Influenza Virus Infection in Infants Less Than Three Months of Age
University of Utah School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, PO Box 581289, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
(Impact Factor: 2.72).
11/2009; 29(1):6-9. DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181b4b950
We evaluated the presentation, outcomes, and the risk of serious bacterial infection (SBI) in infants <3 months old with influenza virus infection.
We identified demographic, hospitalization, and microbiologic data from computerized medical records for all infants and children <24 months of age, with laboratory confirmed influenza infection cared for at a tertiary care children's hospital during 4 winter seasons (2004-2008). We compared those <3 months of age with older groups.
We identified 833 children <24 months of age with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Of those, 218 were <3 months old. Influenza accounted for 3.6% of all evaluations of febrile infants and 12% of febrile infant encounters during winter. Infants <3 months of age were less likely to have a high risk chronic medical condition, but were more likely to be hospitalized than children 3 to <24 months old (P < 0.005). Infants <3 months with influenza had fewer prolonged hospital stays than those 3 to <6 months old [P = 0.056; OR: 0.5 (0.24-1.0)] and 6 to <12 months old [P = 0.011; OR: 0.43 (0.24-0.83)]. Five (2.3%) infants <3 months old had SBI.
Infants <3 months of age with influenza virus infection often present with fever alone. Although they are more likely to be hospitalized than those 3 to <24 months old, hospital stays are short and outcomes generally good. Infants with influenza virus infection have a low risk of concomitant SBI.
Available from: Enrico Grazi
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ABSTRACT: The load (force/cross-section) determines the response of muscle power output, force and speed of contraction). The force is the product of the mass by the acceleration, thus the same force is generated by an infinite number of mass and acceleration couples and each one of these couples displays different physical and biological effects. Therefore, the load must be defined both by the mass and by the acceleration. Early muscle investigators were well aware of this situation as it is indicated by the work of Hill on the flexion of the arm against the "heavy fly-wheel". By making use of a model of sarcomere contraction we show here that the acceleration of the load is the first determinant of the time course of the process of generation of the isometric tension. We also propose that, in order to reproduce the rapid release, it is not necessary to invoke the presence of a distinct elastic element in the contractile machinery. It is sufficient to assume that the stiffness of the same machinery increases with the contractile force.
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ABSTRACT: children are frequently hospitalized with inﬂuenza-associated illnesses. Few virologically conﬁrmed population-based studies of pediatric hospitalizations performed during several consecutive seasons are vailable.
this 16-year retrospective study consisted of all children ≤ 16 years of age who were treated for virologically conﬁrmed inﬂuenza at the Department of Pediatrics, Turku University Hospital, Finland, between July 1, 1988 and June 30, 2004. Calculation of the population-based rates of hospitalization in different age cohorts was based on children (n = 69,068) who lived within the 38 municipalities whose acute pediatric care was provided solely by Turku University Hospital.
during the study period, 401 children were hospitalized with virologically conﬁrmed inﬂuenza. The average annual incidences of inﬂuenza-related hospitalizations were highest among children <6 months (276 [95% conﬁdence interval, 220–336] per 100,000) and 6 to 11 months (173 [95% conﬁdence interval, 129–220] per 100,000) of age. For both inﬂuenza A and B, the rates of hospitalization were highest among children younger than 1 year of age. Inﬂuenza A accounted for 82% and inﬂuenza B for 18% of all hospitalizations. A total of 40 (10.0%) children received treatment at the intensive care unit. Of all 401 children with conﬁrmed inﬂuenza infection, only 216 (53.9%) had a discharge International Classiﬁcation of Diseases code related to inﬂuenza.
the high incidence of inﬂuenza-associated hospitalization among infants less than 6 months of age underscores the need to ﬁnd effective ways to prevent inﬂuenza in this age group, in which inﬂuenza vaccines are not currently licensed for use.
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ABSTRACT: We evaluated the severity of influenza A(H1N1)v clinical forms among infants less than 6 months of age. This population group was considered a high-risk group, so all people around them should be vaccinated first.
In south-western France in Aquitaine, we collected all infants less than 6 months of age during a period between the 6th September 2009 and the 6th January 2010 with influenza A(H1N1)v confirmed by PCR. For each of them, the risk factors, clinical presentation, hospitalization, and course of, the disease were identified. We compared two groups: children under 3 months and infants aged 3-6 months.
We identified 74 infants. The average age was 3 months. Sixteen infants had at least 1 risk factor: 9 respiratory diseases (12%), 8 born prematurely (but there was no preterm baby under 33 weeks); one infant presented a cardiac disease, and another 1 epilepsy. Five infants showed no fever, 73% had cough, and 24% had gastro-intestinal symptoms. Infants under 3 months of age presented less cough (P<0.025) and fewer gastro-intestinal symptoms (P<0.01) than older ones. Only 5 infants needed oxygen and 4 presented pneumonia. Forty-eight infants were hospitalized, including 1 in intensive care, with a median duration of 3 days. Forty-five percent spent 2 days or less in the hospital. Infants under 3 months of age were more often hospitalized (P<0.001).
Infants under 6 months of age did not present a severe form of influenza A(H1N1)v. Infants under 3 months of age were less symptomatic than older infants and were often hospitalized, but hospital stays were short with a good outcome.
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