Placebo Effect in Canine Epilepsy Trials
Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 4700 Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
(Impact Factor: 1.88).
11/2009; 24(1):166-70. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2009.0407.x
The placebo effect is a well-recognized phenomenon in human medicine; in contrast, little information exists on the effect of placebo administration in veterinary patients.
Nonpharmacologic therapeutic effects play a role in response rates identified in canine epilepsy trials.
Thirty-four dogs with epilepsy.
Meta-analysis of the 3 known prospective, placebo-controlled canine epilepsy trials. The number of seizures per week was compiled for each dog throughout their participation in the trial. Log-linear models were developed to evaluate seizure frequency during treatment and placebo relative to baseline.
Twenty-two of 28 (79%) dogs in the study that received placebo demonstrated a decrease in seizure frequency compared with baseline, and 8 (29%) could be considered responders, with a 50% or greater reduction in seizures. For the 3 trials evaluated, the average reduction in seizures during placebo administration relative to baseline was 26% (P = .0018), 29% (P = .17), and 46% (P = .01).
A positive response to placebo administration, manifesting as a decrease in seizure frequency, can be observed in epileptic dogs. This is of importance when evaluating open label studies in dogs that aim to assess efficacy of antiepileptic drugs, as the reported results might be overstated. Findings from this study highlight the need for more placebo-controlled trials in veterinary medicine.
Available from: Salvatore Chirumbolo
- "When homeopathy was born, Hahnemann might have met Dalton " s laws and Avogadro " s principle, being all together contemporaries. Despite this, it may be highly implausible that Hahnemann completely understood and was fully aware of Avogadro " s implications in quantitative chemistry and stoichiometry, as Avogadro " s constant was defined by Perrin at the beginning of the XX century  and Avogadro " s rules were misunderstood and their implications ignored until 1959 when it was introduced in the regular school education, yet the Avogadro " s number and the concept of mole is difficult to comprehend even for modern students    and probably should undergo a reappraisal in the debate on homeopathy . "
Available from: Mark Lowrie
- "In addition, it has been identified that waxing and waning disorders are particularly vulnerable to a placebo effect (Roberts et al. 1993). Therefore any apparent response in terms of a reduction in frequency of episodes following treatment or changes in management (such as dietary manipulation) must be interpreted with caution as it may purely reflect the natural course of the disease, or a placebo effect due to the numerous postulated mechanisms as previously discussed in the case of canine epilepsy (Munana et al. 2010). There are several limitations of this study. "
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ABSTRACT: To characterise the phenotype of Border terriers suspected to be affected by canine epileptoid cramping syndrome and to identify possible contributing factors.
Owners of Border terriers with suspected canine epileptoid cramping syndrome were invited to complete an online questionnaire. The results of these responses were collated and analysed.
Twenty-nine Border terriers were included. Most affected dogs had their first episode before 3 years of age (range: 0·2 to 7·0 years). The majority of episodes lasted between 2 and 30 minutes (range: 0·5 to 150 minutes). The most frequent observations during the episodes were difficulty in walking (27 of 29), mild tremor (21 of 29) and dystonia (22 of 29). Episodes most frequently affected all four limbs (25 of 29) and the head and neck (21 of 29). Borborygmi were reported during episodes in 11 of 29 dogs. Episodes of vomiting and diarrhoea occurred in 14 of 29, with 50% of these being immediately before or after episodes of canine epileptoid cramping syndrome (7 of 14). Most owners (26 of 29) had changed their dog's diet, with approximately 50% (14 of 26) reporting a subsequent reduction in the frequency of episodes.
This study demonstrates similarities in the phenotype of canine epileptoid cramping syndrome to paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis, a paroxysmal dyskinesia reported in humans. This disorder appears to be associated with gastrointestinal signs in some dogs and appears at least partially responsive to dietary adjustments.
Available from: umassd.edu
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ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a speech codec based on the multi-pulse based
CELP (MP-CELP) coding and convolutional coding algorithms for the ETSI
adaptive multi-rate (AMR) standard. The codec operates at several speech
coding rates, maintaining a fixed gross rate including speech and
channel coding for the full-rate (FR) and half-rate (HR) channel modes.
MP-CELP has great features of easily changing the speech coding rate by
controlling the parameters such as the number of pulses and other
parameters. Subjective tests show that the proposed AMR codec in the FR
channel mode achieves higher performance than that of the enhanced FR
codec, and the proposed codec in the HR channel mode gives a comparable
coding quality to that by the full-rate codec, by selecting an optimal
coding rate for each channel condition. T-tests based on the test
results also show that the proposed speech codec meets about 80% of the
seventeen requirements, which are selected from the AMR standard study
report. Therefore, the proposed codec is promising for the AMR standard
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