Behaviors of ATP-Dependent Chromatin Remodeling Factors During Maturation of Bovine Oocytes In Vitro
The mammalian oocyte undergoes dynamic changes in chromatin structure to reach complete maturation. However, little known is about behaviors of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors (ACRFs) during meiosis. Here, we found that respective ACRFs may differently behave in the process of oocyte maturation in the bovine. All ACRFs interacted with oocytic chromatin at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage. Mi-2 and hSNF2H disappeared from GV-chromatin within 1 hr of in vitro culture whereas Brg-1 and BAF-170 were retained throughout germinal vesicle break down (GVBD). Brg-1 was localized on the condensed chromatin outside, whereas BAF-170 was entirely excluded from condensed chromatin. Thereafter, Brg-1 and BAF-170 interacted with metaphase I and metaphase II chromosomes. These results imply that Mi-2 and hSNF2H may initiate the meiotic resumption, and Brg-1 and BAF-170 may support chromatin condensation during meiosis. In addition, DNA methylation and methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9) seem to be constantly retained in the oocyte chromatin throughout in vitro maturation. Inhibition of ACRF activity by treatment with the inhibitor apyrase led to retarded chromatin remodeling in bovine oocytes, thereby resulting in poor development of fertilized embryos. Therefore, these results indicate that precise behaviors of ACRFs during meiosis are critical for nuclear maturation and subsequent embryonic development in the bovine.