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Amphibia, Centrolenidae, Centrolene ilex, Centrolene litorale, Centrolene medemi, Cochranella albomaculata, Cochranella ametarsia: Range extensions and new country records

Authors:
Check List 2(1)
ISSN: 1809-127X
NOTES ON GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION
Amphibia, Centrolenidae, Centrolene ilex,
Centrolene litorale, Centrolene medemi,
Cochranella albomaculata, Cochranella
ametarsia: Range extensions and new country
records
Juan M. Guayasamin
1,4
Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia
2,3
Mario Yánez-Muñoz
3
Martín Bustamante
4
1
Natural History Museum & Biodiversity
Research Center, Department of Ecology and
Evolutionary Biology, The University of Kansas,
Lawrence, Kansas 66045-7561, USA. E-mail:
juanm@ku.edu
2
College of Biological and Environmental
Sciences, Universidad San Francisco de Quito,
Casilla Postal 17-12-841, Quito, Ecuador.
3
Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales,
Sección Vertebrados, División de Herpetología,
Rumipamba 341 y Av. de los Shyris (Parque La
Carolina).
4
Museo de Zoología, Centro de Biodiversidad y
Ambiente, Escuela de Biología, Pontificia
Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Apartado 17-
01-2184, Quito, Ecuador.
The
anuran family Centrolenidae is a
monophyletic group (Ruíz-Carranza and Lynch
1991; Darst and Cannatella 2004) that currently
contains three genera and 138 species (Ruíz-
Carranza and Lynch 1991; IUCN et al. 2004).
Most of the species diversity of glass frogs is
located in the tropical Andes of South America,
especially in Colombia (73 species) and Ecuador
(32 species; Coloma 2005).
Although several studies have focused on the
glass frogs of Ecuador (e.g., Lynch and Duellman
1973; Duellman 1980; 1981; Flores 1985; Flores
and McDiarmid 1989, Wild 1994; Guayasamin
and Bonaccorso 2004), our knowledge of their
distribution, ecology, and natural history is still
incomplete. Herein, we report for the first time the
presence of the following species in Ecuador:
Centrolene ilex, C. medemi, Cochranella
albomaculata, and C. ametarsia. Also, we report a
second locality for Centrolene litorale.
During this study, we examined alcohol-preserved
specimens from the herpetological collections at
the Museo de Zoología of the Pontificia
Universidad Católica del Ecuador (QCAZ), The
University of Kansas Natural History Museum
(KU), Museum of Comparative Zoology (MCZ),
Division de Herpetología of the Museo
Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales (DHMECN),
Universidad San Francisco de Quito (DFCH-
USFQ), and Instituto de Ciencias Naturales of the
Universidad Nacional de Colombia (ICN). For the
generic placement of the species, we follow the
classification proposed by Ruíz-Carranza and
Lynch (1991).
Centrolene ilex (Savage 1967). This species was
previously known from eastern Nicaragua to
western Panama and western Colombia, and also
from the caldera of the Río Grande de Tárcoles of
central Costa Rica on the Pacific versant (IUCN et
al. 2004). Herein, we report C. ilex from the
following localities in Ecuador: Provincia
Esmeraldas: Reserva Biológica Canandé (0˚27'04"
N; 78˚08'55" W, 700 m), DHMECN 2620–26
(Figure 1A); Río Tululbí (1˚02'12" N; 78˚36'31"
W, 180 m), DHMECN 3199–03; Cantón San
Lorenzo, parroquia Santa Rita, recinto Ventanas
(0˚53'53" N, 78˚37'3" W, 200 m), DHMECN
3204 (Figure 1B); Provincia de Pichincha:
Hacienda La Joya, km 109 on the Calacalí–
Nanegalito–P.V.Maldonado road, next to the town
of San Vicente de Andoas (0˚04'59.9" S;
78˚58'58.8" W, 750–800 m), DFCH-USFQ D260–
61. All the localities where C. ilex has been found
are within the Chocó Ecoregion (Evergreen
Lowland Forest formation, according to Cerón et
al. 1999) at elevations between 180 and 800 m
(Figure 2).
Individuals were on the upperside of leaves next
to streams during the night. On 10 November
1999, one male (DFCH-USFQ D261) was calling
and two females (DFCH-USFQ D260, D262)
were gravid, suggesting reproductive activity.
Centrolene ilex can be easily distinguished from
similar species by the following characteristics:
(1) in life, dorsum uniform green; (2) white
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ventral parietal peritoneum; (3) adult males with
sharp, pointed humeral spine embedded in arm
musculature; (4) prepollical spine not separated
from Finger I; (5) iris ivory white with black
reticulum; and (6) SVL 27.0–29.0 mm in adult
males, 28.0–34.0 mm in adult females (Savage
2002).
Figure 1. New records of glass frogs in Ecuador. (A) Centrolene ilex, Reserva Biológica Canandé, Provincia
Esmeraldas, DHMECN 2623; (B) C. ilex, Recinto Ventanas, Provincia Esmeraldas, DHMECN 3204; (C)
Centrolene litorale, Río Cachabí, Provincia Esmeraldas, DHMECN 3198; (D) Centrolene medemi, 2 km
SSW of the junction between Río Reventador and Baeza-Lumbaqui road, Provincia Napo, KU 164493,
photo by W. E. Duellman; (E) Cochranella albomaculata, 6 km SE of Lita, Provincia Imbabura, QCAZ
4324; (F) Cochranella ametarsia, Puerto Bolívar, Provincia Sucumbíos, QCAZ 28138.
Centrolene litorale Ruíz-Carranza and Lynch
1996. Centrolene litorale was described from La
Guayacana (1˚49'48" N, 78˚46'12" W, 100 m), a
locality at the Pacific lowlands of Colombia. The
presence of Centrolene litorale (Figure 1C) in
Ecuador was first mentioned by Grant and
Morales (2004) from Tsejpu, Rio Zapallo
(0˚43'59.9" N, 78˚55'59.9" W, 150 m, in the
Provincia Esmeraldas. Herein we report the
second locality in Ecuador: Provincia Esmeraldas:
Río Cachabí (1˚01'59.9" N, 78˚46'00" W, 200 m),
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2 km NE Urbina on the San Lorenzo–Lita road,
DHMECN 3198 (Figure 3).
Centrolene litorale can be identified by the
combination of the following characteristics: (1)
in life, dorsum yellowish green with dark gray
spots; (2) white ventral parietal peritoneum; (3)
adult males with visible small humeral spine; (4)
prepollical spine clearly separated from Finger I;
(5) iris gray without evident dark reticulation; and
(6) SVL 20.0 mm in one adult male (ICN 13821).
Figure 2. Distribution of Centrolene ilex in
Ecuador (open circles).
Figure 3. Distribution of Centrolene litorale in
Colombia and Ecuador (open circles).
Centrolene medemi (Cochran and Goin 1970). In
Colombia, this species (Figure 1D) has been
registered from several localities on the eastern
slope of the Cordillera Oriental (Departamento de
Caquetá: Municipio de Florencia: 21.7–55 km
NNW of Florencia on the Florencia–Guadalupe
road, 790–1370 m; Suárez-Mayorga 1999) and
one locality from the western slope of the
Cordillera Oriental (Departamento de Tolima:
Iconouz; IUCN et al. 2004). Ruíz-Carranza et al.
(1996) rejected records from Amazonian
Colombia (Cochran and Goin 1970). Herein, we
report C. medemi from one locality on the
Amazonian slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes:
Provincia Napo: 2 km SSW of junction between
Río Reventador and Baeza-Lumbaqui road
(0˚06'00" S, 77˚36'00" W, 1490 m), KU 164493–
94 (Figure 4). The Ecuadorian specimen was
collected by W. E. Duellman on 19 March 1975;
since then, no additional individuals have been
found in Ecuador.
Figure 4. Distribution of Centrolene medemi in
Colombia and Ecuador (open circles).
Centrolene medemi can be identified by the
combination of the following characteristics: (1)
in life, dorsal surfaces of head, body, and limbs
olive green to grayish brown with large cream
spots; (2) white ventral parietal peritoneum; (3)
adult males with large humeral spine; (4)
prepollex not separated from Finger I; (5) iris
grayish brown with dark reticulation; and (6) SVL
25.5–31.0 mm in adult males, 34.7–44.3 mm in
adult females.
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Cochranella albomaculata (Taylor 1949). This
species (Figure 1E) is known from humid
lowlands and premontane slopes from north-
central Honduras to western Colombia (IUCN et
al. 2004). Herein, we report C. albomaculata from
the following localities within the Chocó
ecoregion in Ecuador: Provincia Imbabura: 6 km
SE of Lita (0˚47'41" N, 78˚25'43" W), QCAZ
4324–25. Provincia Esmeraldas: Estero Vicente,
an affluent of the Río San Miguel 0˚47'32" N,
79˚11'52" W, 225–275 m), QCAZ 11369–70;
Reserva Biológica Canandé (0˚27'4" N, 79˚08'45"
W, 700 m), DHMECN 2618–19 (Figure 5).
Figure 5. Distribution of Cochranella
albomaculata in Ecuador (open circles).
Cochranella albomaculata can be distinguished
from other glass frogs by the following
characteristics: (1) in life, dorsal surfaces of head,
body, and limbs green with yellow spots; (2)
white ventral parietal peritoneum; (3) adult males
lack humeral spine; (4) prepollex not separated
from Finger I; (5) iris grayish white with dark
reticulation; and (6) in two adult males, SVL
22.2–24.0 mm; in three adult females, SVL 27.1–
28.6 mm. It is important to note that, as currently
recognized, Cochranella albomaculata may
represent several species; for example, individuals
from Colombia and Ecuador present larger spots
on the dorsum than individuals from Central
America. A detailed study of the morphological,
acoustic, and genetic variation of C. albomaculata
across its distribution is necessary to identify
possible cryptic species.
Cochranella ametarsia (Flores 1987). This
species (Figure 1F) is known only from two
localities in Amazonian Colombia (Departamento
de Amazonas: 70 km NNE Puerto Nariño, the
headwaters of Río Caiwima, a tributary of the Río
Amayaca-Yacu, ca. Amazonas, ca. 3˚20' S, 70˚20'
W; near Leticia ca. 4˚15' S, 69˚95' W). In
Ecuador, we have found C. ametarsia in the
Amazonian lowlands at elevations between 210
and 240 m. Localities in Ecuador include:
Provincia Orellana: Estación de Biodiversidad
Tiputini (0˚39'00" S; 76˚07'58.8" W, 210 m),
DFCH-USFQ D162; Provincia Sucumbíos: Puerto
Bolívar (0˚05'19" S; 76˚08'31.3" W, 240 m),
QCAZ 28138 (Figure 6). One male of
Cochranella ametarsia (DFCH-USFQ D162) was
found on the trunk of a Ceiba sp., 7 m above
ground level.
Figure 6. Distribution of Cochranella ametarsia
in Colombia and Ecuador (open circles).
Cochranella ametarsia can be distinguished from
other glass frogs by the combination of the
following characteristics: (1) in life, dorsum green
with dark spots; (2) white ventral parietal
peritoneum; (3) adult males lack humeral spine;
(4) tip of prepollex separated from Finger I; (5)
iris pale yellow with thin gray reticulation (Figure
1F); and (6) in one adult male, SVL 17.5 mm; in
one adult female, SVL 19.7 mm.
The discovery of the above listed glass frogs
elevates the total number of centrolenids in
Ecuador to 37 species (updated from Coloma
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2005). Further research is still necessary in
relatively unexplored regions, such as the
southern Andes and the Chocó region.
Acknowledgments
For comments on this manuscript, we thank L.
Trueb. Access to KU and ICN specimens were
provided by L. Trueb and J. D. Lynch,
respectively. Loans from QCAZ and MCZ were
arranged by L. A. Coloma, and J. Rosado and J.
Hanken, respectively. JMG´s research was
supported by The University of Kansas, the
Fundación Numashir para la Conservación de
Ecosistemas Amenazados, and a fellowship from
the Fundación para la Ciencia y Tecnología del
Ecuador (FUNDACYT), under the sponsorship of
the Escuela de Ciencias Biológicas of the
Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador.
DFCH´s studies were supported by the 2002
Research Training Program, National Museum of
Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, the
Smithsonian Women’s Committee, US Fish and
Wildlife Service, Universidad San Francisco de
Quito, and Ma. E. and L. Heredia. Expedition by
the DHMECN to Reserva Canadé and Corredor
Awa-Cahi were funded by Fundación Jocotoco
and Fundación SIRUA. Research and collecting
permits were provided by Ministerio del
Ambiente del Ecuador (N033-IC-FAU-
DNBAPVS/MA).
Literature Cited
Cerón, C., W. Palacios, R. Valencia, and R.
Sierra. 1999. Las formaciones naturales de la
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Zoología, Pontificia Universidad Católica del
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http://www.puce.edu.ec/zoologia/vertebrados/
amphibiawebec/index.html
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Darst, C. R. and D. C. Cannatella. 2004.
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sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and
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Duellman W. E.
1980. The identity of
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Groin (Anura: Centrolenidae). Transactions of
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Duellman W. E.
1981. Three new species of
centrolenid frogs from the pacific versant of
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Herpetology 21: 185–190.
Flores G. and R. W. McDiarmid. 1989. Two new
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(Anura: Centrolenidae) related to C. mariae.
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of Threatened Species. Accessible at:
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Guayasamin, J. M. and E. Bonaccorso. 2004. A
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Cochranella granulosa group. Herpetologica
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Savage, J. M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles
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Continents, between Two Seas. USA: The
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Received February 2006
Accepted March 2006
Published online March 2006
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... "Centrolene" medemi es una rana relativamente grande, con una longitud rostro-cloaca (LRC) entre 25,5-31,0 mm en machos adultos y entre 34,7-44,3 mm en hembras adultas (Guayasamín et al. 2006). La especie presenta un proceso dentígero del vómer con 0-4 dientes, y un rostro truncado en vista lateral y redondeado en vista dorsal. ...
... En vida, los huesos son de color azul verdoso, el peritoneo visceral es transparente, y tanto el pericardio como el peritoneo parietal son de color blanco, este último extendiéndose sobre la mitad anterior del abdomen o en sus tres cuartos posteriores ( Fig. 1) (Suárez-Mayorga 1999). "Centrolene" medemi presenta una membrana extensa entre los dedos de la mano III-IV, pliegues ulnares y tarsales pequeños, prepólex no pronunciado y disco del tercer dedo de la mano de tamaño grande, midiendo aproximadamente entre el 80-91% del diámetro del ojo (Cochran y Goin 1970, Guayasamín et al. 2006). En vida, la coloración de esta especie es variable; dorsalmente puede ser verde, verde oliva o casi negra, con grandes manchas de color verde pálido o verde-amarillo. ...
... En vida, la coloración de esta especie es variable; dorsalmente puede ser verde, verde oliva o casi negra, con grandes manchas de color verde pálido o verde-amarillo. El iris es de color marrón grisáceo con retículo oscuro (Guayasamín et al. 2006). En etanol, "C". ...
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... Tadpole: Not described. Distribution ( Figure 49): "Centrolene" medemi is known from localities on the eastern and western slopes of the Cordillera Oriental of the Colombian Andes and the Amazonian slopes of the Cordillera Oriental of Ecuador at elevation between 790 and 1800 m [101,128,130]. In Ecuador, "Centrolene" medemi has been registered from a single stream nearby Volcán Reventador at 1490 m (Specimens Examined), within the Eastern Montane Forest ecoregion. ...
... Tadpole: Not described. Distribution ( Figure 73): Cochranella litoralis has been reported from the type locality in Colombia and four localities in Ecuador at elevations below 260 m ( [130,154], this work). In Ecuador, this species has a potential distribution of 5784 km 2 within the Chocoan Tropical Forest region. ...
... Whether these irregularities in the labial tooth rows result from laboratory rearing or are typical of the species remains to be demonstrated. Distribution ( Figure 200): Sachatamia albomaculata is known from humid lowlands and premontane slopes from north-central Honduras to western Colombia and Ecuador at elevations between 20 and 1500 m ( [130,148,160], this work). In Ecuador, this species has been reported from the provinces of Esmeraldas and Imbabura at elevations below 700 m. ...
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... "Centrolene" medemi es una rana relativamente grande, con una longitud rostro-cloaca (LRC) entre 25,5-31,0 mm en machos adultos y entre 34,7-44,3 mm en hembras adultas (Guayasamín et al. 2006). La especie presenta un proceso dentígero del vómer con 0-4 dientes, y un rostro truncado en vista lateral y redondeado en vista dorsal. ...
... En vida, los huesos son de color azul verdoso, el peritoneo visceral es transparente, y tanto el pericardio como el peritoneo parietal son de color blanco, este último extendiéndose sobre la mitad anterior del abdomen o en sus tres cuartos posteriores ( Fig. 1) (Suárez-Mayorga 1999). "Centrolene" medemi presenta una membrana extensa entre los dedos de la mano III-IV, pliegues ulnares y tarsales pequeños, prepólex no pronunciado y disco del tercer dedo de la mano de tamaño grande, midiendo aproximadamente entre el 80-91% del diámetro del ojo (Cochran y Goin 1970, Guayasamín et al. 2006). En vida, la coloración de esta especie es variable; dorsalmente puede ser verde, verde oliva o casi negra, con grandes manchas de color verde pálido o verde-amarillo. ...
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The amphibian diversity in the Chocoan tropical rain forests of Ecuador is far from being thoroughly documented. Although Neotropical equatorial forests might be the most amphibian-diverse in the world (Duellman 1978; 2005; Lynch 2005; Ron 2001–2006), few studies have been directed towards understanding the richness of the Ecuadorian Chocó. This is especially true for Glassfrogs (Centrolenidae), which known richness in Ecuador is rapidly increasing (14 species additions to country's checklist since 2004; Guayasamin and Bonaccorso 2004; Guayasamin et al. 2006a; 2006b; Cisneros-Heredia and McDiarmid 2006; Guayasamin and Trueb 2007; Cisneros-Heredia and Meza-Ramos 2007; Cisneros-Heredia and McDiarmid 2007; Cisneros-Heredia and Yáñez-Muñoz 2007; Cisneros-Heredia 2007). Glassfrogs are mainly considered to be a montane group, and the western slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes hold the highest richness for the country with 17 described species (Cisneros-Heredia and McDiarmid 2006; Coloma 2005–2007; Cisneros-Heredia and Meza-Ramos 2007; Cisneros-Heredia and McDiarmid 2007). Some other regions, like the lowlands of the Ecuadorian Chocó, also hold high centrolenid diversity (13 species, Table 1), and its species richness could be as important as the Andean, since more species might remain undescribed.
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Two new species of centrolenid frogs are described from the Amazonian slopes of the Cordillera Oriental of the Andes in Provincia Morona-Santiago, Ecuador. The first species is a member of the Centrolene prosoblepon group and is distinguished from all other members of the group by having a lateral row of large enameled tubercles that extends from below the eye to just posterior to the insertion of the arm. The condition of the humerus was compared with that of other species of the C. prosoblepon group from Ecuador and was found to be most similar to the condition of C. audax. The second species is a member of the Cochranella ocellata group and is distinguished from all other members of the group by possessing white visceral pigmentation on the esophagus, a first finger shorter than second, and lacking vomerine teeth. Centrolene buckleyi was the only other centrolenid found sympatric with the new species; these are the first centrolenids reported from Provincia Morona-Santiago.
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We describe a new species of Cochranella from the Montanas de Mache in the ChocoEcoregion of the lowlands of northwestern Ecuador. The new species is placed in the Cochranella granulosa group and can be distinguished from all other species of Cochranella by having: (1) white parietal and visceral peritonea; (2) a snout that is gradually inclined in lateral aspect; (3) conspicuous dermal folds, and large, white tubercles on ventrolateral edges of Finger IV, forearms, elbows, tarsi, Toe V, and heels; (4) fleshy, tuberculate, \-shaped cloacal fold; and (5) dorsum green with small yellow dots in life. The new species shares several characters with C. daidalea, C. resplendens, C. savagei and C. solitaria, including dermal folds with white tubercles on the arms and legs, snout gradually inclined in profile, and cloacal ornaments. Finally, we briefly discuss the characters that define the Cochranella granulosa group.
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World-renowned for its biological diversity and model conservation system, Costa Rica is home to a wide variety of amphibians and reptiles, from the golden toad to the scorpion lizard to the black-headed bushmaster. Jay M. Savage has studied these fascinating creatures for more than forty years, and in The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica he provides the most comprehensive, up-to-date treatment of their biology and evolution ever produced. Costa Rica has played, and continues to play, a pivotal role in the study of tropical biology as well as the development of ecotourism and ecoprospecting, in part because more than half of the amphibians and reptiles in Costa Rica are also found elsewhere in Central America. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica will be an essential book for a wide audience of nature lovers, naturalists, ecotourists, field biologists, conservationists, government planners, and those interested in Central America more generally. "Written for the enthusiast as well as for the field researcher, this work is an excellent reference source for each of the 396 species of amphibians and reptiles that can be found in Costa Rica. Includes complete full-color photographs of all known species in the region, as well as maps showing their distribution patterns. . . . A must-have book for any library with interests in this subject area."—J. Elliott, Southeastern Naturalist
Article
Centrolenella ametarsia is described from the Amazonian lowlands of Colombia. It is distinguished by small size, presence of vomerine teeth, a color pattern in preservative of lavender with dark spots, a rounded snout in dorsal view and profile, a concealed prepollical spine, and a small circular patch of glands on the dorsal surface of the thumb in the male. The species is known only from a single adult male specimen. The relationships of C. ametarsia are unclear. A survey of distributional patterns of currently-recognized species of centrolenid frogs reveals that the family is most diverse at higher elevations (over two-thirds of the species have montane distributions), and an unusually high proportion of lowland endemics (50%) are among the smallest centrolenid species known (adult SVL
Article
The first sizeable collection of Centrolenella from the poorly-known Provincia de Cotopaxi, Ecuador, revealed a new species of Centrolenella, C. gemmata. This species is distinguished by a snout that is round in dorsal view and slightly anteroventrally sloping in profile, a light and dark spotted dorsal coloration, spinuled dorsal skin in males, nuptial pads in males, and prepollical spines. The occurrence of nuptial pads and prepollical spines in Centrolenella has been overlooked, and is commented upon. Two types of nuptial pads are reported in the genus Centrolenella, as well as a concealed prepollical spine in both sexes of certain species. C. gemmata appears to be closely related to C. lynchi, both sharing a distinctive type of nuptial pad, prepollical spines, and several other features.
Article
The name Centrolenella grandisonae was misapplied by Lynch and Duellman (1973); the name is now associated with a red-spotted species on the Pacific versant of Colombia and Ecuador. A new name, Centrolenella lynchi, is proposed for the species that was erroneously called Centrolenella grandisonae.
A review of the centrolenid frogs of Ecuador, with descriptions of new species. Occasional Papers, Museum of Natural History
  • J D Lynch
  • W E Duellman
Lynch, J. D. and W. E. Duellman. 1973. A review of the centrolenid frogs of Ecuador, with descriptions of new species. Occasional Papers, Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 16: 1-66.
Two new species of South American Centrolenella (Anura: Centrolenidae) related to C. mariae
  • G Flores
  • R W Mcdiarmid
Flores G. and R. W. McDiarmid. 1989. Two new species of South American Centrolenella (Anura: Centrolenidae) related to C. mariae. Herpetologica 45: 401-411.