the symbol 7 represents the concept of the number following six and preceding eight. But what happens when one symbol is misrepresented as another? This chapter looks at some famous hoaxes, myths, and urban legends about hidden messages in symbols.
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