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Amphibia, Centrolenidae, Centrolene peristictum, Centrolene prosoblepon, Cochranella cochranae, Cochranella midas, Cochranella resplendens, Cochranella spinosa, Hyalinobatrachium munozorum: Range extensions and new provincial records

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We report several records of Ecuadorian Glassfrogs that extend their distributional, elevational, and provincial ranges: Centrolene peristictum, Centrolene prosoblepon, Cochranella cochranae, Cochranella midas, Cochranella resplendens, Cochranella spinosa, Hyalinobatrachium munozorum.
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NOTES ON GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION
Amphibia, Centrolenidae, Centrolene
peristictum, Centrolene prosoblepon, Cochranella
cochranae, Cochranella midas, Cochranella
resplendens, Cochranella spinosa,
Hyalinobatrachium munozorum: Range
extensions and new provincial records
Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia1
Roy W. McDiarmid2
12002 Research Training Program, Division of
Amphibians and Reptiles, National Museum of
Natural History, Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D.C., USA.
Present address: College of Biological and
Environmental Sciences, Universidad San
Francisco de Quito. Ave. Interoceánica y calle
Diego de Robles, Campus Cumbayá, Edif.
Maxwell. Casilla Postal 17-12-841, Quito,
Ecuador.
E-mail: diegofrancisco_cisneros@yahoo.com
2US Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife
Research Center, National Museum of Natural
History, Room 378, MRC 111, Washington, DC
20013-7012 USA.
In their review on the frogs of the family
Centrolenidae (Glassfrogs), Lynch and Duellman
(1973) summarized the knowledge on taxonomy
and distribution of these frogs in Ecuador. That
work suggested that most Ecuadorian Glassfrogs
had limited distributions. However, while certain
species seem to be truly endemic to small
geographic areas, other cases of apparent high
endemism degree are partially an artifact of
inadequate herpetological exploration of certain
areas, little awareness on the importance of
publishing new distributional records, or
taxonomic problems that limit the identification of
preserved specimens. Herein, we report several
records of Ecuadorian Glassfrogs that extend their
distributional, elevational, and provincial ranges.
Voucher specimens are deposited in the National
Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian
Institution, Washington, D.C., USA (USNM), D.
F. Cisneros-Heredia’s collection housed at
Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito,
Ecuador (DFCH), Museo de Zoología, Pontificia
Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador
(QCAZ), and Fundación Herpetológica Orcés,
Quito, Ecuador (FHGO). Specific locations and
elevation of the new occurrences were determined
using collector’s field notes, the physical map of
the Republic of Ecuador 1:1’000000 published in
2000 by the Instituto Geográfico Militar and the
gazetteer of Lynch and Duellman (1997).
The generic classification follows Ruíz-Carranza
and Lynch (1991). However, as Savage (2002)
recently changed the generic assignment of the
species with humeral spine in males (resurrecting
the genus Centrolenella to the big-eyed species
groups and restricting the Centrolene to part of the
C. geckoideum group), and as the systematics of
centrolenids is still controversial, we present the
two combinations to facilitate information
retrieval.
Centrolene peristictum or Centrolenella
peristicta. Known from two widely separated areas
(ca. 170 km apart) at altitudes ca. 1400 m in the
Pacific slopes of the Andes of Colombia and
Ecuador. The first area goes along the western
slopes of the Cordillera Occidental in Colombia
south to extreme northwestern Ecuador
(Maldonado, Province of Carchi). The second area
is in central western Ecuador, at the species type-
locality (Tandapi, Province of Pichincha) (Lynch
and Duellman 1973; Duellman and Burrowes
1989; Frost 2004). The species is classified as
Vulnerable in the 2004 IUCN Red List of
Threatened Species (Coloma et al. 2004a).
One male of C. peristictum (USNM 286714) was
collected while calling next to an egg mass
(USNM 286715) deposited on the upper side of a
leaf ca. 2 m above water at Río Faisanes, ca. 15 km
NE of La Palma, on the old Quito - Chiriboga -
Santo Domingo road (00°19’S 78°49’W, 1380 m),
Province of Pichincha, on 17 February 1979 by R.
W. McDiarmid. Another specimen (QCAZ 6446)
was collected at Río Guajalito Protection Forest
(00°14’S 78°49’W, 1900 m), Province of
Pichincha, on 01 October 1994 by J. Molineros.
These two localities partially fill the gap between
previously known populations, and extend the
elevational range of the species to at least 1900 m.
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Centrolene prosoblepon or Centrolenella
prosoblepon. Occurs from eastern Honduras
through Central America, along the Pacific slopes
of Colombia and into Ecuador where it reaches its
southernmost distribution (Frost 2004). Centrolene
prosoblepon was previously known in Ecuador
from the northern and central Pacific lowlands and
western slopes of the Andes, between 200–800 m,
in the provinces of Carchi, Imbabura, Los Ríos,
Pichincha and Bolívar (Lynch and Duellman 1973;
Duellman and Burrowes 1989).
Records presented herein constitute the first reports
from the provinces of Esmeraldas, Guayas, El Oro,
and Cotopaxi, and represent substantial extensions
for the altitudinal and range distribution of the
species. A series of specimens (USNM 541904-
541915) collected at Bilsa Biological Reserve, Río
Aguacatal, 41 km WSW of Quininde (ca. 00°22’S
79°45’W, 300–750 m), Province of Esmeraldas,
between 03 to 13 July 2000 by G. Vigle, represent
the westernmost South American locality, ca. 80
km NNW from closest previous record, partially
filling the gap between Colombian and Ecuadorian
localities. A specimen (USNM 288438) from
“Guayaquil” collected on March 1954 by M.
Olalla, come from some point in the Chongon-
Colonche hills near the actual town of Guayaquil,
Province of Guayas, extending the range of the
species ca. 90 km WSW from previous localities,
filling the gap between northern and southern
Ecuadorian localities and representing the first
record of a Centrolenid from the Coastal Cordillera
(Cordillera de la Costa) of Ecuador. Two
specimens (USNM 286738-39) collected at 16.8
km W of Piñas, on the old road (ca. 03°40’S
79°40’W, ca. 600 m), Province of El Oro, on 20
October 1979 by R. W. McDiarmid, represent the
southernmost locality for the distribution of the
species, extending its range ca. 220 km SSW. The
following records from the provinces of Pichincha
and Cotopaxi extend the elevational range of C.
prosoblepon to at least 1110 m. One specimen
(USNM 288441) collected “below Sigchos, W
slope of the Andes” (ca. 00°42’S 78°53’W),
Province of Cotopaxi, on October 1954 by P.
Proaño, and three male specimens (DFCH-USFQ
293-295) (Figure 1) collected while calling on
leaves between 3 to 5 m above a small rivulet at
the Mashpi Reserve, 18 km N of San Miguel de
Los Bancos, on the road between Nanegalito-
Pacto-Gualea-Mashpi-Pachijal (00°09’S 78°50’W,
1100 m), Province of Pichincha, on 08 February
2003 by D. F. Cisneros-Heredia and G. Robayo.
Figure 1. Adult male Centrolene prosoblepon
(DFCH-USFQ 293). Mashpi Reserve, Province of
Pichincha, Republic of Ecuador. 08 February 2003.
Photo by D. F. Cisneros-Heredia.
Cochranella cochranae. Endemic to Ecuador,
reported from only four localities (1100–1300 m)
on the eastern slopes of the Andes, at the provinces
of Sucumbíos, Pastaza, and Tungurahua (Lynch
and Duellman 1973; Frost 2004). The species is
classified as Vulnerable in the 2004 IUCN Red
List of Threatened Species (Coloma et al. 2004b).
Several specimens collected at the San Rafael falls
represent the first records from the Province of
Napo: USNM 284304-6 (14 km by road SW of
Reventador, ca. 00°02’S 77°33’W, 1400–1500 m),
collected on 21-22 February 1985 by M. S. Foster,
and USNM 286632-36 (at Km 102, INECEL
Station, ca. 00°02’S 77°33’W, 1350 m), collected
on 23 February 1979 by R. W. McDiarmid and E.
Schupp. Previous reports from the Province of
Napo (KU 123216–8, Lynch and Duellman 1973)
actually come from a locality in the Province of
Sucumbíos. A specimen (USNM 288452) from
near Loreto (ca. 00º40’S 77º18’W, ca. 700 m),
Province of Orellana, collected on January 1951 by
C. A. Olalla, is the first provincial record,
extending the lower elevational distribution of the
species to at least 700 m and, together with records
from Napo, partially filling the gap between
northern and southern populations. Two specimens
(DFCH D100-1: male and female) collected at a
stream near Bombuscaro River, ca. 15 km S from
Zamora city, Podocarpus National Park, western
slope of Contrafuerte de Tzunantza (ca. 04º14’S
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78º56’W, 1820 m), on 08 September 2002 by F.
Smith, together with a specimen (FHGO 2804)
from Romerillos (04º14’S 78º56’W, 1800 m),
collected on 22 February 2000 by F. Nogales and
D. Almeida, are the first records from the Province
of Zamora-Chinchipe and the southernmost
records in the distribution of the species, extending
its range ca. 310 km S and its elevational
distribution to at least 1820 m.
Cochranella midas. Occurs up to about 300 m at
two widely separated areas (ca. 350 km) in the
western Amazon basin: northeastern Amazonian
Ecuador, at two nearby localities, and northeastern
Peru (Lynch and Duellman 1973; Duellman 1978;
Frost 2004). Reports presented herein are first
provincial records, filling the gap between
Ecuadorian and Peruvian localities, and extending
the elevational distribution of the species to at least
600 m (Figure 2): DFCH-D102, collected at the
Tiputini Biodiversity Station (00°37’S 76°10’W,
190-270 m), Province of Orellana by K. Swing on
November 1998, QCAZ 22876, collected at the
Yasuní Scientific Station (00°40’S 76°24’W, ca.
230 m), Province of Orellana, by M. Read on 13
May 1995; QCAZ 20001–2, collected at Puerto
Misahualli (01°02’S 77°40’W, ca. 400 m),
Province of Napo, by F. Ayala on 15 March 2001;
and USNM 288437, collected at Río Oglán,
Curaray (01°19’S 77°35’W, ca. 600 m), Province
of Pastaza, by R. Olalla on April 1953.
Figure 2. Adult Cochranella midas. Tiputini
Biodiversity Station, Province of Orellana,
Republic of Ecuador. July 2003. Photo by the
Applied Ecology Research Group, University of
Camberra.
Cochranella resplendens. This species occurs
below 200 m in the upper Amazon Basin in
Ecuador and southeastern Colombia (Frost 2004).
It was previously known in Ecuador only from the
type locality at Santa Cecilia, Province of
Sucumbíos (Lynch and Duellman 1973). The
species is classified as Vulnerable in the 2004
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (Castro et
al. 2004).
Two specimens (FHGO 1305, 1324) were
collected at Pozo Garza, Oryx (01º26’S 77º03’W,
300 m), Province of Pastaza, by J.-M. Touzet on
06 July 1989, and two specimens (DFCH D103–4)
were collected at the Tiputini Biodiversity Station
(00°37’S 76°10’W, 190–270 m), Province of
Orellana, by D. F. Cisneros-Heredia and A.
Chiriboga on August 1999. These are first
provincial records, the second and third known
localities of the species in Ecuador, and the
southernmost populations in the distribution of the
species. The record from the Province of Pastaza
extends the distribution of the species ca. 170 km S
from the type locality, and the record from the
Province of Orellana ca. 125 km SE.
Cochranella spinosa. Distributed on the Atlantic
slopes from Costa Rica to eastern Panama, and on
the Pacific slopes from Costa Rica along the
lowlands through western Colombia to Ecuador,
up to 560 m (Savage 2002; Frost 2004).
Cochranella spinosa was previously known from
just one locality in Ecuador (Río Palenque,
Province of Los Ríos, Duellman and Burrowes
1989) (Figure 3). One specimen (USNM 288443)
collected at Río Blanco, near the mouth of Río
Yambi (ca. 00º01’S 79º08’W, ca. 700 m), Province
of Pichincha, by M. Olalla on February 1959,
presents a first provincial record, partially filling
the gap between Colombian and Ecuadorian
localities and extending the elevational distribution
of the species to at least 700 m.
Hyalinobatrachium munozorum. Known from
few localities in the Amazonian lowlands of
Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru (Ruíz-Carranza and
Lynch 1998; Frost 2004). It was previously known
in Ecuador just from its type locality (Lynch and
Duellman 1973). One specimen (DFCH D105) was
collected while sitting on the trunk of a Ceiba tree
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in primary terra firme forest, ca. 25 m above the
floor, at the Tiputini Biodiversity Station (00°37’S
76°10’W, 190–270 m), Province of Orellana, by D.
F. Cisneros-Heredia on 02 January 1998. This
record is the first from the Province of Orellana,
increasing its geographical range ca. 125 km NW
from the type-locality, and partially filling the gap
between Ecuadorian and Peruvian localities.
Figure 3. Cochranella spinosa. Río Palenque
Scientific Center, Province of Los Ríos, Republic
of Ecuador. Photo by Roy W. McDiarmid.
Acknowledgments
We thank L. Coloma (QCAZ), J.-M. Touzet, and
A. Ma. Velasco (FHGO) for granting access to
specimens under their care. We are grateful to J.
Savage, G. Zug, and R. Heyer for useful
discussions; to M. Foster, F. Nogales, D. Almeida,
K. Swing, G. Vigle, and F. Smith for providing
information from their collections; and to the
Applied Ecology Research Group, University of
Camberra, for allowing the use of the photograph
of Cochranella midas. We are indebted to the late
G. Orcés and J. Peters, their collections made an
important basis for our research. Field work for
RWM was supported by the US Fish and Wildlife
Service. RWM thanks the late K. Miyata and G.
Schupp for companionship in the field. DFCH
thanks G. Robayo, J. Robayo, and P. Melo for
companionship in the field, and to R. Sevilla and
C. Burneo for allowing access to Mashpi. Field and
laboratory work was partially supported by the
2002 Research Training Program, Smithsonian
Institution, Smithsonian’s Women Committee,
Universidad San Francisco de Quito, and Ma. E.
and L. Heredia.
Literature Cited
Castro, F., J. V. Rueda, W. Bolívar, R. A.
Estupiñan, L. A. Coloma, S. Ron, and A.
Almendáriz. 2004. Cochranella resplendens.
In: IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of
Threatened Species. <www.redlist.org>.
Captured on 10 November.
Coloma, L. A., S. Ron, and D. Almeida. 2004a.
Cochranella cochranae. In: IUCN 2004. 2004
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
<www.redlist.org>. Captured on 10
November 2005.
Coloma, L. A., S. Ron, J. Lynch, D. F. Cisneros-
Heredia, and E. Wild. 2004b. Centrolene
peristictum. In: IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red
List of Threatened Species.
<www.redlist.org>. Captured on 10
November 2005.
Duellman, W. E. 1978. The biology of an
Equatorial Herpetofauna in Amazonian
Ecuador. University of Kansas, Museum
Natural History, Miscellaneous Publications
65: 1-352.
Duellman, W. E. and P. A. Burrowes. 1989. New
species of frogs, Centrolenella, from the
Pacific versant of Ecuador and southern
Colombia. Occasional Papers, Museum
Natural History, University Kansas 132:1–14.
Frost, D. 2004. Amphibian Species of the World:
an online reference. V.3.0 (22 August 2004).
http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibi
a/index.html. American Museum of Natural
History, New York, USA. Captured on
October 2005.
Lynch, J. D. and W. E. Duellman. 1973. A review
of the Centrolenid frogs of Ecuador, with
descriptions of new species. Occasional
Papers, Museum Natural History, University
Kansas 16: 1–66.
Lynch, J. D. and W. E. Duellman. 1997. Frogs of
the genus Eleutherodactylus in Western
Ecuador. University of Kansas, Museum
Natural History, Special Publication 23: 1–
236.
Ruíz-Carranza, P. M. and J. D. Lynch. 1991. Ranas
Centrolenidae de Colombia I. Propuesta de
una nueva clasificación genérica. Lozania, 57:
1–30.
Ruíz-Carranza, P. M. and J. D. Lynch. 1998. Ranas
Centrolenidae de Colombia XI. Nuevas
especies de ranas cristal del género
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Hyalinobatrachium. Revista de la Academia
Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y
Naturales 22(85): 571–586..
Savage, J. M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles
of Costa Rica. Chicago, Univ. Chicago Press.
934 p.
Received November 2005
Accepted November 2005
Published online November 2005
22
... Tadpole: Not described. Distribution ( Figure 53): Centrolene peristicta is known from the Pacific slope of the Cordillera Occidental of the Andes in Ecuador and Colombia at elevations between 1380 and 1900 m ( [22,87,133,134], this work). In Ecuador, C. peristicta is known from localities in the provinces of Carchi, Pichincha, and Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas, at elevations of 1400-1852 m, with a potential distribution of 12,603 km 2 . ...
... At the Bolivian locality (20 km W of Población La Cascada), Cochranella resplendens was found sympatric with Rulyrana spiculata and Cochranella sp [164]. At the Tiputini Biodiversity Station, Cochranella resplendens was found sympatric with Teratohyla midas, Hyalinobatrachium munozorum, and Vitreorana ritae ( [134], this work). Females provide short-term parental care; male parental care is absent [25]. ...
... Tadpole: Not described. Distribution (Figure 116): Hyalinobatrachium munozorum is known from localities in the Amazonian lowlands and Andean foothills of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia at elevations below 980 m ( [17,22,27,134,232], this work). In Ecuador, this species has been recorded from localities below 300 m; although, there is one juvenile (identification unconfirmed), found at 920 m (Specimens examined). ...
Article
Full-text available
Glassfrogs (family: Centrolenidae) represent a fantastic radiation (~150 described species) of Neotropical anurans that originated in South America and dispersed into Central America. In this study, we review the systematics of Ecuadorian glassfrogs, providing species accounts of all 60 species, including three new species described herein. For all Ecuadorian species, we provide new information on the evolution, morphology, biology, conservation, and distribution. We present a new molecular phylogeny for Centrolenidae and address cryptic diversity within the family. We employ a candidate species system and designate 24 putative new species that require further study to determine their species status. We find that, in some cases, currently recognized species lack justification; specifically, we place Centrolene gemmata and Centrolene scirtetes under the synonymy of Centrolene lynchi; C. guanacarum and C. bacata under the synonymy of Centrolene sanchezi; Cochranella phryxa under the synonymy of Cochranella resplendens; and Hyalinobatrachium ruedai under the synonymy of Hyalinobatrachium munozorum. We also find that diversification patterns are mostly congruent with allopatric speciation, facilitated by barriers to gene flow (e.g., valleys, mountains, linearity of the Andes), and that niche conservatism is a dominant feature in the family. Conservation threats are diverse, but habitat destruction and climate change are of particular concern. The most imperiled glassfrogs in Ecuador are Centrolene buckleyi, C. charapita, C. geckoidea, C. medemi, C. pipilata, Cochranella mache, Nymphargus balionotus, N. manduriacu, N. megacheirus, and N. sucre, all of which are considered Critically Endangered. Lastly, we identify priority areas for glassfrog conservation in Ecuador.
... 135 species of arboreal anurans, commonly called glassfrogs. They are widely distributed and diverse along the Neotropics, but only four described species have been reported from the seasonal forests of the West Ecuadorian region, Cochranella mache, Cochranella spinosa, Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni, Centrolene prosoblepon, only the latter from foothill forests (Duellman and Burrowes 1989, Guayasamin and Bonnacorso 2004, Cisneros-Heredia and McDiarmid 2005. Recent fieldwork carried out by the Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales in the Seasonal Foothill Evergreen forests of the province of El Oro, West Ecuadorian region, resulted in the collection of a series of specimens of an undescribed Centrolenid species, which we describe herein. ...
... Eleven described species of glassfrogs, including new Cochranella buenaventura, are currently known to inhabit the foothills, slopes, and highlands of Cordillera Occidental (Table 4) (Goin 1961, Lynch and Duellman 1973, Duellman 1980, Duellman 1981, Flores 1985, Duellman and Burrowes 1989, Cisneros-Heredia and McDiarmid 2005, Guayasamin et al. 2006, Cisneros-Heredia and McDiarmid in press, Cisneros-Heredia and Yánez-Muñoz 2007. The distribution of these species across Cordillera Occidental is uneven, with ten species occurring towards the northern areas (above 1°S latitude) and just two species from the central-southern areas (below 1°S latitude) ( Table 4). ...
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Full-text available
Cochranella buenaventura sp. nov. is described from the southern foothills of the Cordillera Occidental, Andes of Ec-uador. The new species inhabits the Seasonal Foothill Evergreen forests of the province of El Oro, in the West Ecuadorian biogeo-graphic region. This species is distinguished from other species of glassfrogs by having a truncate snout in dorsal and lateral views, reduced webbing between fingers, absence of guanophores on the digestive visceral peritonea, but present on the renal capsule, absence of humeral spine, green dorsum in life with scattered pale yellow spots, bright yellow hands and feet discs, and moderate body size (20.9-22.4 mm snout-vent length in adult males).
... Dorsal colouration pattern showing ocelli with yellow centre surrounded by black on a green dorsum is shared by three ocellated glassfrogs: N. cochranae, N. laurae and N. lindae. These species share a common biogeographic pattern across the eastern Andean slopes in Ecuador, with N. cochranae being widespread across the eastern Andean slopes of the Andes of Ecuador and southern Colombia and sympatric with N. laurae (Cisneros-Heredia & McDiarmid, 2005;2006;2007, this paper). All three species are very similar in their morphology and colouration, and when a single known specimen was available for N. laurae, the differentiation between this species and N. lindae was weak and it was suggested that N. cochranae and N. laurae may be synonyms (Guayasamin et al., 2020). ...
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We report the rediscovery of Laura’s Glassfrog, Nymphargus laurae Cisneros-Heredia & McDiarmid, 2007, based on two specimens collected at the Colonso-Chalupas Biological Reserve, province of Napo, Ecuador. The species was described and known from a single male specimen collected in 1955 at Loreto, north-eastern Andean foothills of Ecuador. Limited information was available about the colouration, systematics, ecology, and biogeography of N. laurae . We provide new data on the external morphology, colouration, distribution and comment on its conservation status and extinction risk. We discuss the phylogenetic relationships of N. laurae , which forms a clade together with N. siren and N. humboldti . The importance of research in unexplored areas must be a national priority to document the biodiversity associated, especially in protected areas.
... Según Ruiz-Carranza y Lynch, 1991; Cisneros-Heredia y Yánez-Muñoz, 2007, Centrolene peristictum sugirieron que esta especie es casi indistinguible de Centrolene lynchi, y justifica un estudio adicional. Cisneros-Heredia y McDiarmid, 2005, brindaron una discusión sobre el rango y las nuevas localidades ecuatorianas. Cisneros-Heredia y McDiarmid, 2007, discutieron la especie en Ecuador y señalaron la literatura relevante. ...
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The Province of Carchi is a strategic area, where the most important remnants of tropical forests of the Ecuadorian Chocó come together. These contact the western foothills of the Andes, between the Mira and San Juan river basins, and ascend to the paramo platforms above 3400 meters in altitude and all the way to 4800 meters. This impressive altitudinal gradient preserves a continuity of ecosystems exposed to great anthropogenic impact, since the area has not been taken into account by the national system of protected areas. However, in these areas the recent rediscovery of endemic and threatened species of amphibians has motivated the Gobierno Autónomo Descentralizado Provincial del Carchi (GADPC) and the Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INABIO), to take up the challenge of compiling 4082 historical information records deposited in 11 collections of natural history in the world, and generated by INABIO in the last three lustrums and in 25 localities of the province. We report that the amphibian richness of the Carchi Province is one of the most representative of the Andes of Ecuador; although it has the third smallest territory among the provinces of the Andean Region, it is the second highest in amphibians (125 taxa) and the first in species density in comparison to the provinces of the Ecuadorian Andes. The outstanding amphibian richness and high percentage of endemism (71%), is a response to the complex eological history of the Andes and the Tropical Forests of the Pacific. These generating isolation barriers, largely influenced by the Mira River watershed that limits the distribution of several lineages of the southwestern Chocó. These barriers translate to changes in the patterns of Alfa-Beta diversity, spatial and temporal distribution and reproductive strategies of the species. The diversity of Carchi amphibians shows a high completeness in phylogenetic and functional structure of its anuran assemblages, contrasting with other Andean areas of Ecuador at similar altitudinal gradients, which have lost several elements in their amphibian communities. Exploration by several institutions in the last five years in the province, have resulted in the discovery of several populations of species considered Extinct (Atelopus longirostris) or Critically Endangered (A. coynei, Centrolene heloderma, Hyloxalus delatorreae), evidencing that its extensive remnants vegetation protect functionally and phylogenetically complete communities. We recorded endemic lineages represented by species restricted to the southwestern Chocó in Colombia and Ecuador, and others exclusive to the Ecuadorean Andes. All the ecosystems in the gradient reach species endemicity between 90% and 100%, per ecological system. Only in tropical lowland ecosystems does the composition of the assembly feed on lineages with widely distributed influences in the Neotropics. Threatened lineages in a synchronous trend with endemic species were present in all ecosystems of the gradient. Between 20% and 50% of species per ecosystem are threatened, with western montane ecosystems tanding out with 45% threatened species in their composition. Weighing the richness of threatened species in the gradient of the province identifies altitudinal bands for all threatened species of amphibians to ecosystems between 2200 and 3000 meters. The exuberant amphibian richness of the Carchi Province requires massive local and national fforts to ensure its persistence over time. The current pressure on the remaining cosystems by mining initiatives in the north of the country will devastate the last populations of critically endangered amphibians, equivalent to one of the greatest phylogenetic losses, the massive decline of amphibians in the 1980s. The conservation of amphibians in the province will guarantee the preservation of functionality and integrity of montane forests. The participation of different public sectors becomes a priority to conserve the varied amphibian diversity of Carchi.
... de-Moraes et al., 2016). Our observation constitutes the first report of such behaviours in G. longipes.Cochranella resplendens was known from 11 localities in the Andean and lowland Amazon forests of Peru, Ecuador and Colombia, with an elevational range from 190 to 1,699 m a.s.l.(Lynch and Duellman, 1973;Cisneros-Heredia and McDiarmid, 2005;Cisneros- Heredia and Meza-Ramos, 2007;Torres-Gastello et al., 2007;Terán-Valdez et al., 2009;Malambo et al., 2013;Twomey et al., 2014;Chávez and Mueses-Cisneros, 2016;Molina-Zuluaga et al., 2017) ...
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... Centrolene peristictum is a vulnerable species that inhabits primary cloud forests of the Pacific slopes of the Andes of Ecuador and Colombia, at elevations between 1,350 and 1,820 m (Ruíz-Carranza and Lynch 1991;Ruíz-Carranza et al., 1996;Coloma et al., 2004;Cisneros-Heredia and McDiarmid 2005;Hutter and Guayasamin, 2012;Fig. 1). ...
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... Most Olalla's specimens labelled as "Loreto" were collected in the surroundings of the town of Loreto at 400-450 m. However, some specimens were also collected along trails departing from Loreto to nearby areas and reaching up to ca 700 m (e.g., Sumaco volcano, River Suno; Cisneros-Heredia and McDiarmid 2005McDiarmid , 2007. Consequently, and conservatively, we propose to update the lowest elevation limit of G. testudinea from 1100 to 700 m. ...
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World-renowned for its biological diversity and model conservation system, Costa Rica is home to a wide variety of amphibians and reptiles, from the golden toad to the scorpion lizard to the black-headed bushmaster. Jay M. Savage has studied these fascinating creatures for more than forty years, and in The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica he provides the most comprehensive, up-to-date treatment of their biology and evolution ever produced. Costa Rica has played, and continues to play, a pivotal role in the study of tropical biology as well as the development of ecotourism and ecoprospecting, in part because more than half of the amphibians and reptiles in Costa Rica are also found elsewhere in Central America. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica will be an essential book for a wide audience of nature lovers, naturalists, ecotourists, field biologists, conservationists, government planners, and those interested in Central America more generally. "Written for the enthusiast as well as for the field researcher, this work is an excellent reference source for each of the 396 species of amphibians and reptiles that can be found in Costa Rica. Includes complete full-color photographs of all known species in the region, as well as maps showing their distribution patterns. . . . A must-have book for any library with interests in this subject area."—J. Elliott, Southeastern Naturalist
Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas
  • Hyalinobatrachium
Hyalinobatrachium. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 22(85): 571-586..