Adenovirus vector vaccination induces expansion of memory CD4 T cells with a mucosal homing phenotype that are readily susceptible to HIV-1

Department of Immunology, Imperial College London, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Road, London SW10 9NH, United Kingdom.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 11/2009; 106(47):19940-5. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0907898106
Source: PubMed


In the recently halted HIV type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine STEP trial, individuals that were seropositive for adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) showed increased rates of HIV-1 infection on vaccination with an Ad5 vaccine. We propose that this was due to activation and expansion of Ad5-specific mucosal-homing memory CD4 T cells. To test this hypothesis, Ad5 and Ad11 antibody titers were measured in 20 healthy volunteers. Dendritic cells (DCs) from these individuals were pulsed with replication defective Ad5 or Ad11 and co-cultured with autologous lymphocytes. Cytokine profiles, proliferative capacity, mucosal migration potential, and susceptibility to HIV infection of the adenovirus-stimulated memory CD4 T cells were measured. Stimulation of T cells from healthy Ad5-seropositive but Ad11-seronegative individuals with Ad5, or serologically distinct Ad11 vectors induced preferential expansion of adenovirus memory CD4 T cells expressing alpha(4)beta(7) integrins and CCR9, indicating a mucosal-homing phenotype. CD4 T-cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production in response to Ad stimulation correlated with Ad5 antibody titers. However, Ad5 serostatus did not correlate with total cytokine production upon challenge with Ad5 or Ad11. Expanded Ad5 and Ad11 memory CD4 T cells showed an increase in CCR5 expression and higher susceptibility to infection by R5 tropic HIV-1. This suggests that adenoviral-based vaccination against HIV-1 in individuals with preexisting immunity against Ad5 results in preferential expansion of HIV-susceptible activated CD4 T cells that home to mucosal tissues, increases the number of virus targets, and leads to a higher susceptibility to HIV acquisition.

Download full-text


Available from: George Dickson
  • Source
    • "As discussed earlier, combining some of the most promising vectors in heterologous prime-boost regimens will significantly enhance the quantity, quality and protective efficacy of immune responses. However, in consideration of the possible catastrophic effects of elevated immune activation likely to arise from various vector combinations, it would be expected that suitable HIV vaccine vectors maintain lower levels of immune activation to limit the numbers of activated HIV-1 targets (Perreau et al., 2008; Benlahrech et al., 2009) likely to fuel infection in the event of exposure. Furthermore, it is documented that in the absence of a very strong protective immune responses to counteract the incoming virus, the presence of vaccine-specific T cells which are activated and hence more susceptible to infection may increase the risk of acquisition (Tenbusch et al., 2012). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Development of an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine remains a big challenge, largely due to the enormous HIV diversity which propels immune escape. Thus novel vaccine strategies are targeting multiple variants of conserved antibody and T cell epitopic regions which would incur a huge fitness cost to the virus in the event of mutational escape. Besides immunogen design, the delivery modality is critical for vaccine potency and efficacy, and should be carefully selected in order to not only maximize transgene expression, but to also enhance the immuno-stimulatory potential to activate innate and adaptive immune systems. To date, five HIV vaccine candidates have been evaluated for efficacy and protection from acquisition was only achieved in a small proportion of vaccinees in the RV144 study which used a canarypox vector for delivery. Conversely, in the STEP study (HVTN 502) where human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) was used, strong immune responses were induced but vaccination was more associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition than protection in vaccinees with pre-existing Ad5 immunity. The possibility that pre-existing immunity to a highly promising delivery vector may alter the natural course of HIV to increase acquisition risk is quite worrisome and a huge setback for HIV vaccine development. Thus, HIV vaccine development efforts are now geared toward delivery platforms which attain superior immunogenicity while concurrently limiting potential catastrophic effects likely to arise from pre-existing immunity or vector-related immuno-modulation. However, it still remains unclear whether it is poor immunogenicity of HIV antigens or substandard immunological potency of the safer delivery vectors that has limited the success of HIV vaccines. This article discusses some of the promising delivery vectors to be harnessed for improved HIV vaccine efficacy.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Frontiers in Microbiology
  • Source
    • "Cytokine secretion by antigen specific T cells were analysed by FlowJo (Tree Star Inc, USA). The gating strategy for the Identification of T cells was performed as previously published in [32]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The efficient induction of CD8 T cell immunity is dependent on the processing and presentation of antigen on MHC class I molecules by professional antigen presenting cells (APC). To develop an improved T cell vaccine for HIV we investigated whether fusing the ubiquitin gene to the N terminus of the HIV gag gene enhanced targeting to the proteasome resulting in better CD8 T cell responses. Human monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDC), transduced with adenovirus vectors carrying either ubiquitinated or non-ubiquitinated gag transgene constructs, were co-cultured with autologous naïve T cells and T cell responses were measured after several weekly cycles of stimulation. Despite targeting of the ubiquitin gag transgene protein to the proteasome, ubiquitination did not increase CD8 T cell immune responses and in some cases diminished responses to gag peptides. There were no marked differences in cytokines produced from ubiquitinated and non-ubiquitinated gag stimulated cultures or in the expression of inhibitory molecules on expanded T cells. However, the ability of moDC transduced with ubiquitinated gag gene to upregulate co-stimulatory molecules was reduced, whilst no difference in moDC maturation was observed with a control ubiquitinated and non-ubiquitinated MART gene. Furthermore moDC transduced with ubiquitinated gag produced more IL-10 than transduction with unmodified gag. Thus failure of gag ubiquitination to enhance CD8 responses may be caused by suppression of moDC maturation. These results indicate that when designing a successful vaccine strategy to target a particular cell population, attention must also be given to the effect of the vaccine on APCs.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    • "Due to their efficiency in inducing strong innate and adaptive immune responses [57], AdVs have recently gained a lot of attention as promising vaccination tools in treating intractable diseases, including cancers [58], [59] and chronic infections [60], [61]. However, AdV-based vaccines often fail to provide a protection in clinical trials, partly due to the chronic nature of pathogenic Ags and the associated imbalance in host immune responses, involving the selective depletion or defectiveness of CD4+ T cells [62]–[65]. Our results provide a partial explanation for the mechanism of the failures in AdV-based vaccinations against these intractable diseases, warranting the development of novel modified AdV vaccines. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adenoviral (AdV) vectors represent most commonly utilized viral vaccines in clinical studies. While the role of CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in mediating AdV-induced protection is well understood, the involvement of CD4(+) T cell-provided signals in the development of functional CD8(+) CTL responses remain unclear. To explore CD4(+) T helper signals required for AdVova-stimulated CTL responses, we established an adoptive transfer system by transferring CD4(+) T cells derived from various knock out and transgenic mice into wild-type and/or CD4-deficient animals, followed by immunizing with recombinant ovalbumin (OVA)-expressing AdVova vector. Without CD4(+) T help, both primary and memory CTL responses were greatly reduced in this model, and were associated with increased PD-1 expression. The provision of OVA-specific CD4(+) T help in CD4(+) T cell-deficient mice restored AdVova-induced primary CTL responses, and supported survival and recall responses of AdVova-stimulated memory CTLs. These effects were specifically mediated by CD4(+) T cell-produced IL-2 and CD154 signals. Adoptive transfer of "helped" or "unhelped" effector and memory CTLs into naïve CD4(+) T cell-deficient or -sufficient mice also revealed an additional role for polyclonal CD4(+) T cell environment in the survival of AdVova-stimulated CTLs, partially explaining the extension of CTL contraction phase. Finally, during recall responses, CD4(+) T cell environment, particularly involving memory CD4(+) T cells, greatly enhanced expansion of memory CTLs. Collectively, our data strongly suggest a critical role for CD4(+) T help in multiple phases of AdV-stimulated CTL responses, and could partially explain certain failures in AdV-based immunization trials targeting malignant tumors and chronic diseases that are often associated with compromised CD4(+) T cell population and function.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2012 · PLoS ONE
Show more