Expression of metalloproteases and their inhibitors in different histological types of breast cancer
Metalloproteases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs) are involved in several key aspects of tumoral growth, invasion and metastasis. The purpose of this study was to characterize on how the different histological types of breast cancer differ in the expression of several components of this enzymatic system.
An immunohistochemical study was performed in 50 ductal, 23 lobular, 14 mucinous, 7 tubular, 4 papillary and 5 medullary invasive carcinomas, using tissue arrays and specific antibodies against 7 MMPs and 3 tisullar TIMPs. Staining results were categorized by means of a specific software program (score values).
Carcinomas of the ductal type showed higher score values for MMPs and TIMPs than the other histological types; whereas mucinous carcinomas had lower scores values for expressions of the majority of these proteins. Stromal fibroblasts were more frequently positive for MMP-1, -7 and -13 and TIMP-1 and -3, when present in carcinomas of the ductal type than in other histological types of breast carcinomas. Stromal mononuclear inflammatory cells were more frequently positive for MMP-1 and TIMP-3, but more often negative for MMP-7, -9 and -11, when located in carcinomas of the ductal type than in other histological types of breast carcinomas.
We found variations in MMP/TIMP expressions among the different histological subtypes of breast carcinomas suggesting differences in their tumor pathophysiology.
Available from: James M Reuben
- "MMP1 expression was increased in primary tumors with poor prognostic features such as high grade tumors with increased proliferation (Ki 67 > 20%) which is consistent with previous observations
. We also found association between ductal carcinoma histology and MMP1 expression as described previously
; however, in our study, this association was statistically significant only for tumor associated stroma. "
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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in cancer invasion and metastasis. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play role in tumor dissemination and are an independent survival predictor in breast cancer (BC) patients. The aim of this study was to assess correlation between CTCs and tumor MMP1 in BC.
Study included 149 primary BC patients treated by surgery from March 2012 to March 2013. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were depleted of hematopoietic cells using RossetteSepTM selection kit. RNA extracted from CD45-depleted PBMC was interrogated for expression of EMT (TWIST1, SNAIL1, SLUG, ZEB1) and epithelial (CK19) gene transcripts by qRT-PCR. Patient samples with higher epithelial and/or mesenchymal gene transcripts than those of healthy donors (n = 60) were considered as CTC positive. Expression of MMP1 in surgical specimens was evaluated by immunohistochemistry.
CTCs were detected in 24.2% patients. CTCs exhibiting only epithelial markers were present in 8.7% patients, whereas CTCs with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (CTC_EMT) were observed in 13.4% of patients and CTCs co-expressing both markers were detected in 2.0% patients. Patients with CTC_EMT in peripheral blood had significantly increased expression of MMP1 in tumor cells (p = 0.02) and tumor associated stroma (p = 0.05) than those of patients without CTC_EMT. In multivariate analysis, CTC_EMT and tumor grade were independently associated with MMP1 expression in cancer cells, while CTC_EMT and Ki67 were independently associated with MMP1 expression in cancer associated stroma.
Our data suggest link between MMP1 and CTCs with EMT phenotype and support role of MMPs and EMT in tumor dissemination.
Available from: Simone Maistro
- "Breast cancer is believed to be a heterogeneous disease and expression of stromal biomarkers may be connected to particular subtypes of breast carcinoma, as recently suggested . Variations in expression of biomarkers in fibroblasts between different histological types was reported, demonstrating that invasive ductal breast carcinomas have high global expressions of MMPs, including MMP13, and TIMPs compared with the remaining types of breast carcinoma . Furthermore, CAFs are identified by a lot of markers such as αSMA, S100A4, possibly because they originated from heterogeneous population , raising the possibility that specific subtypes of CAFs may be associated with different frequencies of the chosen markers. "
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ABSTRACT: Cancer associated fibroblasts, CAFs, the most abundant cell type in breast cancer stroma, produce a plethora of chemokines, growth factors and ECM proteins, that may contribute to dissemination and metastasis. Axillary nodes are the first metastatic site in breast cancer, however, to the present date, there is no consensus of which specific proteins, synthesized by CAFs, might be related with lymph node involvement. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of CAF biomarkers associated with the presence of regional metastasis. PubMed was searched using the words: "breast cancer" and "lymph node" and fibroblast or stroma or microenvironment. After exclusions, eight studies evaluating biomarkers immunoexpression in CAFs and lymph node status were selected. Biomarkers evaluated in these studies may be divided in two groups, according to their ontology: extracellular matrix components (MMP13, TIMP2, THBS1, LGALS1) and response to wounding (PDPN, PLAU, PLAUR, CAV1, THBS1, LGALS1). A positive expression of MMP13 and LGALS1 in CAFs was associated with enhanced odds ratio (OR) for regional metastasis. Contrariwise, CAV1 positive staining of fibroblasts was associated with decreased OR for nodal involvement. Expression of MMP13, PDPN and CAV1 was further tested in a new series of 65 samples of invasive ductal breast carcinomas by immunohistochemistry and no association between biomarkers expression in CAFs and nodal status was found. It was suggested that breast cancer subtypes may differentially affect CAFs behavior. It would be interesting to evaluate the prognostic significance of these biomarkers in CAFs from different tumor types.
Available from: Pia Boström
- "A number of studies have demonstrated a correlation between MMP expression and the invasive potential of human cancer . Furthermore, the ratio of MMPs to TIMPs has been related to the prognosis of several human tumours, including breast cancer [14,15]. Recent studies have also shown that MMPs' functional genetic polymorphisms may contribute to breast cancer risk . "
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancer consists of a variety of tumours, which differ by their morphological features, molecular characteristics and outcome. Well-known prognostic factors, e.g. tumour grade and size, Ki-67, hormone receptor status, HER2 expression, lymph node status and patient age have been traditionally related to prognosis. Although the conventional prognostic markers are reliable in general, better markers to predict the outcome of an individual tumour are needed. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression has been reported to inversely correlate with survival in advanced cancers. In breast cancer MMP-1 is often upregulated, especially in basal-type breast tumours. The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyse MMP-1 expression in breast cancer cells and in cancer associated stromal cells and to correlate the results with traditional prognostic factors including p53 and bcl-2, as well as to patient survival in breast cancer subtypes.
Immunohistochemical analysis of MMP-1, ER, PR, Ki-67, HER2, bcl-2, p53 and CK5/6 expression was performed on 125 breast cancers. Statistical analyses were carried out using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney -tests. In pairwise comparison Bonferroni-adjustment was applied. Correlations were calculated using Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were carried out to compare breast cancer-specific survival curves. Factors significantly associated with disease-specific survival in univariate models were included in multivariate stepwise.
Positive correlations were found between tumour grade and MMP-1 expression in tumour cells and in stromal cells. P53 positivity significantly correlated with MMP-1 expression in tumour cells, whereas HER2 expression correlated with MMP-1 both in tumour cells and stromal cells. MMP-1 expression in stromal cells showed a significant association with luminal A and luminal B, HER2 overexpressing and triple-negative breast cancer subtypes.
The most important finding of this study was the independent prognostic value of MMP-1 as well as Ki-67 and bcl-2 expression in tumour cells. Our study showed also that both tumoural and stromal MMP-1 expression is associated with breast tumour progression and poor prognosis. A significant difference of MMP-1 expression by cancer associated stromal cells in luminal A, luminal B and triple-negative breast cancer classes was also demonstrated.
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