Egr-1, a Central and Unifying Role in Cardioprotection from Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury?
Department of Pharmacology, First Affiliated Hospital, Shantou University Medical College, China. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
(Impact Factor: 2.88).
11/2009; 24(5-6):519-26. DOI: 10.1159/000257497
Our previous studies have shown that N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide (F(2)) can antagonize myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by blocking intracellular Ca(2+) overload and suppressing Egr-1 overexpression. The present study is to investigate the relation between the reduction of Ca(2+) overload and the inhibition of Egr-1 overexpression.
The Sprague-Dawley rat myocardial I/R model and cultured cardiomyocyte hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) model were established. Administration of Egr-1 antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide (AS-ODN) only or combining with F(2), Egr-1 protein expression was examined by Western-blot analyses. Hemodynamic parameters, creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were measured to assess the degree of injury and inflammation of myocardial tissues and cells.
Treatment with Egr-1 AS-ODN significantly reduced Egr-1 protein expression and attenuated injury and inflammation of myocardium caused by I/R or H/R evidenced by the amelioration of hemodynamics, the decrease in leakage of CK, LDH, cTnI, the increase in MDA generation, the decrease in SOD activity, the reduction of MPO activity in myocardial tissues and release of TNF-alpha from cultured cardiomyocytes. Treatment with F(2) combined with Egr-1 AS-ODN, the inhibition of Egr-1 protein expression and inflammation (MPO activity and TNF-alpha level) were not enhanced, but the protection from myocardial I/R (or H/R) injury was significantly increased in hemodynamics and cytomembrane permeability relative to the using of Egr-1 AS-ODN only.
These data suggest that the inhibition of Egr-1 overexpression cannot involve all mechanisms of cardioprotection from I/R injury.
Available from: Jinjin Xu
- "Excessive ROS leads to inactivation of NO and thus impaired NO-dependent cardioprotection [31–33]. MDA is a marker of lipid peroxidation that occurs as a result of the damaging effects of ROS, and SOD is a cellular ROS scavenger [34, 35]. In our study, following SFI treatment, we found that the increase of SOD activity and the decrease of MDA production may have provided extensive protection to diabetic hearts and facilitated NO-dependent cardioprotection. "
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to investigate whether Shen-fu injection (SFI), a traditional Chinese medicine, could attenuate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury in diabetes. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were randomly assigned to the Sham, I/R, SFI preconditioning, and SFI plus wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor) groups. After the treatment, hearts were subjected to 30 min of coronary artery occlusion and 2 h reperfusion except the Sham group. Myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocytes apoptosis were increased significantly in MI/R group as compared with the Sham group. SFI preconditioning significantly decreased infarct size, apoptosis, caspase-3 protein expression, MDA level in myocardial tissues, and plasma level of CK and LDH but increased p-Akt, p-eNOS, bcl-2 protein expression, and SOD activity compared to I/R group. Moreover, SFI-induced cardioprotection was abolished by wortmannin. We conclude that SFI preconditioning protects diabetic hearts from I/R injury via PI3K/Akt-dependent pathway.
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ABSTRACT: Despite decades of intensive research, there is still no effective treatment for ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, an important corollary in the treatment of ischemic disease. I/R injury is initiated when the altered biochemistry of cells after ischemia is no longer compatible with oxygenated microenvironment (or reperfusion). To better understand the molecular basis of this alteration and subsequent incompatibility, we assessed the temporal and quantitative alterations in the cardiac proteome of a mouse cardiac I/R model by an iTRAQ approach at 30 min of ischemia, and at 60 or 120 min reperfusion after the ischemia using sham-operated mouse heart as the baseline control. Of the 509 quantified proteins identified, 121 proteins exhibited significant changes (p-value<0.05) over time and were mostly clustered in eight functional groups: Fatty acid oxidation, Glycolysis, TCA cycle, ETC (electron transport chain), Redox Homeostasis, Glutathione S-transferase, Apoptosis related, and Heat Shock proteins. The first four groups are intimately involved in ATP production and the last four groups are known to be important in cellular antioxidant activity. During ischemia and reperfusion, the short supply of oxygen precipitates a pivotal metabolic switch from aerobic metabolism involving fatty acid oxidation, TCA, and phosphorylation to anaerobic metabolism for ATP production and this, in turn, increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Therefore the implication of these 8 functional groups suggested that ischemia-reperfusion injury is underpinned in part by proteomic alterations. Reversion of these alterations to preischemia levels took at least 60 min, suggesting a refractory period in which the ischemic cells cannot adjust to the presence of oxygen. Therefore, therapeutics that could compensate for these proteomic alterations during this interim refractory period could alleviate ischemia-reperfusion injury to enhance cellular recovery from an ischemic to a normoxic microenvironment. Among the perturbed proteins, Park7 and Ppia were selected for further investigation of their functions under hypoxia. The results show that Park7 plays a key role in regulating antioxidative stress and cell survival, and Ppia may function in coping with the unfolded protein stress in the I/R condition.
Available from: Zhengyuan Xia
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The early growth response-1 (Egr-1) gene is upregulated after an ischemia-reperfusion (IR) challenge and upregulates target genes, such as proinflammatory cytokines. Ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) attenuates lung IR injury and reduces the systemic inflammatory response by activating heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). However, the role of Egr-1 in IPostC protection against lung IR injury and inflammation and its interplay with HO-1 in IPostC protection is unknown.
Materials and methods:
Sprague-Dawley rats or cultured A549 cells were subjected to IR or hypoxia/reoxygenation with or without IPostC or hypoxic postconditioning in the presence or absence of Egr-1 inhibition using Egr-1 antisense oligodeoxyrinonucleotide or Egr-1 small interfering RNA transfection. Lung injury was assessed by measuring the lung wet/dry weight ratio, histologic change, and malondialdehyde content. The amount of lactate dehydrogenase release in culture medium was detected to evaluate cell injury. The protein expression of Egr-1, interleukin (IL)-1β, and HO-1 was assessed by Western blot.
Inhibition of Egr-1 significantly attenuated lung IR injury and the inflammation response caused by IR or hypoxia/reoxygenation, as shown by the alleviated lung pathologic changes, decreased pulmonary malondialdehyde content, wet/dry ratio, reduced release of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and IL-8 in the bronchoalveolar lavage, and reduced Egr-1, IL-1β, and HO-1 protein expression and HO-1 activity. IPostC or hypoxic postconditioning reduced the postischemic Egr-1 expression and conferred similar protection against lung IR injury as Egr-1 inhibition.
Egr-1 plays an important role in regulating the HO-1 production induced by IR or hypoxia/reoxygenation. Thus, downregulation of Egr-1 expression might represent one of the major mechanisms whereby IPostC confers protection against pulmonary IR insult.
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