Deleterious Associations of Sitting Time and Television Viewing Time With Cardiometabolic Risk Biomarkers Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study 2004–2005

Baker IDIHeart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
Diabetes care (Impact Factor: 8.42). 11/2009; 33(2):327-34. DOI: 10.2337/dc09-0493
Source: PubMed


We examined the associations of sitting time and television (TV) viewing time with continuously measured biomarkers of cardio-metabolic risk in Australian adults.
Waist circumference, BMI, resting blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, fasting and 2-h postload plasma glucose, and fasting insulin were measured in 2,761 women and 2,103 men aged > or =30 years (mean age 54 years) without clinically diagnosed diabetes from the 2004-2005 Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study. Multivariate linear regression analyses examined associations of self-reported sitting time and TV viewing time (hours per day) with these biomarkers, adjusting for potential confounding variables.
For both women and men, sitting time was detrimentally associated with waist circumference, BMI, systolic blood pressure, fasting triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, 2-h postload plasma glucose, and fasting insulin (all P < 0.05), but not with fasting plasma glucose and diastolic blood pressure (men only). With the exception of HDL cholesterol and systolic blood pressure in women, the associations remained significant after further adjustment for waist circumference. TV viewing time was detrimentally associated with all metabolic measures in women and all except HDL cholesterol and blood pressure in men. Only fasting insulin and glucose (men only) remained deleteriously associated with TV viewing time after adjustment for waist circumference.
In women and men, sitting time and TV viewing time were deleteriously associated with cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers, with sitting time having more consistent associations in both sexes and being independent of central adiposity. Preventive initiatives aimed at reducing sitting time should focus on both nonleisure and leisure-time domains.

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    • "Sedentary behaviours are defined as any waking behaviour characterized by an energy expenditure ≤1.5 METs while in a sitting or reclining posture [3,4]. High volumes of time spent sitting or engaged in sedentary behaviour have been associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality [5-7] and risk of developing type 2 diabetes [8], obesity [9-11] and cardiovascular disease [12-15]. Importantly, in some studies these associations with mortality and health have occurred irrespective of whether an individual meets the core adult physical activity recommendation of 150 minutes of at least moderate-intensity physical activity per week [5,7,16-18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Prolonged sitting is an emerging health risk. However, multi-country comparative sitting data are sparse. This paper reports the prevalence and correlates of sitting time in 32 European countries. Data from the Eurobarometer 64.3 study were used, which included nationally representative samples (n = 304-1,102) from 32 European countries. Face-to-face interviews were conducted during November and December 2005. Usual weekday sitting time was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short-version). Sitting time was compared by country, age, gender, years of education, general health status, usual activity and physical activity. Multivariable-adjusted analyses assessed the odds of belonging to the highest sitting quartile. Data were available for 27,637 adults aged 15--98 years. Overall, mean reported weekday sitting time was 309 min/day (SD 184 min/day). There was a broad geographical pattern and some of the lowest amounts of daily sitting were reported in southern (Malta and Portugal means 194--236 min/day) and eastern (Romania and Hungary means 191--276 min/day) European countries; and some of the highest amounts of daily sitting were reported in northern European countries (Germany, Benelux and Scandinavian countries; means 407--335 min/day). Multivariable-adjusted analyses showed adults with low physical activity levels (OR = 5.10, CI95 = 4.60-5.66), those with high sitting in their main daily activity (OR = 2.99, CI95 = 2.74-3.25), those with a bad/very bad general health state (OR = 1.87, CI95 = 1.63-2.15) and higher education levels (OR = 1.48, CI95 = 1.38-1.59) were more likely to be in the highest quartile of daily sitting time. Adults within Greece (OR = 2.91, CI95 = 2.51-3.36) and Netherlands (OR = 2.56, CI95 = 2.22-2.94) were most likely to be in the highest quartile. High-sit/low-active participants comprised 10.1% of the sample. Adults self-reporting bad/very bad general health state (OR = 4.74, CI95 = 3.97-5.65), those within high sitting in their main daily activities (OR = 2.87, CI95 = 2.52-3.26) and adults aged >=65 years (OR = 1.53, CI95 = 1.19-1.96) and were more likely to be in the high-sit/low-active group. Weekday sitting time and its demographic correlates varied considerably across European countries, with adults in north-western European countries sitting the most. Sitting is prevalent across Europe and merits attention by preventive interventions.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
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    • "Our observation that high snack food consumption in the presence of high TV viewing exacerbated risk for the MetS and its components of obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension to a greater extent in women is supportive of previous observational studies [32,33]. It has been suggested that this may be attributed to TV viewing time being a more robust marker of sedentary behavior in women [34]. "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Television (TV) viewing time is positively associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. However, the mechanisms through which TV viewing time is associated with MetS risk remain unclear. There is evidence that the consumption of energy-dense, nutrient poor snack foods increases during TV viewing time among adults, suggesting that these behaviors may jointly contribute towards MetS risk. While the association between TV viewing time and the MetS has previously been shown to be independent of adult's overall dietary intake, the specific influence of snack food consumption on the relationship is yet to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of daily TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the MetS and its components in a sample of Australian adults.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
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    • "Total physical activity was calculated as the sum of MET-hours/week spend on all activities. Light intensity was defined as 1.6 to 2.9 METs, moderate intensity was defined as 3.0 to 6.0 METs and vigorous intensity was defined as more than 6.0 METs [21,22]. Time spent on light, moderate, and vigorous activity was derived from the sum of time spent on all activities at that level from all domains. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Recent evidence shows that sedentary behaviour may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers and all-cause mortality. However, results are not consistent and different types of sedentary behaviour might have different effects on health. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between television screen time, computer/reading time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers in a multiethnic urban Asian population. We also sought to understand the potential mediators of this association. Methods The Singapore Prospective Study Program (2004–2007), was a cross-sectional population-based study in a multiethnic population in Singapore. We studied 3305 Singaporean adults of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity who did not have pre-existing diseases and conditions that could affect their physical activity. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of television screen time and computer/reading time with cardio-metabolic biomarkers [blood pressure, lipids, glucose, adiponectin, C reactive protein and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)]. Path analysis was used to examine the role of mediators of the observed association. Results Longer television screen time was significantly associated with higher systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, C reactive protein, HOMA-IR, and lower adiponectin after adjustment for potential socio-demographic and lifestyle confounders. Dietary factors and body mass index, but not physical activity, were potential mediators that explained most of these associations between television screen time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers. The associations of television screen time with triglycerides and HOMA-IR were only partly explained by dietary factors and body mass index. No association was observed between computer/ reading time and worse levels of cardio-metabolic biomarkers. Conclusions In this urban Asian population, television screen time was associated with worse levels of various cardio-metabolic risk factors. This may reflect detrimental effects of television screen time on dietary habits rather than replacement of physical activity.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
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