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History of cosmetics

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Abstract

Cosmetics have become part of our routine. Their use has increased significantly in recent years however the continuous use of cosmetics over prolonged time may result into various undesirable effects, which may be serious at times. This review is an attempt to trace out the history of cosmetics used by different civilizations over centuries

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... An important development in the modern cosmetics and cosmeceuticals industry is the returning trend of using herbal ingredients in cosmetic and cosmeceutical products [19]. As mentioned above and extensively reviewed by others [6,20,21], the use of herbal beauty products is centuries old and represents the basis of the modern cosmetics and cosmeceuticals industry. Extracts from parts of aromatic and medicinal plants have been incorporated in perfumes and beauty products since ancient times [6,20,21]. ...
... As mentioned above and extensively reviewed by others [6,20,21], the use of herbal beauty products is centuries old and represents the basis of the modern cosmetics and cosmeceuticals industry. Extracts from parts of aromatic and medicinal plants have been incorporated in perfumes and beauty products since ancient times [6,20,21]. And since the revived interest in makeup from the early 1900s on, the significance of naturally-derived substances to the cosmetic and cosmeceutical industry has dramatically increased [13,20]. ...
... Extracts from parts of aromatic and medicinal plants have been incorporated in perfumes and beauty products since ancient times [6,20,21]. And since the revived interest in makeup from the early 1900s on, the significance of naturally-derived substances to the cosmetic and cosmeceutical industry has dramatically increased [13,20]. This trend accommodates the increasing demand for natural or organic products by customers throughout the entire world, as the use of botanical products is believed to carry a lesser risk of undesirable effects [22] and may help preserve the environment from the detrimental effects of chemical waste products [22,23]. ...
... 2 For instance, the early Egyptians took a lot of pride in their neatness and grooming and cosmetics were an integral part of their daily hygienic routine. 3 The hot and dry climatic conditions of Egypt were the main reasons behind the utilization of creams and oils for protection. 3 Essential elements from herbs of the majority of perfumes utilized in that period of time in religious practices and preservation of the dead were cedar, peppermint, almond oil, rosemary, rose, Aloe vera, sesame oil, chamomile, and lavender to name a few. 3 Anti-wrinkle concoctions with ingredients like fresh squeezed olive oil, cypress, and scent mixed with freshly obtained milk was applied on the face for a week by Egyptians. ...
... 3 The hot and dry climatic conditions of Egypt were the main reasons behind the utilization of creams and oils for protection. 3 Essential elements from herbs of the majority of perfumes utilized in that period of time in religious practices and preservation of the dead were cedar, peppermint, almond oil, rosemary, rose, Aloe vera, sesame oil, chamomile, and lavender to name a few. 3 Anti-wrinkle concoctions with ingredients like fresh squeezed olive oil, cypress, and scent mixed with freshly obtained milk was applied on the face for a week by Egyptians. 4 Furthermore, ancient Egypt was the birthplace of aromatherapy; women used oils with exquisite, sugary perfumes and fragrance derived from pine trees and flowers, which demonstrates the vital role cosmetics played for this civilization. ...
... 3 Essential elements from herbs of the majority of perfumes utilized in that period of time in religious practices and preservation of the dead were cedar, peppermint, almond oil, rosemary, rose, Aloe vera, sesame oil, chamomile, and lavender to name a few. 3 Anti-wrinkle concoctions with ingredients like fresh squeezed olive oil, cypress, and scent mixed with freshly obtained milk was applied on the face for a week by Egyptians. 4 Furthermore, ancient Egypt was the birthplace of aromatherapy; women used oils with exquisite, sugary perfumes and fragrance derived from pine trees and flowers, which demonstrates the vital role cosmetics played for this civilization. ...
... Also, it is noteworthy that some Native American tribes painted their faces using natural products, for battles or ceremonial events. (34) Later in recent history, there are records that the first cosmetic deodorant was invented in Philadelphia in 1888, to start a growing makeup industry in the 20th century in the United States. The popularity of theaters, operas, ballet, and the birth of the movie industry in Hollywood led to a rapid growth of the market, where, for example, in 1907 L'Oréal was founded and in 1914 Maybelline, where simple makeup products were sold. ...
... In addition, considering the growth of the media and globalization, this market is likely to continue growing, adapting to different and new trends, and selling billions annually. (34,35) ...
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The quality management systems are tools that can be implemented in different types of industry with the purpose of achieving improved quality standards on the products or services they develop, mainly looking to satisfy the customer and position themselves in the market with an advantage over the products offered. Within the pharmaceutical industry there are numerous regulations and laws that regulate and supervise the production of these products worldwide, ensuring that the industries dedicated to this area have certain regulations and meet minimum quality objectives, because they are products that have a high impact on human life and their improper use can mean major problems for it. This is why, over the years, organizations have been formed. It corresponds to a bibliographic review of international regulations on the manufacture of cosmetic products. Multiple sources are reviewed, from the original standards that contain the minimum requirements for a company that manufactures this type of product, to reviews by auditing and consulting organizations, as well as research on the same subject. It is important to note that basically all regulations, rules and standards specify the same requirements to meet the needs of the customer, and at the same time, meet the safety and quality of a product that will circulate both in domestic and international markets. In this sense, it is clear that the most widely used standard worldwide is ISO 22716:2007, which is widely disseminated across all continents, and is used as the basis for many of the national regulations implemented in countries. The changes made by local regulations are minimal to the content of the standard, adding some clauses to it, but leaving its basic structure intact.
... Lifespan changes in roles, whether societal or personal, may also generate changes in the importance of cosmetic usage, none more so, perhaps than the "rites of passage" from adolescence and into adulthood discussed by so many of our respondents when considering the initiation of cosmetic usage, and as recognized in prior research (Fabricant & Gould, 1993;Gentina et al., 2012;Ragas & Kozlowski, 1998). And lastly, cosmetics are seen to be used as signification of the observance of the rituals and expectations associated with religious or public ceremonies (Chaudhri & Jain, 2009;Khan & Alam, 2019;Power, 2010). ...
... The last sub-theme to emerge, as an extension of the "public and private self" is that of the ritualistic or ceremonial use of cosmetics. In other words, alongside clothing, cosmetics may be used to signify observance of rituals and recognition of the societal norms around religious or public ceremonies (Chaudhri & Jain, 2009;Khan & Alam, 2019;Power, 2010). This goes beyond, then, the need to "dress" for going "out out" (17-Q3), Cosmetics is essential for weddings and religious events because nearly every female wears makeup in these events. . ...
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Article provides a contemporary synopsis of the various and diverse motivations for cosmetic usage using thematic analysis of written scripts.
... Lifespan changes in roles, whether societal or personal, may also generate changes in the importance of cosmetic usage, none more so, perhaps than the "rites of passage" from adolescence and into adulthood discussed by so many of our respondents when considering the initiation of cosmetic usage, and as recognized in prior research (Fabricant & Gould, 1993;Gentina et al., 2012;Ragas & Kozlowski, 1998). And lastly, cosmetics are seen to be used as signification of the observance of the rituals and expectations associated with religious or public ceremonies (Chaudhri & Jain, 2009;Khan & Alam, 2019;Power, 2010). ...
... The last sub-theme to emerge, as an extension of the "public and private self" is that of the ritualistic or ceremonial use of cosmetics. In other words, alongside clothing, cosmetics may be used to signify observance of rituals and recognition of the societal norms around religious or public ceremonies (Chaudhri & Jain, 2009;Khan & Alam, 2019;Power, 2010). This goes beyond, then, the need to "dress" for going "out out" (17-Q3), Cosmetics is essential for weddings and religious events because nearly every female wears makeup in these events. . ...
Article
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Given the wealth of literature on appearance manipulation generally, it is, perhaps, surprising that cosmetic usage receives so little empirical attention, and perhaps reflects a patriarchal approach to “appropriate” research areas. Incorporating a postfeminist approach, the current study aims to address, in part, this lacuna by providing a contemporary synopsis of the various and diverse motivations for cosmetic usage. Online, written responses to a semi-structured questionnaire were collected. In response to six broad questions, for example, “Why do you currently use cosmetics?”, respondents were encouraged to write, in as much detail as they liked, on their motivations for using cosmetics. Thematic analysis, using deductive and inductive approaches, revealed four main themes: “Multiple selves”—Conformity, Impression Management, and Judgment; Enhancement and Confidence; Fun, Creativity and Well-being; and Signification and Identity. Whilst some of these themes had been anticipated and, indeed, sign-posted in prior literature, the weight of interest in particular areas was unexpected (e.g., in terms of Fun, Creativity, and Well-being), whilst other areas did not receive the expected attention (e.g., in mate attraction). Additionally, and worthy of future research, entirely new areas also emerged (e.g., cosmetics for fun and creativity).
... The word cosmetae was first used to describe Roman slaves whose function was to bathe men and women in perfume (Chaudhri & Jain, 2009). Egyptians were the first to use "cosmetics" as a way of accentuation a certain part of the body (Hunt, et al., 2011). ...
... These views have helped shape, style, and change the perceived standard of beauty. Chaudhri and Jain (2009) stated that "growing media and westernization influenced… awareness of personal hygiene as well as beauty consciousness, enhancing the adoption and frequency of usage of cosmetics" (p. 167). ...
Article
This study explored college students' perceptions of the use of makeup. In order to determine what effect makeup had on first impressions, an online survey was conducted. The study suggests that makeup does impact the perception of others, specifically women, based on how society views physical beauty. Interestingly, after conducting the survey, researchers found a higher percentage of individuals perceiving makeup toward a more positive view of how it enhanced one's perception of attractiveness and how much usage of makeup enhanced that attractiveness based on the perception of participation.
... The history of cosmetics comes from ancient Egypt and Rome where women and men used scented oils/ointments for hygienic purposes, to moisten their skin and cover up body odor (Draelos, 2000). Women would carry their makeup boxes (in special jars) and keep them under their chairs at events/parties, while men who also wore makeup, did not transport cosmetic kits (Chaudhri & Jain, 2009). The history of cosmetic and skin care products has been reviewed from archaeologic excavations to the modern-day health and adornment practices with a current marketplace perspective (Chaudhri & Jain, 2009;Draelos, 2000). ...
... Women would carry their makeup boxes (in special jars) and keep them under their chairs at events/parties, while men who also wore makeup, did not transport cosmetic kits (Chaudhri & Jain, 2009). The history of cosmetic and skin care products has been reviewed from archaeologic excavations to the modern-day health and adornment practices with a current marketplace perspective (Chaudhri & Jain, 2009;Draelos, 2000). Pertaining to sex differences in skin characteristics, men have a higher sebum (oil) content compared to women due to the influence of androgen hormones. ...
Article
There were two purposes for this investigation: 1) determine if S- and/or R-equol is present in seven plant-based food products and 2) to establish if topical or oral R/S equol administration improved skin health in adult men. First, the presence of R- and/or S-equol was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in commercial food products. Next, in a small pilot study R/S equol topically applied (once per day) was tested in a split-face study for 7 weeks in men (n = 3). Finally, the oral application of R/S equol (6 mg/day) in men (37 to 56 years of age) via a placebo-controlled pilot study was performed for 12 weeks (n = 11 per treatment group). By HPLC analysis, 6 of the 7 foods tested had S-equol and/or R-equol present. Topically applied R/S equol in a split-face study improved the nasolabial fold/crease by 4 weeks and by 7 weeks the skin wrinkle was almost undetectable in one subject. Finally, in the low dose oral R/S equol placebo-controlled study all five skin parameters displayed improvement over baseline and/or control values. These results suggest that R- and/or S-equol is present in plant-based food products and topical or oral R/S equol improved skin health in men.
... The presence of perfumes, cosmetics and deodorants not coincidentally implies a societal legislation (often refl ecting class bias) against 'decay' in all of its forms or suggestions. Perfumes and cosmetics in ancient Egypt were, according to Chaudhri and Jain (2009), utilized to mask and modify natural processes of life (and, by inference, aging and death processes): ...
... It is indeed since ancient times that people have used medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) to improve their quality of life, both to treat various health problems [1,2] and to care for and improve overall physical appearance [3]. As a trend in the current pandemic context, attention has also been drawn towards the antiviral potential of plant-based preparations and their effectiveness in supporting the human immune system against infections [4]. ...
Article
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The trend towards health and environmental protection has led to an increase in the consumption of medicinal and aromatic plant (MAP) products. The market for MAP products is influenced by consumer behaviour and therefore the aim of this study was to identify consumer segments that use MAP products for phytotherapeutic, cosmetic and personal care purposes according to their perceptions, attitudes and consumption habits and possible correlations between consumption of MAP products and interest in a healthy lifestyle and sustainable behaviour. Data collection was performed by administering a questionnaire to Cluj-Napoca residents. The final sample consisted of two groups of MAP consumers: the first with 231 respondents who use these products for phytotherapeutic purposes, the second group—with 297 respondents who use them as cosmetic and personal care products. The collected data were statistically analysed using the k-means clustering model, resulting in two distinct clusters in both consumer groups: cluster 1, the “Curious”, and Cluster 2, the “Knowledgeable”. For the consumers of the second cluster, consumption was positively correlated with healthcare and environmental protection, while they exhibited a growing interest in environmentally certified MAP products. The results obtained contribute to a better understanding of the MAP products consumption behaviour while tackling the practical implications for stakeholders in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry through the development and innovation of products tailored to consumer needs.
... As a platform for aesthetics, good-looking nails affect the self-esteem associated with body image [21] Humans have been expressing their artistic creativity by decorating their body across centuries [17]. Nail care, which originated from Ancient China [11], has become a popular beauty trend nowadays. In the 1920s, the first modern nail polish was formulated with nitrocellulose, a paint of choice for automobiles. ...
Article
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Middle Eastern women seek frequently for self-adornment. Harmful effects of chemicals used in nail care services have involved women worldwide. This study was performed to determine Lebanese women’s knowledge and attitudes toward adverse effects of compounds used in nail cosmetics. A national cross-sectional study was carried out using an online questionnaire and targeting women in Lebanon. Data was collected on sociodemographic characteristics, nail cosmetics’ application, preventive measures, perceived knowledge and self-reported side effects associated with nail cosmetic’s use. A total cumulative knowledge score was calculated to categorize consumer knowledge. A total of 573 women completed the survey. Young women with a high school education or beyond were overrepresented. Most of the participants preferred applying classic manicure and removers on a weekly basis. Over 82% had poor/fair knowledge about health hazards associated with chemical compounds used in nail cosmetics with their levels of education acting as a key factor. Skin and neurological symptoms were the more frequently self-reported symptoms. Interestingly, the use of a nail hardener was linked to a higher prevalence of headache, nausea, allergy, skin irritation, itching and burn. The prevalence of the three later symptoms was higher among gel users. Moreover, few participants read nail cosmetics’ labels or questioned their safety. Although nail cosmetics’ application was common among Lebanese women, there is poor knowledge regarding their harmful effects. Based on these findings, it is warranted to launch health awareness campaigns and introduce a cosmetovigilance system to ensure the safety of the consumer products.
... Beauty regimes are ingrained into human nature: their impact was observed from as early as 10,000 BC and continues to hold importance in modern societies (Chaudhri and Jain, 2014;Havlin and Báez, 2018). Beauty related behavior tends to be ritualistic: some individuals wear cosmetics on a daily basis. ...
Article
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Purpose Marketers of beauty products capitalize on consumers’ perception of beauty to enact a price placebo effect through setting high prices to insinuate a superior performing product. Yet, in the context of growing alternative beauty movements emphasizing inner beauty and self-acceptance, little is known on how the effect of price on a product’s perceived effectiveness and satisfaction is bounded by different modes of beauty conceptualization (BC). Hence, this study aims to investigate how distinct perceptions of beauty impact the effectiveness-based and satisfaction-based price placebo effects in Muslim-majority markets such as Turkey compared to markets largely driven by Western values such as New Zealand. Design/methodology/approach This research is based on a quasi-experimental factorial design based on the manipulation of the level of price for a beauty product and the observation of the extent of BC. The sample included 144 participants from Turkey and 147 participants from New Zealand. Findings This research finds that the manipulation of the price (low vs high) equally activates the effectiveness-centered price placebo effect in both countries. When expectations are taken into account, the (satisfaction-based) price placebo effect is non-existent in New Zealand, while in Turkey the higher price leads to an opposite effect: a significant decrease in satisfaction. It is also found that the effect of price on effectiveness is moderated by BC. In both countries, the price placebo effect is activated only when consumers narrowly conceptualize beauty, while this effect does not hold for broad conceptualizers. The effect of BC on the price placebo appears to be stronger in New Zealand in comparison to Turkey. Practical implications Marketing managers’ awareness of different perceptions of beauty and how these may influence the price placebo effect in different cultures would allow them to decide what strategies are most appropriate for different groups of customers. For example, by pursuing the movement toward inner beauty and its broad conceptualization, high-end brands are likely to compromise opportunities to capitalize on the price placebo effect. On the other hand, this alternative perspective may cultivate profound satisfaction in the long-term. Social implications The price placebo effect disappears when people conceptualize beauty from a broad (inner) perspective. This suggests that public policymakers, to counteract the negative effects of misleading marketing and to create fair exchanges, must promote broad BC in society. Originality/value This study contributes to the body of the existing research on price placebo by offering unique insights into the boundary conditions of the price placebo effect underscored by BC in two distinct cultural-religious settings. Also, it proposes two different variations of price placebo, namely, effectiveness-centered vs satisfaction-centered. From a methodological point of view, it is the first project in the Islamic marketing discipline that applies the Islamic perspective on causality.
... Cosmetics used to describe hierarchy in social class and have been used in many parts of the world such as Egypt, China, India, Japan and England many centuries ago. (Keville, & Green, 1995;Chaudri & Jain, 2009). In Malaysia, the usage of traditional medicine and cosmetics still prevails among the locals such as the Malay practices and beliefs that have been rooted in their culture. ...
Article
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Competition in the cosmetic industries is stiff as more industrial players are striving to capture the market in Malaysia. Cosmetics play a crucial role in addressing image or presentation to others. There is a dearth of information concerning consumers' perception of the Malaysian Cosmetic Brand (MCB). This article aims to understand how Self-Expressive Value (SEV) and Perceived Value (PV) relate to Brand Identification (BI) and Word of Mouth (WOM) among consumers. Using a self-administered questionnaire contributed to a total of 261 usable respondents and the PLS results indicate that there is a significant relationship between PV and SEV on BI and WOM while BI and WOM meditate the relationship between PV and SEV with Customer Loyalty. This article provides some insights on current local consumers perception and behaviour towards Malaysian cosmetic brands. Thus, MCB marketers need to emphasise the value of their products and reflect consumers' self-expressive value that will enhance their brand identification and WOM among consumers which may lead to loyalty among users. Keyword: self-expressive value, perceived value, brand identification, word of mouth, customer loyalty, Malaysia cosmetics brand.
... The use of cosmetic products dates back to ancient times where people topically applied various substances for reasons ranging from religious rituals to beautification and therapy. 1,2 Cosmetics are defined as articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness or altering appearance. 3 Common examples of cosmetic formulations described in this definition are skin lotions, perfumes, fingernail polishes, moisturizers, eye shadows, lipsticks and facial makeup preparations, cleansing shampoos, hair colors, permanent waves and deodorants, as well as any substance intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. ...
... There is also much information about beauty treatments and products coming from ancient times. 1,2 The field of cosmetics, taking the advantage of the progress of civilization and the development of science, turned over the years into a scientific-practical field called cosmetology. 3 Contemporary cosmetology aims at not only care and increasing the attractiveness of the human body, but also the promotion of a healthy lifestyle, regarding well-balanced diet, proper physical activity and awareness of the external environment threats as well as shaping prohealth behaviors. ...
Article
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Background: Contemporary cosmetology, apart from beautifying and caring for the human body, deals also with prevention aimed at maintaining health and physical fitness as long as possible. The profession of a cosmetologist so understood is closely related to the modern concept of health promotion, the part of which is health education. The objective of this review was to evaluate whether a cosmetologist may be a health promoter, and whether a beauty salon may serve as a place for conducting educational programs. Methods: A systematic review was done using several electronic databases such as PubMed (including MEDLINE), Web of Science Core Collection, Scopus, Embase, and Academic Search Ultimate (EBSCO) and related keywords. The studies published in English between 2008 and 2018 which had specifically mentioned the role of a cosmetologist in the area of health promotion and health education were included.Results: In total, 7 articles met the study criteria. It was found that cosmetologists have the potential to promote pro-health activities. The results of this review also suggest that beauty salons are suitable places for increasing pro-health awareness and can be successfully used to conduct educational programs about healthy lifestyle, as well as skin, breast and cervical cancer prevention. Conclusion: A well-educated and aware of health risks cosmetologist seems to be the right person to transmit and spread knowledge about the proper lifestyle in her workplace and the local environment. A beauty salon, as a place of social interaction, may constitute an area of implementation of pro-health educational programs.
... For centuries, women have used a variety of methods-ranging from moderate to extreme-to enhance their physical attractiveness. Women's cosmetic usage dates back to 10,000 BCE; Egyptian women used a plethora of oils and ointments to alter the appearance and odor of their skin, including henna to stain fingernails, natural substances to rouge cheeks, and kohl (a dark colored powder made from burnt materials and metals) to define their eyes and eyebrows (Chaudhri & Jain, 2009). Notable, more extreme historical beautification efforts are exemplified by the uncomfortable corsetry used by Victorian women to narrow their waists and foot binding practiced by Chinese women to achieve a demure feminine appearance and desirable social status (Erbguth, 2008;Marwick, 1988;Nigam & Nigam, 2010;Russell, 2010). ...
Article
Across three studies, we explore the relationship between cosmetic surgery, which functions as a costly appearance-enhancement tactic, and women's short-term mating effort. Study 1 demonstrates that women who exert increased short-term mating effort are more accepting of costly appearance-enhancement techniques (i.e., cosmetic surgery), but not relatively low-cost appearance-enhancement techniques (i.e., facial cosmetics). Study 2 and 3 further show that both men and women use information regarding a female targets' cosmetic surgery usage to infer increased short-term mating effort. Moreover, Study 3 demonstrates that inferences of short-term mating effort do not differ as a function of whether the target received facial or body cosmetic surgery. The findings of the current research demonstrate that women's engagement in extreme beautification procedures can influence others' perceptions of their short-term mating effort.
... Os primeiros registos de produtos cosméticos remontam ao Egito, onde terão surgido preparações dedicadas a suavizar a pele e camuflar odores corporais 1 . Ao longo da história, diversas matérias-primas de origem vegetal, mineral e animal foram utilizadas para o desenvolvimento de preparações como sabões, pomadas ou perfumes. ...
Article
Cosmetic products are health products designed to contact the external parts of the human body, teeth and oral mucous membranes, with a view, exclusively or mainly, for cleaning, perfuming, protecting, changing their appearance, maintaining a good state or correcting body odors. Their regulation in the current European Union (EU) began at a national level. In Portugal, it was materialized with the entry into force of Decree no. 375/72. After the founding of the European Economic Community (EEC), the Directive 76/768/EEC was published, allowing for the creation of a single market through the establishment of common criteria for guaranteeing safety and informed decision-making by consumers. With Portugal’s entry into the EEC in 1986, this Directive and its Amendments were transposed into national law throughout the 1990s and in the first decade of the 21st century. Parallel to this, in 2006, the Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 was published by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), with implications for the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of raw materials used by the cosmetic industry. The year 2009 marks the harmonization of the regulation of cosmetic products in the EU Member States through the publication of Regulation (EC) No. 1223/2009, which introduces relevant changes to the previous legislation, followed by the publication of Regulation (EC) No. 655/2013, on the substantiation of cosmetic product claims. These regulations are currently in force in all EU Member States, being subject to periodic reviews. Until now, Regulation (EC) No. 1223/2009 has been subjected to 110 amendments. Noteworthy, that there are still some issues that are controversial in the scientific community, and may motivate important regulatory changes, such as the identification and regulation of endocrine disruptors and substances with allergenic potential that must be mentioned in the ingredients list of cosmetic products.
... The use of facial care cosmetics is widespread and increasing steadily [76]. Cosmetics significantly influence perceived age as effective use of cosmetics hides the effects of aging. ...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to discuss the most important factors affecting perceived age. Aging is an unavoidable and irreversible process, but perceived age is a modifiable psychosocial factor. Our exterior has become one of the determinants of our social position, the key to success in our professional and personal lives. Today, we see people through their appearance, we judge after the first impression. With the help of aesthetic medicine, we can change the perceived age, but we cannot stop aging. This article discusses factors affecting the perceived age, such as hair color, skin color, general appearance and environmental factors. Many cannot be avoided, but we can make changes in life to look younger and more well-groomed. Indeed, we can change our habits for the benefit of the whole body, not only for the skin.
... The oldest records on cosmetics came from Egyptians, who were particularly concerned with physical appearance, namely with the development of facial wrinkles. Due to the dry and hot weather to which population was exposed, the skin care with the use of oils and creams were part of the daily routine 8 . Over the years, other products like salts, honey and hydroxy and tartaric-acids were also used for skin treatment and cleaning. ...
Article
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As the largest organ in human body, skin acts as a physicochemical barrier, offering protection against harmful environmental stressors, such as chemicals, pathogens, temperature and radiation. Nonetheless, skins prominence goes further, with a significant psychosocial role in an increasingly ageing population. Prompted by consumers’ concern regarding skincare, cosmetic industry has been developing new formulas capable of lessening the most visible signs of ageing, including reduction in skin density and elasticity, wrinkling and hyperpigmentation. Allied to skincare is the rising importance set on natural products, sustainably obtained from less environmental impacting methods. Cyanobacteria and microalgae are adding importance in this field, given their ability to biosynthesize secondary metabolites with anti-ageing potential. In this review, we present an overview on the potential of cyanobacteria and microalgae compounds to overcome skin-ageing, essentially by exploring their effects on the metalloproteinases collagenase, elastase, gelatinase and hyaluronidase, and in other enzymes involved in the pigmentation process.
... As at 3000 BCE, the Chinese used brightly colored nail polishes for social class distinction, with the nobles having coloured nail whereas the poor were not allowed to do so [9]. Heang, a term describing perfume, fragrance or incense, was part of the cosmetics in Chinese T'ang upper class, which employed it lavishly whether at home or temple [10]. In fact makeup use was an Eastern habit reportedly brought to Greece by tradesmen and travellers. ...
Article
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As nanotechnology finds new applications, the formulation and use of nano-particulate structures in the production of cosmetics and cosmeceuticals keeps increasing. Nano-sized materials such as cubosomes, nanodots, lipo-somes, dendrimers, nano-emulsions are now becoming regular ingredients in the cosmetic space. These nanoparticle-based cosmetics or nano-cosmeceuticals have extended the boundaries of the applications of cosmetics in managing conditions of wrinkling, dehydrated and inelastic skin associated with aging and dispersed hyperpigmentation. With so many claims by giant cosmetic manufacturers on the several possibilities achievable by such products containing these, there remain valid questions needing answers. Such includes: what are the actual facts as opposed to unfounded expectations on use of na-no-materials in cosmetics? What are the peculiar properties of Nano-sized structures? Any potential or actual health risks associated with nanopar-ticle-incorporated cosmetic products? What roles are the regulating authorities and academic researchers playing in the light of all these developments? This review attempts to answer these questions, taking a look at the updates on nano-sized materials used in cosmetics, while presenting actual advances made in nano-cosmetics amidst the seemingly not too obvious hidden risks.
... Cosmetics are discarded in excess of $40 million a year all over the world. Every year, Saudi Arabian and Arabic women pay 4 billion riyals on cosmetics, oblivious to the fact that such items can include toxic chemicals and hazardous metals that could harm their health if utilized incorrectly [1]. Lip makeup is mostly used by women to accentuate their femininity and attractiveness [2]. ...
Article
Cosmetics production and use are growing worldwide, yet users are concerned about toxicity and heavy metal pollution. Following nitric acid digestion, the estimated levels of lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), titanium (Ti), iron (Fe), and cobalt (Co), in 6 brands of lipstick (12 samples) obtained in the Saudi market have been computed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Correlation coefficients (R2) varied from 0.9992 to 0.9999 on the calibration curve, indicating good linearity. Except for low-cost specimens, the findings indicate that the concentrations of the metals under investigation are often lower than the acceptable limits of both the Saudi Standards, Metrology, and Quality Organization (SASO) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (which revealed the maximum lead levels of 125.30 ppm, exceeding the allowed limit of 10 ppm). Arsenic was discovered in significant concentrations, exceeding the SASO permitted limit. Nickel was found at the FDAs allowable limit; chromium and cobalt were found in variable quantities in the majority of the specimens. Dark-colored lipstick had a greater overall content of heavy metals than light-colored lipstick. Numerous tests on SASO-approved lipsticks were conducted as part of the research. The lower-cost specimens were of lesser quality, failing some SASO tests. All such findings suggest that users should be cautious when buying low lipsticks since heavy metals may build up in the body over time, causing skin problems or diseases like cancer.
... The preparation and use of personal care products and cosmetics can be traced back to 10,000 B.C. in ancient Egypt and Persia, where scented herbal oils were used for moisturizing and hygienic purposes (Kumar, 2005;Chaudhri and Jain, 2009). The market for cosmetics and body care is one of the fastest growing consumer markets; its value exceeded $500 billion in 2021 (Statista, 2021). ...
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This systematic scoping review presents evidence from 52 primary research articles for the beneficial, and sustainable, use of coffee in personal care products. The identification and evaluation of natural ingredients that harbor bioactive compounds capable of supporting healthy personal care and protecting and improving the appearance and condition of skin and hair is topical. Demand for natural and sustainable ingredients in beauty and personal care products is driving growth in a market valued at over $500 billion. Coffee, as one of the world's favorite beverages, is widely studied for its internal benefits. External benefits, however, are less known. Here the potential of coffee and its by-products as ingredients in cosmetic and personal care formulations is explored. Diverse applications of a range of bioactive compounds from the coffee bean, leaves, and by-products, are revealed. Research is evaluated in light of economic and environmental issues facing the coffee industry. Many of the 25 million smallholder coffee farmers live in poverty and new markets may assist their economic health. Coffee by-products are another industry-wide problem, accounting for 8 million tons of residual waste per year. Yet these by-products can be a rich source of compounds. Our discussion highlights phenolic compounds, triacylglycerols, and caffeine for cosmetic product use. The use of coffee in personal care products can benefit consumers and industry players by providing natural, non-toxic ingredients and economic alternatives and environmental solutions to support sustainability within the coffee production chain. Database searches identified 772 articles. Of those included (k = 52), a minority (k = 10; N = 309) related to clinical trials and participant studies. Applications were classified, using the PERSOnal Care products and ingredients classification (PERSOC). Sustainability potential was evaluated with the Coffea Products Sustainability (COPS) model. Overall objectives of the systematic scoping review were to: (1) scope the literature to highlight evidence for the use of coffee constituents in externally applied personal care products, and (2) critically evaluate findings in view of sustainability concerns.
... 59 The high penetration ability into the skin, optical properties, and antibacterial properties of soot nanoparticles make them a suitable product for the cosmetic industry. 60 Many reports are available related to the extraction of different allotropes of nanocarbons from various soot sources such as small branched carbon nanotubes (CNTs) 61,62 from kerosene soot (KS) and kitchen soot (kit-soot), graphene nanosheets (GNSs) 63,64 from petrol soot (PS), carbon nanoonions (CNOs) or onion-like nanocarbons (ONCs), 65, 66 and carbon dots (CD) 67 from diesel soot (DS) and carbon nanorods (CNRs) 68,69 from castor oil soot (cassoot), and so forth. These low-cost nanocarbons have shown potential applications in various domains like in preparing of electrode materials for white-light emission, 55 biomedical/ bioimaging applications, 70 photodegradation/adsorption of organic pollutants, 71−73 energy storage and harvesting, 54 high-performance solar evaporation devices, 74 metal-ion sensing, 65 water treatment, 75 as a fertilizer, 76 and superamphiphobic material. ...
... Bu anlamda yıllardır insanoğlunun kozmetikten faydalandığı söylenebilir. Antik Mısır'da kozmetik ürünlerin kullanıldığını gösteren kanıtlar bulunmaktadır [1]. Antik çağlarda ve ilerleyen zamanlarda kozmetik ürünler sadece yüksek statü sahibi belirli kesimler tarafından kullanılmış olsa da 1900'lerden sonra yaygın şekilde kullanılmaya başlanmıştır [2], [3]. ...
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Thesis
PT A sociedade atual é influenciada pelos padrões de beleza que são transmitidos pela moda e pelas marcas de beleza. Inevitavelmente os indivíduos desenvolvem-se nestes ideais e todo o mercado funciona com base nos mesmos. No entanto, nos últimos anos a beleza ganhou outras proporções e o interesse em explorar esta indústria por parte de marcas de moda cresceu ainda mais. Abordando a relação entre moda e beleza, esta investigação estuda a ligação entre marcas das duas áreas que surgiram com uma natureza de co-branding. A investigação incide principalmente em marcas de moda de luxo, explorando as razões e significados da sua presença na indústria da beleza através de co-branding entre marcas de luxo e marcas de beleza acessíveis. Para conseguir entender esta estratégia de negócio, é crucial estudar comportamentos de consumo da sociedade, assim como os efeitos psicológicos que estas indústrias têm na sociedade atual, principalmente a atração que traz o objeto de luxo. Um dos objetivos fulcrais da investigação é entender se esta extensão da marca de moda adiciona ou retira valor à marca de luxo, sendo que torna a marca de luxo por vezes mais acessível e “acessível” não é o adjetivo mais comum no luxo. Esta é uma estratégia que está a ser cada vez mais popular em vários sectores e as suas consequências, tanto positivas ou negativas podem não ser imediatas. A colaboração das marcas pode resultar em intenção de compra ou desmistificar o desejo pela marca de luxo. Para conseguir analisar esta relação, são definidos conceitos de moda, beleza, luxo, consumo, marca e co-branding. Exemplos de marcas que representam esta relação nos últimos tempos são tomadas como exemplos para análise: Balmain x L’Oréal e Moschino x Sephora, ajudando a concluir e a verificar que esta estratégia tem mostrado potencial para obter resultados muito satisfatórios sendo inovadora e atrativa. O co-branding, apesar dos riscos associados, que podem ser calculados e evitados, demonstra- se ser uma estratégia sólida, positiva e promissora para as marcas de moda. EN The actual society is influenced by the beauty standards that are communicated by the beauty and fashion brands. Inevitable the individuals develop in this ideals and the whole market works based on them. Meanwhile, in the last years the beauty won other proportions and the interest from fashion brands in exploring the beauty industry has grown even more. Approaching the relationship between fashion and beauty. This investigation studies the connection between brands from the two fields that have emerged with a co-branding strategy. The investigation focuses mainly fashion luxury brands, exploring the reasons and meanings of its presence at the beauty industry through a co-branding strategy between luxury brands and accessible beauty brands. To understand this business strategy its crucial study consumer behavior of the society, like the psychologic effects that these industries have in actual society, mostly the attraction that brings the luxury object. One of the main objectives of the investigation is to understand if the luxury fashion brand extension adds or takes value to the brand, because it transforms the luxury brand into a more accessible brand and “accessible” it’s not the most common characteristic in the luxury sector. This strategy its becoming more popular in various markets and its consequences, positives or negatives, may not be immediate. The collaboration of brands may result in intention of buying or demystify the desire for the luxury brand. To analyze this relationship, are defined concepts of fashion, beauty, luxury and co-branding. Examples of brands that represent this relation in the last times are taken has example for analyses: Balmain x L’Oréal and Moschino x Sephora, helping to conclude and verify that this strategy has showed to have potential to obtain very satisfied results being innovative and attractive. The co- branding, despite the associated risks, that can be calculated and avoided is proving to be a solid, positive and promising strategy for fashion brands.
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During the past four decades (1970-2018), many papers on forensic analysis of cosmetics have been published. In an active pursuit to find a suitable technique for the analysis of cosmetic evidence which is complex in nature, newer methods and techniques have emerged over time. To the best of authors’ knowledge, no review article has been published to keep a track of technical developments in the analysis of cosmetic evidence. Therefore, in the present paper we have compiled the works done on forensic analysis of cosmetics to provide an overview of significance of cosmetic as evidence, types of cosmetics likely to be encountered, different substrates on which it could be present, and different techniques employed in the examination of cosmetic samples. Keywords: Forensic analysis, trace evidence, cosmetics.
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Consumers and producers are becoming more open to the usage of natural cosmetics. This can be seen in them using a variety of natural cosmetic resources and materials. This fact is further supported by the trend of environmental and health awareness. These phenomena can be found within both the producers' and the consumers' behavior. Our research supports that green or natural products' role in the cosmetics industry is getting more and more pronounced. The role of science is to determine the variables suggesting the consumer to change to natural cosmetics. The primary aim of our research is to find out to what extent the characteristics of the consumption of organic foods and natural cosmetics differ. We would like to know what factors influence consumer groups when buying green products. The novelty of the analyses is mainly that consumers were ordered into clusters, based on consuming bio-foodstuffs and preferring natural cosmetics. The cluster analysis has multiple variables, namely: Consumer behavior in light of bio-product, new natural cosmetics brand, or health-and environmental awareness preferences. The data was collected using online questionnaire, exclusively in Hungary during April-May of 2018. 197 participants answered our questions. The results of descriptive statistics and the cluster analysis show that there are consumers who prefer natural cosmetics, whereas some of them buy traditional ones. A third group use both natural and ordinary cosmetics. The results suggest that on the market of cosmetic products, health and environmental awareness will be a significant trend for both producer and consumer behavior, even in the future. However, it will not necessarily follow the trends of the foodstuffs industry, as the health effect spectrum of cosmetics is far shorter. In the future, the palette of natural cosmetics will become much wider. The main reason for this will be the appearance of green cosmetics materials and environmentally friendly production methods (mostly for packaging). The consumers will also have the possibility to choose the ones that suit them the most.
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Full Text can be found on the Link http://www.intechopen.com/books/nanofiber-research-reaching-new-heights
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Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been widely used in traditional medicine, and as raw material for cosmetics, beverages, and health functional foods. However, some adverse effects of ginger have been reported. In addition, the hot and pungent taste of ginger leads to reduced consumption. To overcome these problems, methods for the production of fermented, steamed (or steamed-dried), aged, roasted and beopje ginger have been developed. This review provides an overview and summary of new ginger processing procedures, including methods to reduce the pungent flavor of ginger, extend shelf-life, increase the health-functional compound content, and improve safety. These attempts might improve the consumption of ginger as well as prospective applications of processed ginger for food, cosmetics, and the pharmaceutical industry, also as discussed in various patents.
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Moisturizers are one of the most widely used preparations in cosmetics and have been extensively used to soften the skin for consumers. Moisturizers work effectively in combating dry skin which may cause pain, tightness, itch, stinging, and/or tingling. The aim of this review is to evaluate published studies on the history, ingredients, preparation processes, characteristics, uses, and applications of moisturizers. Moisturizers bridge the gap between medicine and consumer goods by being used to make the skin more beautiful and healthy. In the future, in moisturizer therapy, the capacity to adapt specific agents to specific dermatological demands will be crucial. Cosmetically, moisturizers make the skin smooth by the mechanism of increasing the water content in the stratum corneum, hence exerting its most vital action, which is moisturizing action and maintaining a normal skin pH.
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A deteriorating nail standard is a growing problem as the global prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Systemic treatment with mineral supplements may not be recommended, mainly due to the high doses required to deliver optimal therapeutic concentrations. In this work, we evaluate nail polish formulations for the local delivery of strengthening elements to the nail plate. Specifically, we assess calcium and silicon release from nail polish base coat formulations containing three different concentrations of White Portland Cement to water, as well as to artificial and human nails. The delivery of calcium and silicon to the dorsal nail plate was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that such dual elemental delivery to human nails can be achieved from nail polish formulations. Hence, this work may form the basis for new inventions where therapeutic functionalities can be integrated with the mechanical and cosmetic properties of a base coat nail polish. Future permeability studies are required to verify long-term effects on the nail standard, induced by the formulations under study.
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Cosmetics play an important role of human external appearance, its products used to alter or enhance the facial appearance or the body and skincare, currently worldwide consumed with frequently use increasing the human body exposure to the various chemical elements including radioactive substances. This research aimed to measure the concentrations of alpha emitters, and the annual effective dose AED resulting from radon intake. LR-115 track detector used to measure radon, and radium concentrations in 20 cosmetics samples selected from markets. In this work the concentrations of radon in the samples found to vary from 9.876 to 30.97 Bq/m 3 with 22.11 Bq/m 3 a mean value, this mean value is a very small than 100 Bq/m 3 the reference level limits of the World Health Organization (WHO). The annual radon effective dose varied between 0.249-0.781 mSv/y which is within the range of 0.2-10 mSv/y (UNSCEAR). Radium contents vary between 0.041-0.249 Bq/Kg with 0.115 Bq/Kg as a mean value. This work identified law measured concentrations of radionuclide present in cosmetics showed its safe for use.
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Access to natural resources in the immediate environment is an essential factor that contributes to livelihood in many rural areas. In the current study, we explored the economic potential(s) of the natural herbal-based cosmetic and cosmeceutical enterprise for the welfare of the Vhavenda women. A purposive sampling technique was used to collect data from 79 Vhavenda women and analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics (Tobit regression) as well as budgeting analysis. The majority (61%) of the participants were married with an average household size of five members. Additionally, 39% of the participants were already ageing with an average age-group of 56-70 years. The majority (44%) of the participants were not formally employed while the monthly average total income of R1841.01 (107.37 USD) was recorded with an average per capital expenditure of R1438.42 (83.89 USD). A budgeting cost ratio of 1.28 was recorded, which indicates that for every R1.00 (0.057 USD) invested in the herbal-based cosmetic and cosmeceutical production, an expected return of R1.28 (0.073 USD) was forecasted. Tobit regression results indicated that the determinants of the income of participants were experience level (p < 0.01), religion affiliation (p < 0.05) and consumption expenditure (p < 0.01) among others. Thus, a conscious, introspective and intentional look into this marginalised herbal-based cosmetic and cosmeceutical enterprise as a panacea for improved income and welfare of rural South Africans should be considered.
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Objectives: Beauty is a Lebanese stereotype, as Lebanese women often feel urged to decorate themselves. Recent studies have raised concerns about nail salon technicians' (NSTs) health and safety issues. The aim of our study was to evaluate the occupational symptoms reported by NSTs, to assess their knowledge and document their awareness regarding hazardous chemicals found in nail cosmetics. Methods: NSTs completed a researcher-administered questionnaire. Data were gathered on sociodemographic characteristics, perceived knowledge, and safety issues. Work-related symptoms reported by NSTs were evaluated, and their responses were compared to those of the office employees. Results: A total of 120 NSTs and 120 office employees were interviewed. Compared to the control group, NSTs reported a higher prevalence of work-related respiratory, dermal, and irritative symptoms, all significantly associated with smoking and a poor ventilation system. In addition, musculoskeletal complaints were common among NSTs and significantly linked to a poor ventilation system, an increased number of customers per day, and a longer service duration. Furthermore, a longer career duration was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of irritative symptoms. When a binary logistic regression was carried out, it demonstrated a 25 times higher prevalence of work-related symptoms among NSTs compared to the office employees. Interestingly, 84% of the respondents had an inaccurate knowledge of nail cosmetics' risks with their educational level acting as key factor. Conclusions: Based on these findings, it is warranted to perform a clinical assessment, implement a stringent regulatory framework, and improve knowledge toward nail cosmetics' risk.
Chapter
The cosmetic and personal care product industry, unlike any other industry, has been ‘recession proof' in the Asian market. Not only do Asian consumers have a great appetite for innovative products, but they are also demanding in terms of product performance. Traditionally, the Asian consumer has been a fan of Western cosmetics and personal care products. With the changing times, however, there has been a shift in preference from Western cosmetics to ‘“natural” ones. The Asian consumer has started believing in the efficacy of natural ingredients. This chapter determines the extent of environmental concern among female Indian consumers when purchasing personal care products. It also examines the role of consumer willingness to pay for environmentally-friendly products when making green purchases. It also tests if willingness to pay can be predicted based on certain product attributes.
Chapter
People from worldwide have been using plant-based substances (Natural Products) to enhance the appearance since the existence of mankind. In the ancient Egypt, around 3000 BC, there is evidence of using cosmetics, and their usages have been a necessary part in our everyday life in all cultures. Initially, natural products have been used for beauty products; occasionally augment with paints and dyes. Natural products have approached back with present trend cosmetic products which are mainly derived from plant sources. Since from longer time, plant products (Natural Products) are source of food and medicines. A broad range of natural products is used in cosmetics preparations, skin care such as treatment of dryness, treatment of eczema and acne, as well as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, hair care products such as hair growth imputes, hair color, scalp complaints like dandruff, and skin protection, and also toiletry preparations. Essential oils are major source of plants; essential oils have been used in preparation of perfumes, hair care substances, emollient of the skin. For example, natural products have been used in cosmetic industry avoiding side effects with traditional preparations for herbal beauty such as Emblica officinalis (Amla), Acacica concinna (Shikakai), and Callicarpa macrophylla (Priyangu) have been used strongly in skin care and hair care. Moreover, Indian women are still using natural products such as Pterocarpus santalinus L. and Curcuma longa (skin care), Lawsonia inermis L. (hair color), and natural oils such as coconut, olive, shea butter, jojoba, and essential oils in perfumes for their bodies. The present book chapter represents the importance of natural products in cosmetics.
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Today, the search for alternative methods of treatment and supplementing or accompanying drug therapy with the approaches and means of traditional medicine, such as aromatherapy, is becoming increasingly popular. Essential oils are used in aromatherapy as the main component for the treatment of a number of diseases. Essential oils are extracted from flowers, bark, stems, leaves, roots, fruits and other plant parts by various methods. Essential oils can penetrate the body when applied topically (percutaneously) or through inhalation and potentially influence an individual. In addition, such procedures are accompanied by pronounced pleasant sensations that have a positive effect on the emotional and psychological state of the patient. As soon as essential oils enter the body, biotransformation and effects on the body take place. Aromatherapy has various techniques for using essential oils, and mixing different oils is widely used to obtain a therapeutic effect. Aromatherapy techniques with essential oils are more effective when used in combination therapy with scientific medicine, changing the patient’s lifestyle. This review discusses general information regarding the therapeutic, cosmetic, psychological and safety issues of aromatherapy, as well as the various etheric compounds most commonly used in aromatherapy
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Consumer's needs and desires for green, natural and sustainable cosmetic ingredients has driven the advances in technology needed to synthesise these ingredients using biocatalytic methods, which are described in this review.
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The main objective of this research study is to analyze the factors that affect the consumer buying behavior for organic and non-organic cosmetics. Therefore, this study is further divided into two sub research. One research studies the factors that affect consumer buying behavior for organic cosmetics whereas the other research assesses factors that impact consumer buying behavior for non-organic cosmetics. Most factors that affect both organic and non-organic cosmetics are the same, but some are different considering the variation between the two types of cosmetics under consideration. Consumer buying behavior is a topic of significant importance to marketers and to businesses as well. It is crucial to understand how consumer buying behavior functions. This research study was conducted through the collection of both primary and secondary data. Primary data was gathered through questionnaires whereas the secondary data was gathered mainly for the literature review through various sources which were mostly available on the web such as online published articles, books, and online journals. The primary data collected was fed into the SPSS software to run various tests. The hypotheses stated at the beginning of the research were tested. The results showed that not all hypotheses were accepted in both the studies. Recommendations have been suggested for each independent variable at the end of the study for consideration.
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The overarching theme for this review is perspective. Superfoods (a marketing term for fruits and vegetables, etc.) have a positive connotation, while many superfoods contain phytoestrogens, a term that is alarming to the public and has a negative connotation because phytoestrogens are endocrine-disruptors, even though they are strong antioxidants that have many health benefits. To understand phytoestrogens, this paper provides a brief summary of the characteristics of: (a) estrogens, (b) estrogen receptors (ER), (c) estrogen-deficient skin, (d) how perspective(s) get off track, (e) phytoestrogen food sources, and (f) misconceptions of phytoestrogens and food safety, in general, that influence person(s) away from what is true. Finally, a brief history of cosmetics to nutraceuticals is covered plus the characteristics of phytoestrogens, resveratrol and equol on: (g) estrogen receptor binding, (h) topical and oral dosing, and (i) in vitro, molecular mechanisms and select clinical evidence, where both phytoestrogens (resveratrol and equol) demonstrate promising applications to improve skin health is presented along with future directions of nutraceuticals. Perspective is paramount in understanding the controversies associated with superfoods, phytoestrogens, and endocrine-disruptors because they have both positive and negative connotations. Everyone is exposed to and consumes these molecules everyday regardless of age, gender, or geographic location around the world, and how we understand this is a matter of perspective.
Chapter
Cosmetics are chemical compounds which have been known to human beings for thousands of years. According to the cosmetics regulatory body, i.e., Food and Drug Administration, USA, cosmetics are applied to the human body to enhance its appearance without affecting the body functioning and causing any harm to human health. Cosmetics are not a vital component for human beings, but the desire for beauty, together with the increasing consciousness of people toward physical appearance, has made cosmetics a billion-dollar industry. People are increasingly demanding viable, substantial, or natural products that are not harmful to them and to the environment. The most recent evolution in cosmetics is the use of nanomaterials in cosmetics, due to their more effective impact as compared to conventional agents. However, the production of engineered or man-made NPs involves toxic and harmful chemicals. To counter the problem, green NPs have proved to be a better and alternative substitute. The green word refers to the greener methods of NPs fabrication by employing the use of algae, fungi, bacteria, and plant resources as a raw material under mild reaction conditions. In the present article, the potential of a greener approach as a more effective tool for NP production and its application in the cosmetics industry has been highlighted.
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UV irradiation can cause cutaneous damage that may be specific according to the wavelength of UV rays. For example, damage from UVB irradiation manifests itself in the form of sunburn cells and enhancement of the expression of p53, while damage from UVA exposure results in an increase in the expression of vimentin. These reactions to UV irradiation were used in this work to evaluate the photoprotective capacities of two sunblock preparations that were applied to the surface of the skin. One sunblock preparation is a UVB absorber containing the coastal plant of Melaleuca cajuputi essential oil and titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) exclusively. The other sunblock preparation is a conventional sunblock containing oxybenzone as comparison. Result obtained for UV-Vis test was observed that the new formulation derived showed good absorption and exhibit high potential to be further develop as sunscreen in cosmeceutical applications
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This article explores the design work and life of the New York based make-up artist Way Bandy. The beauty iconography created by Bandy is an important cultural record as it was imbricated within the larger glamour tropes of the 1970s and the draped, dancing luxury of disco divahood (explored through practice-led research in this article as well). Modes of dress, display and deportment often reflect much larger societal messages and meanings, and I would include the creation and presentation of the contemporaneous face within this cultural mythmaking. Make-up and cosmetics are vital components of that potent matrix, and Way Bandy designed the beauty aesthetic that reflected the sensual glamour of the disco era: glistening lips, alluring beckoning eyes and liquid silhouettes all echoed the promises of liberatory ease and an empowered sexuality for anyone who dared. His engagement with cosmetics was far more than ‘skin deep’ though, as he also engaged with the holistic and therapeutic roots of his artform: cosmetics (a history also explored in this article). Unfortunately, as one of the first fashion celebrities whom we lost to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), his life also must stand as a tragic metonymic of his troubled times, and the theoretical explorations of Susan Sontag from AIDS as Metaphor are included as a way of analysing the application of epidemiological meanings and the consequences of those processes. Ultimately, this research seeks to reclaim the importance of the Bandy legacy as his oeuvre was marginalized after his death, as happened with so many brilliant designers and artists whose deaths from AIDS overshadowed truly amazing careers.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: With a net turnover worth of £181 billion, the cosmetic industry is a leading worldwide business with a very lucrative future. Nonetheless, due to recent concerns regarding toxicity of synthetic cosmetics, herbal products have come into the limelight of cosmetology. The tropical island of Mauritius has a well-anchored diversity of indigenous plant species which are exploited for various purposes but no study has been designed to (i) quantitatively document, (ii) assess the effectiveness, and (iii) study the incidence of adverse effects and perception associated with the use of herbal products for cosmetic applications. Method: Data was collected from herbal users via face-to-face interviews using semi-structured questionnaire from key informants. Quantitative ethnobotanical indices (fidelity level (FL), variety of use (VU) and relative frequency of citation (RFC)) were calculated. Results: Twenty five herbs belonging to 21 families were recorded in use for 29 different cosmetics applications. Many of the documented species represented well-known plants, although we also recorded a few plants being exploited for new cosmetic applications. Plants with the highest RFC were Curcuma longa L. (0.45), Lawsonia inermis L. (0.42) and Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. (0.42). A total of 8 plants were reported to score 100% with respect to the FL. Interestingly, Lawsonia inermis L. being the highly cited plant species showed a clear dominance as a popular phytocosmetic and which has also been extensively documented for its pharmacological properties. Moreover, it was found that 25% of the respondents experienced adverse effects; with pruritus (11%) being the most reported condition. It was also observed that participants perceived herbs/herbal products to be free from adverse effects. Conclusion: Most of the plants reported have been described in previous studies for their bioactive components which tend to justify their use as phytocosmetics. Further research should be geared to explore the potential of these plant products for the cosmetic industry.
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