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Abstract and Figures

The effects of a swimming-based recovery session implemented 10 h post high intensity interval running on subsequent run performance the next day was investigated. Nine well trained triathletes performed two high intensity interval running sessions (HIIS) (8x3 min at 85-90% VO(2peak) velocity), followed 10 h later by either a swim recovery session (SRS) (20x100 m at 90% of 1 km time trial speed), or a passive recovery session (PRS). Subsequently, a time to fatigue run (TTF) was completed 24 h post-HIIS. Venous blood samples were taken pre-HIIS and pre-TTF to determine the levels of circulating C-Reactive Protein (CRP). Subjects were also asked to rate their perceived recovery prior to commencing the TTF run. The SRS resulted in a significantly longer (830+/-198 s) TTF as compared to PRS (728+/-183 s) ( P=0.005). There was also a significant percentage change from baseline in the CRP levels 24 h post-HIIS (SRS=-23%, PRS=+/-5%, P=0.007). There were no significant differences in perceived recovery between two conditions ( P=0.40) . The findings of the present study showed that a swimming-based recovery session enhanced following day exercise performance, possibly due to the hydrostatic properties of water and its associated influence on inflammation.
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Training & Testing26
Lum D et al. Swim Recovery and Run Performance Int J Sports Med 2010; 31: 26 30
accepted after revision
August 13, 2009
Bibliography
DOI http://dx.doi.org/
10.1055/s-0029-1239498
Published online:
November 11, 2009
Int J Sports Med 2010; 31:
26 – 30 © Georg Thieme
Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York
ISSN 0172-4622
Correspondence
Dr. P. Peeling
The University of Western
Australia, School of Sport
Science, Exercise and Health
35 Stirling Hwy
6009 Crawley
Australia
Tel.: + 61 8 6488 1383
Fax: + 61 8 6488 1039
ppeeling@wais.org.au
Key words
post-exercise
hydrostatic pressure
i n ammation
E ects of a Recovery Swim on Subsequent Running
Performance
Recently, water-based activities have become a
predominant method of post-exercise recovery
in team and endurance sports [5, 7, 14] . To date, it
has been shown that using active water-based
recovery removes BLa at a higher rate than walk-
ing [12] , can speed up the recovery process for
muscle strength and soreness [11] , and decreases
post-exercise psychological stress [13] . However,
in each of these studies, the water-based recov-
ery methods were implemented immediately
post-exercise, and only Siebers and McMurray
[12] measured subsequent exercise performance,
showing no bene cial e ect. Therefore, the a ect
of water-based activity as a recovery strategy on
subsequent exercise performance is still rela-
tively unknown.
With this in mind, it was the purpose of this
investigation to assess the e ect of implementing
an active water-based recovery session as a sub-
stitute for a second daily training session (i. e.
10 h later) on recovery and subsequent running
performance the following day.
Introduction
&
Light aerobic activity is a common recovery tech-
nique used after exercise, and is known to assist
in the reduction of some acute phase proteins
[3, 6] . Despite such bene cial e ects, the appro-
priate time duration between recovery exercise
and subsequent performance is not well
researched; with con icting outcomes reported
in the literature. Co ey et al. [4] showed that sub-
sequent running performance was not improved
when light aerobic running was used as a recov-
ery strategy; however, Lane and Wenger [10]
showed that subsequent cycling performance
was improved when light aerobic cycling was
used as a recovery method between cycling per-
formances. For both studies, the recovery meth-
ods were implemented immediately post-exercise,
and the time between the recovery and subse-
quent exercise performance was 4 h and 24 h,
respectively [4, 10] . Therefore, di erence in the
results of both studies might be due to the time
interval between the recovery intervention and
subsequent exercise, or the mode of exercise
chosen.
Authors D. Lum
1
, G. Landers
1 , P. Peeling
1,2
A liation 1 The University of Western Australia, School of Sport Science, Exercise and Health, Crawley, Australia
2 Western Australian Institute of Sport, Mt. Claremont, Australia
Abstract
&
The e ects of a swimming-based recovery ses-
sion implemented 10 h post high intensity inter-
val running on subsequent run performance the
next day was investigated. Nine well trained
triathletes performed two high intensity inter-
val running sessions (HIIS) (8 × 3 min at 85 – 90 %
VO
2peak velocity), followed 10 h later by either a
swim recovery session (SRS) (20 × 100 m at 90 %
of 1 km time trial speed), or a passive recovery
session (PRS). Subsequently, a time to fatigue
run (TTF) was completed 24 h post-HIIS. Venous
blood samples were taken pre-HIIS and pre-TTF
to determine the levels of circulating C-Reactive
Protein (CRP). Subjects were also asked to rate
their perceived recovery prior to commencing
the TTF run. The SRS resulted in a signi cantly
longer (830 ± 198 s) TTF as compared to PRS
(728 ± 183 s) ( p = 0.005). There was also a sig-
ni cant percentage change from baseline in the
CRP levels 24 h post-HIIS (SRS = 23 % , PRS = ± 5 % ,
p = 0.007). There were no signi cant di erences
in perceived recovery between two conditions
( p = 0.40) . The ndings of the present study
showed that a swimming-based recovery ses-
sion enhanced following day exercise perform-
ance, possibly due to the hydrostatic properties
of water and its associated in uence on in am-
mation.
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Training & Testing 27
Lum D et al. Swim Recovery and Run Performance Int J Sports Med 2010; 31: 26 30
Methods
&
Subjects
Nine well-trained triathletes were recruited for participation in
this study (
Table 1 ). Subjects were briefed on the purpose,
requirements and risks involved with participation, and signed a
written informed consent prior to commencement. Ethical
approval for this study was granted by the Human Ethics Com-
mittee of The University of Western Australia.
Experimental design
During this investigation, each participant underwent two pre-
liminary testing sessions and two experimental trials. The
experimental trials were completed in a randomised counter-
balanced order. Prior to commencement of each testing session,
participants were requested to refrain from consuming alcohol
and ca eine, and from participating in any intensive training
sessions for a 24 h period.
Preliminary testing sessions
The two preliminary testing sessions included (1) a graded exer-
cise test (GXT) for the determination of peak oxygen consump-
tion (VO
2peak ), lactate threshold and peak running velocity; and
(2) a 1 km swimming time trial (STT). These two preliminary
testing sessions were separated by a minimum of 24 h.
Graded exercise test
The GXT was the rst testing session for all participants, and was
conducted on a motorised treadmill (Nury Tec VR3000, Ger-
many). All sessions were conducted at 0600. The GXT occurred
in a step-like fashion, utilising 3 min exercise and 1 min rest
periods. The treadmill was set to 1 % grade to simulate outside
conditions [8] . An initial speed of 12 km / h was used, with subse-
quent increases of 1 km / h over each step until volitional exhaus-
tion. During the GXT, capillary blood samples were collected
from the earlobe to assess BLa during the 1 min period between
each stage. The GXT was used to determine VO
2peak , lactate
threshold (LT) and peak running speed. The LT was determined
using the modi ed D
max method which involves calculating the
point that yields the maximal perpendicular distance from a
curve representing work and lactate variables, to the line formed
by the two end points of the curve [1] .
Swim time trial
Prior to the STT, participants were asked to complete a 500 m
warm-up swim (2 × [200 m freestyle and 50 m backstroke]) at a
self-paced intensity, followed by a 5 min period of stretching.
Subsequently, participants completed a 1 km swimming trial in
the shortest time possible using the freestyle swim stroke and
push start. All swimming trials were conducted in a 13 lane,
25 m pool, heated to 26 ° C.
Experimental trials
Each of the two experimental trials were conducted over a two
day period, and included the following:
Day One
High Intensity Interval Session (HIIS) . Participants were asked
to arrive at the physiology laboratory at 0600. Upon arrival, a
venous blood sample was taken from the forearm, after a seated
rest period of 15 min to control for postural changes. Participants
were then required to warm up on the treadmill for 5 min at 60 %
of the VO
2peak velocity, followed by a 5 min period of stretching.
Next, the HIIS was commenced which consisted of 8 repetitions
of a 3 min running interval at 90 % of the VO
2peak velocity, with
1 min rest between each repetition. Capillary blood samples
were taken from the earlobe pre-HIIS and upon completion of
the 4
th and 8
th repetition. Participants were also required to rate
their perceived exertion using the Borg Rating of Perceived Exer-
tion scale (RPE) at the end of the 8
th repetition [2] . Participants
then cooled down by running at 60 % of the VO
2peak velocity for
5 min.
Recovery session . Participants were asked to return to the
laboratory at 1 700 on the same day (10 h later). Upon arrival,
participants were asked to rate their perceived level of recovery
using the Total Quality Recovery perceived scale (TQRper) [9] .
Following this, participants were randomly assigned and crossed
over to complete either the Swim Recovery Session (SRS) or the
Passive Recovery Session (PRS). During the SRS, participants
were required to complete 4 sets of 5 × 100 m freestyle at 85
90 % of the participants ’ 1 km time trial speed (e. g. 1 km STT in
15 min = 5 × 100 m split time of 1 min 40 s). The work to rest ratio
for each repetition was 3:1, and participants were given 2 min
rest in between sets, allowing them to stretch. At the conclusion
of the nal set in the SRS a capillary blood sample was taken
from the earlobe for the measurement of BLa concentration.
During the PRS, participants were required to sit in the labora-
tory watching TV for 45 60 min in accordance with the duration
required for each individual to complete the SRS.
Day Two
Time To Fatigue (TTF) . On the following day, participants were
asked to return to the laboratory at 0600 where they were seated
for 15 min before a venous blood sample was taken from the
forearm and a rating of perceived recovery using the TQRper was
given. Participants then warmed up on the treadmill for 5 min at
60 % VO 2peak velocity, followed by a 5 min period of stretching.
Next, participants completed a TTF running trial on the tread-
mill at 90 % VO 2peak velocity. Timing for the TTF began when par-
ticipants released their grip from the treadmill railings, and
timing stopped when they pressed the emergency stop button.
Participants were required to give an RPE upon completion of
the run, and a capillary blood sample was taken from the ear
lobe for determination of blood lactate concentration. Following
this, participants cooled down by running at 60 % VO
2peak veloc-
ity for 5 min.
Experimental procedures
Gas analysis
Concentrations of O
2 and CO
2 in expired air were analysed con-
tinuously during the GXT (Ametek Gas Analysers, Applied Elec-
tochemistry, SOV S-3A / 1 and COV CD-3A, Pittsburgh, PA).
Age
(yr)
Height
(cm)
Mass
(kg)
VO
2max
(ml · kg
1 · min
1 )
VO
2max Velocity
(km · h
1 )
1 km Swim Time
(sec)
2 3
(4)
176.1
(7.6)
70.2
(11.9)
72.3
(5.8)
17.8
(0.9)
1 015.8
(174.2)
Table 1 Mean ( ± SD) Subject characteristics,
aerobic capacity (VO
2max ) and swim time trial (STT)
performance.
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Training & Testing28
Lum D et al. Swim Recovery and Run Performance Int J Sports Med 2010; 31: 26 30
Calibration of gas analysers occurred before and after each test-
ing session using gases of known concentrations (BOC Gases,
Chatswood, Australia). Ventilation was recorded at 15 s intervals
via a turbine ventilometer (Morgan, 225 A, Kent, England), which
was calibrated before and after exercise using a 1 L syringe in
accordance with the manufacturer s speci cations. The sum of
the four highest consecutive 15 s values during the GXT was
used to determine each participant s VO
2peak .
Blood sampling / analysis
Capillary blood . Arterialised capillary blood samples were
taken from the ngertip during the testing sessions using a 35 μ L
heparinised glass capillary tube. An alcohol swab was used to
wipe the collection site and the initial drop of blood was dis-
carded. Capillary blood samples were measured immediately
following collection for blood lactate levels, using a blood-gas
analyser (ABL 625, Radiometer Medical A / S, Copenhagen, Den-
mark)
Venous blood . Venous blood was drawn from the antecubital
vein of the forearm via phlebotomy. Prior to collection partici-
pants were seated for 15 min to avoid postural e ects on blood
sampling. The venous blood samples were collected in 8.5 ml.
serum separator collection tubes (STII Advance, BD Vacutainer,
UK) for the measurement of serum C-Reactive Protein (CRP) con-
centration. The blood samples were spun for 10 min at 3 000 rpm
and stored at 80 ° C until further analysis. The samples were
analysed for C-Reactive Protein levels at the Fremantle Hospital
Pathology Centre. Blood samples were collected before the HIIS
and again 24 h later before the TTF during each experimental
trial.
C-Reactive protein analysis . The CRP was measured using a
Roche Integra 800 analyser (Roche Diagnostics, Australia) and a
particle enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay kit. Absorbance
was measured at 552 nM · The analytical CV for CRP determina-
tion at 14.85 and 27.15 mg · L 1 was 1.76 % and 2.19 % , respec-
tively.
Heart Rate Analysis . A Polar Heart Rate Monitor (Polar Electro,
Finland) was used to record the HR of the participants through-
out all testing sessions. During the GXT, HR was recorded before
testing began and at the completion of each 3 min work period.
Heart rate during the HIIS was recorded at the start and end of
each 3 min work period. As for the swim recovery, HR was
recorded at the end of each set of 5 × 100 m. Finally, the passive
recovery HR was recorded every 12 14 min in accordance with
the HR timing of the respective swim in the SRS.
Perceptual scales . Participants were required to rate their per-
ceived level of recovery using the TQRper [9] and their level of
exertion using the RPE scale [2] . Ratings obtained were used as
an indication of how the recovery methods a ected the psycho-
logical well-being of the participants.
Statistical analysis
All results are expressed as mean and standard deviation
(mean ± SD). A repeated measures ANOVA for time and trial
e ects was used to determine the in uence of swimming as a
recovery method on the blood parameters gathered, and on the
subsequent running performance. Pairwise comparisons were
made where appropriate in the event of a main e ect, with Fish-
er s LSD applied. The alpha level was set at p < 0.05.
Results
&
High Intensity Interval Session (HIIS)
Table 2 shows the results for running velocity, BLa and HR
during the HIIS. The BLa levels were signi cantly greater than
the HIIS
pre after the 4
th and 8 th 3 min repetitions in both the SRS
and PRS conditions ( p = 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). There
were no signi cant between group di erences (SRS vs. PRS) for
BLa levels at HIIS
pre , or after the 4
th and 8
th 3 min repetition
( p = 0.76, p = 0.75 and p = 0.70, respectively).
Recovery sessions 10 h post-exercise
The BLa levels recorded at the conclusion of the SRS were 2.6.
( ± 0.9) mmol · L 1 . There was no signi cant di erence for the
measurements of TQRper between SRS
post and the PRS
post
( p = 0.40).
Time to Fatigue Session (TTF)
Fig. 1 illustrates the time di erence for the TTF test between
the SRS and PRS conditions. Subjects ran for an average of 102 s
longer ( p = 0.005) after the SRS when compared to the PRS recov-
ery. Despite the signi cantly longer run time in the SRS, there
were no signi cant di erences between trials in the levels of BLa
(SRS: 10.2 ± 1.9 mmol · L 1 , PRS: 10.8 ± 2.6 mmol · L 1 , p = 0.20) or
HR (SRS: 188 ± 7 bpm, PRS: 187 ± 7 bpm, p = 0.40).
C-Reactive Protein(CRP)
Fig. 2 shows the percentage change from baseline for levels of
CRP between the SRS and PRS recovery trials. The SRS showed
signi cantly lower levels of CRP 24 h after the HIIS ( p = 0.007),
whereas the PRS showed slightly elevated levels.
Discussion
&
The aim of the present study was to investigate the e ects of
swimming as a recovery modality, implemented 10 h post high
intensity interval running on subsequent run performance the
following day. The major nding of this study was that a swim-
ming-based recovery session resulted in a signi cantly longer
TTF run time, and a signi cant reduction in CRP levels 24 h after
the interval running session. These results suggest that a swim-
Table 2 Mean ( ± SD) Running
velocity, blood lactate (BLa) and
average heart rate (HR)
measurements for HIIS before
(pre) and af3ter the 4
th (4) and
8
th (8) repetition.
Speed
(km · h
1 )
BLa (Pre)
(mmol · L
1 )
BLa (4)
(mmol · L
1 )
BLa (8)
(mmol · L
1 )
HR
(bpm)
SRS 16.0
(0.8)
1.9
(0.6)
8.0 *
(1.6)
9.4 *
(2.2)
187
(9)
PRS 16.0
(0.8)
1.9
(0.6)
7.8 #
(1.6)
9.2 #
(2.0)
186
(10)
* Denotes signi cant di erence from (SRS
pre ) ( p < 0.01)
# Denotes signi cant di erence from (PRS
pre ) ( p < 0.01)
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Training & Testing 29
Lum D et al. Swim Recovery and Run Performance Int J Sports Med 2010; 31: 26 30
ming-based recovery session produced a more positive recovery
e ect than the passive rest alone.
Several studies have investigated the e ects of water-based
activity as a post-exercise recovery method, showing that such
strategies help to speed up the removal of BLa, assist in the
recovery of muscle soreness, and enhance the psychological
well-being of an athlete [11 13] . Despite these positive out-
comes, no improvement in subsequent exercise performance
was seen when the second exercise bout was implemented
immediately post-recovery [12] . In the present investigation
however, the swimming-based recovery session was imple-
mented as a second daily training session (10 h later), represent-
ative of what might typically occur in an athlete s structured
training program. As such, the positive recovery outcomes seen
here provide evidence to suggest that coaches should factor in
recovery-based water sessions within an athlete s training pro-
gram in order to maintain a greater quality of subsequent train-
ing the following day.
Performance
The results of the TTF showed that with a swimming-based
recovery session, the athletes were able to run for a signi cantly
greater period of time (102 s) at 90 % VO 2peak velocity. These
results are consistent with that of Lane and Wenger [10] who
reported greater performance during a subsequent exercise bout
24 h after the initial session, when active recovery was used and
compared to passive recovery. However, these results are in con-
trast with those of Co ey et al., [4] who showed no performance
enhancement when subsequent exercise bouts were imple-
mented only 4 h after an active recovery session. This possibly
suggests that active recovery produces a positive e ect on exer-
cise performance when the initial and subsequent exercise bouts
are separated by a prolonged time period (i. e. 10 24 h). Addi-
tionally, the active recovery in the present study, and in that of
Lane and Wenger [10] utilised non weight bearing activity
(swimming and cycling, respectively), while Co ey et al., [4] uti-
lised running as the recovery modality. As such, it is possible
that coaches implementing post-exercise recovery sessions into
an athlete s training program may wish to consider non-weight
bearing alternatives in order to reduce the cumulative training
stresses that occur from continued weight bearing activity.
In ammatory response
Although there was a signi cant improvement in TTF perform-
ance as a result of the swimming-based recovery, the present
ndings showed no signi cant between condition di erences in
BLa accumulation or HR at the end of the TTF, indicating that the
subjects terminated this trial at a similar level of physiological
stress. However, when considering the response of the acute-
phase in ammatory proteins, it was evident that there was a
23 % decrease in level of circulating CRP in the SRS condition and
a 5 % increase in the PRS trial. It is possible that the hydrostatic
e ect of water pressure incurred during swimming may in part
explain this reduced in ammatory response, since a positive
increase in pressure gradient can reduce the severity of exer-
cise-induced oedema and the in ltration of leukocytes and
monocytes into the cell, resulting in reduced levels of in amma-
tory cells / muscle enzymes in the blood [15] . As such, it is likely
that the positive hydrostatic e ects of a swimming-based recov-
ery session may act to reduce the in ammatory response, allow-
ing a greater performance outcome the following day.
Perceptual ratings of athlete recovery
In the current investigation, there were no signi cant di erences
for TQRper ratings between the two recovery conditions, indi-
cating that there was no di erence in the subjects perception of
recovery regardless of the method implemented. This nding is
inconsistent with that of Suzuki et al. [13] who showed a signi -
cant di erence in psychological measures post-recovery (aquatic
exercise vs. complete rest). In their study, the aquatic exercise
group produced a more positive psychological rating (Pro le of
Mood State) as compared to that complete rest group. The di er-
ence in ndings between the current investigation and Suzuki
et al. [13] may be attributed to the di erent method of measur-
ing the psychological e ect of the recovery methods. However, it
should be noted that to date there is very limited and consistent
inventory measures that reliably suggest the perceptual recov-
ery of an athlete. As such, future investigations should aim to
standardise the inventories used in the assessment of perceptual
athlete recovery.
Conclusion
&
In summary, the results of the present study showed a swim-
ming-based recovery session, implemented 10 h after the com-
pletion of a high intensity running session, resulted in a
1200
Time (s)
1000
800
600
400
200
0
SRS PRS
*
Fig. 1 Mean ( ± SD) time to fatigue run (TTF) time for the swim
recovery session (SRS: 830 ± 198 s) and the passive recovery session
(PRS: 728 ± 183 s). * Denotes signi cant di erence for TTF time between
recovery conditions ( p < 0.01).
10
5
0
-5
-10
% Change
-15
-20
-25
-30
SRS
*
PRS
Fig. 2 Percentage change for levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP)
pre- and post-high intensity interval training session (HIIS) in the swim
recovery session (SRS: 23 ± 0.7 % ) and the passive recovery session
(PRS: + 5 ± 2.6 % ). * Denotes signi cant di erence from PRS (p < 0.01).
Downloaded by: National Sport Information Centre. Copyrighted material.
Training & Testing30
Lum D et al. Swim Recovery and Run Performance Int J Sports Med 2010; 31: 26 30
signi cantly greater performance on a TTF test the following
day. It was noticed that that the levels of CRP were signi cantly
decreased as a result of the swimming-based recovery session,
suggesting a reduced in ammatory response, indicating a posi-
tive e ect of the water s hydrostatic pressure. The results of this
investigation provide evidence to promote the implementation
of water-based recovery sessions as a second daily training ses-
sion into an athlete s program, in order to allow better quality
training in sessions to be completed on subsequent days.
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... This is an important issue for athletes involved in events that require exercise to be performed over a couple of days. Furthermore, only one study is known to the authors that examined the effects of a delayed recovery intervention following exercise on subsequent exercise performed 24 h after the initial exercise session (Lum et al., 2009). These investigators reported benefit of next day exhaustive exercise performance associated with a swimming based recovery period (compared to a passive control) that was performed 10 h following an initial high intensity exercise session. ...
... Of importance, this current study also demonstrated that delayed (3 h) CWI may have provided a benefit to next day exercise performance compared to a control trial. These results are consistent with Lum et al. (2009) , who required participants to perform a high intensity interval exercise session, which was followed 10 h later by either a swimming-based recovery session or a passive recovery session, with a time to fatigue run performed 24 h later. Results showed that the swimming recovery session resulted in a significantly longer time to fatigue in next day exercise performance (830 ± 198 s vs 728 ± 183 s, p = 0.005). ...
... Results showed that the swimming recovery session resulted in a significantly longer time to fatigue in next day exercise performance (830 ± 198 s vs 728 ± 183 s, p = 0.005). Benefits associated with subsequent exercise performance following the swim recovery session were proposed to be a result of the hydrostatic pressure of water that resulted in a decreased inflammatory response, as determined by a significant reduction in circulating CRP levels measured 24 h following the initial exercise session (Lum et al., 2009). According to Wilcock et al. (2006), hydrostatic pressure can reduce the severity of exercise-induced oedema, as well as the infiltration of monocytes and leukocytes into the cell, resulting in reduced levels of inflammatory cells/muscle enzymes into the blood. ...
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... The physiological effects of cold water immersion have been studied. The hydrostatic pressure of the water may result in both muscular and vascular compression, which may decrease inflammatory responses as shown by a reduction in C-reactive protein level 24 hours after high-intensity exercise in normal people who undergo a 10-hour delay immersion in cold water (Goodall & Howatson, 2008;Lum, Landers, & Peeling, 2010;Williams, Landers, & Wallmen, 2011). In addition, cold water immersion is proposed to reduce inflammation by evoking vasoconstriction and decreasing peripheral blood flow (Wilcock, 2005). ...
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The purpose of this research is to compare the effects of passive recovery and delayed cold water immersion one and three hours after high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) on exercise performance and muscle soreness on the subse- quent day. Eleven male basketball players participated in the study. They followed the recovery methods after high-in- tensity intermittent exercise, including 15 minutes cold water (15 o C) immersion one hour (CWI1) and three hours (CWI3) after HIIE and passive recovery (CON) in a randomized order on a weekly basis. The protocol for HIIE included progres- sive speed 20-metre shuttle sprint interrupted with repetitive jumping in order to induce fatigue. Twenty-four hours after HIIE, a 20-metre shuttle sprint and maximal vertical jump test were conducted to evaluate the effect of each recovery method. Maximal vertical jump height after one and three hours did not differ significantly compared to pre- test values. However, the maximal vertical jump height in the control group was significantly lower than their pre-test value. Also, 24 hours after HIIE, perceived muscle soreness in CWI1 and CWI3 groups was significantly lower than that of the control group. The total distance of the shuttle run did not differ depending on the recovery method used. Cold water immersions one and three hours after HIIE affected maximal vertical jump height and athletes’ perception of pain. However, there were no significant differences in exercise performance between the cold water immersion at one and three hours after HIIE, which might be due to similar physiological responses during both immersion trials.
... The recovery session was performed as part of a routine session in the team of players after soccer match-play. Previous literature (8,16,26) has indicated that active recovery sessions in the water could promote the recovery rate in blood lactate and C-reactive protein. Therefore, the recovery session of this study may facilitate the recovery rate in neuromuscular performance and subjective recovery and stress state at Post38. ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate acute effects of match-play on neuromuscular performance and subjective recovery and stress state and the relationship between training load (TL) and changes in neuromuscular performance in female soccer players. Twelve National Collegiate Athlete Association Division I players participated (20.7 ± 2.3 years; 64.4 ± 7.2 kg; 164.5 ± 6.0 cm) and completed countermovement jump (CMJ) at 0 kg (CMJ0) and 20 kg (CMJ20) and the Short Recovery Stress Scale (SRSS) at 3 hours pre-match (Pre), 12 hours post-match (Post12), and 38 hours post-match (Post38). Countermovement jump variables included body mass, jump height (JH), modified reactive strength index (RSI), peak force (PF), relative PF, eccentric impulse, concentric impulse (CI), peak power (PP), relative PP (RPP), eccentric average PP, and concentric average power (CAP). The SRSS consists of 4 Stress Scales (SSs) and 4 Recovery Scales (RSs). Training loads included total distance, total PlayerLoad, high-speed running, and session ratings of perceived exertion. Significant moderate to large decreases were observed from Pre to Post12 in JH, RSI, CI, PP, RPP, and CAP in CMJ0 and CMJ20 (p < 0.05, effect size [ES] = 0.63-1.35). Significant changes were observed from Pre to Post12 in all RSs (p < 0.05, ES = 0.65-0.79) and 3 SSs (p < 0.05, ES = 0.71-0.77). Significant correlations were observed between CMJ20 PP from Pre to Post12 and all TLs (p < 0.05, r = -0.58 to -0.68). CMJ0 and CMJ20 JH and PP may indicate acute neuromuscular changes after match-play. The magnitude of CMJ20 PP decrements from Pre to Post12 may be affected by soccer match-play volumes.
... Recovery techniques seek to alleviate the effects of fatigue to enhance performance (6). Popular recovery methods used by runners to alleviate the deleterious effects of fatigue include compression garments (41), active recovery (29), hydrotherapy (45), and stretching (1). Yet, 2 of the most widespread recovery interventions are massage and cold water immersion (CWI). ...
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Duñabeitia, I, Arrieta, H, Rodriguez-Larrad, A, Gil, J, Esain, I, Gil, SM, Irazusta, J, and Bidaurrazaga-Letona, I. Effects of massage and cold water immersion after an exhaustive run on running economy and biomechanics: A randomized controlled trial. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-This study compares the effects of 2 common recovery interventions performed shortly after an exhausting interval running session on running economy (RE) and biomechanics. Forty-eight well-trained male runners performed an exhaustive interval running protocol and an incremental treadmill test 24 hours later at 3 speeds: 12, 14, and 16 km·h. Subjects randomly received either massage, cold water immersion (CWI), or passive rest (control). Runners repeated the treadmill test 48 hours after the first test. A two-way mixed analysis of variance was performed comparing groups and testing times. The massage group had significantly better recovery than the control group at 14 km·h in RE (p < 0.05; η = 0.176) and greater stride height and angle changes at 16 km·h (p < 0.05; η = 0.166 and p < 0.05; η = 0.208, respectively). No differences were observed between the CWI and control groups. The massage group had greater stride height and angle changes at 16 km·h than the CWI group (p < 0.05; η = 0.139 and p < 0.05; η = 0.168, respectively). Moreover, differences in magnitude suggested moderate effects on RE (η = 0.076) and swing time (η = 0.110). These results suggest that massage intervention promotes faster recovery of RE and running biomechanics than CWI or passive rest.
... As such, interventions to reduce fatigue and/or enhance recovery speed are becoming increasingly important to athletes, coaches and physical trainers. Some of the most common recuperation techniques used for this purpose include hydrotherapy (Wilcock, Cronin, & Hing, 2006), active recovery (Lum, Landers, & Peeling, 2010), stretching (Dawson, Cow, Modra, Bishop, & Stewart, 2005), compression garments and sleeves (Duffield, Cannon, & King, 2010) and massage (Lane & Wenger, 2004). However, the scientific literature on the benefits of these therapies in athletes after exercise has produced results that are at best equivocal. ...
Article
Objectives: This study compared the effects of a capacitive-resistive electric transfer therapy (Tecar) and passive rest on physiological and biomechanical parameters in recreational runners when performed shortly after an exhausting training session. Design: Randomized controlled crossover trial. Setting: University biomechanical research laboratory. Participants: Fourteen trained male runners Main outcome measures: Physiological (running economy, oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio, ventilation, heart rate, blood lactate concentration) and biomechanical (step length; stride angle, height, frequency, and contact time; swing time; contact phase; support phase; push-off phase) parameters were measured during two incremental treadmill running tests performed two days apart after an exhaustive training session. Results: When running at 14 km/h and 16 km/h, the Tecar treatment group presented greater increases in stride length (p < 0.001), angle (p < 0.05) and height (p < 0.001) between the first and second tests than the control group and, accordingly, greater decreases in stride frequency (p < 0.05). Physiological parameters were similar between groups. Conclusions: The present study suggests that a Tecar therapy intervention enhances biomechanical parameters in recreational runners after an exhaustive training session more than passive rest, generating a more efficient running pattern without affecting selected physiological parameters.
... Hydration, nutrition and sleep have been reported in the literature as important components of the recovery process [4,5]. Although used often, further research is required to confirm the effectiveness of STR, active recovery, cold water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT) due to conflicting results reported across randomised controlled trials [6][7][8] and systematic reviews [1,[9][10][11]. ...
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BackgroundA variety of recovery strategies are used by athletes, although there is currently no research that investigates perceptions and usage of recovery by different competition levels of team sport athletes. Methods The recovery techniques used by team sport athletes of different competition levels was investigated by survey. Specifically this study investigated if, when, why and how the following recovery strategies were used: active land-based recovery (ALB), active water-based recovery (AWB), stretching (STR), cold water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT). ResultsThree hundred and thirty-one athletes were surveyed. Fifty-seven percent were found to utilise one or more recovery strategies. Stretching was rated the most effective recovery strategy (4.4/5) with ALB considered the least effective by its users (3.6/5). The water immersion strategies were considered effective/ineffective mainly due to psychological reasons; in contrast STR and ALB were considered to be effective/ineffective mainly due to physical reasons. Conclusions This study demonstrates that athletes may not be aware of the specific effects that a recovery strategy has upon their physical recovery and thus athlete and coach recovery education is encouraged. This study also provides new information on the prevalence of different recovery strategies and contextual information that may be useful to inform best practice among coaches and athletes.
... Tables 4, 6, 7) to 72 h (Tables 5, 7), and are generally followed by an easy session the following day (i.e. rest or a swim session in triathlon ), which might accelerate post-HIT metabolic and neuromuscular recovery [165]. In the case of team handball for example (Table 7), while 2 'recovery' days are scheduled following HIT with long intervals, there is only 1 day of recovery after HIT with short intervals (expected to be less 'lactic', see Sect. ...
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High-intensity interval training (HIT) is a well-known, time-efficient training method for improving cardiorespiratory and metabolic function and, in turn, physical performance in athletes. HIT involves repeated short (<45 s) to long (2-4 min) bouts of rather high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods (refer to the previously published first part of this review). While athletes have used 'classical' HIT formats for nearly a century (e.g. repetitions of 30 s of exercise interspersed with 30 s of rest, or 2-4-min interval repetitions ran at high but still submaximal intensities), there is today a surge of research interest focused on examining the effects of short sprints and all-out efforts, both in the field and in the laboratory. Prescription of HIT consists of the manipulation of at least nine variables (e.g. work interval intensity and duration, relief interval intensity and duration, exercise modality, number of repetitions, number of series, between-series recovery duration and intensity); any of which has a likely effect on the acute physiological response. Manipulating HIT appropriately is important, not only with respect to the expected middle- to long-term physiological and performance adaptations, but also to maximize daily and/or weekly training periodization. Cardiopulmonary responses are typically the first variables to consider when programming HIT (refer to Part I). However, anaerobic glycolytic energy contribution and neuromuscular load should also be considered to maximize the training outcome. Contrasting HIT formats that elicit similar (and maximal) cardiorespiratory responses have been associated with distinctly different anaerobic energy contributions. The high locomotor speed/power requirements of HIT (i.e. ≥95 % of the minimal velocity/power that elicits maximal oxygen uptake [v/p[Formula: see text]O2max] to 100 % of maximal sprinting speed or power) and the accumulation of high-training volumes at high-exercise intensity (runners can cover up to 6-8 km at v[Formula: see text]O2max per session) can cause significant strain on the neuromuscular/musculoskeletal system. For athletes training twice a day, and/or in team sport players training a number of metabolic and neuromuscular systems within a weekly microcycle, this added physiological strain should be considered in light of the other physical and technical/tactical sessions, so as to avoid overload and optimize adaptation (i.e. maximize a given training stimulus and minimize musculoskeletal pain and/or injury risk). In this part of the review, the different aspects of HIT programming are discussed, from work/relief interval manipulation to HIT periodization, using different examples of training cycles from different sports, with continued reference to the cardiorespiratory adaptations outlined in Part I, as well as to anaerobic glycolytic contribution and neuromuscular/musculoskeletal load.
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