Viral pathogens associated with acute respiratory infections in Central Vietnamese children

Department of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (Impact Factor: 2.72). 11/2009; 29(1):75-7. DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181af61e9
Source: PubMed


Hospitalized Vietnamese children with acute respiratory infection were investigated for 13 viral pathogens using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction. We enrolled 958 children of whom 659 (69%) had documented viral infection: rhinovirus (28%), respiratory syncytial virus (23%), influenza virus (15%), adenovirus (5%), human metapneumo virus (4.5%), parainfluenza virus (5%), and bocavirus (2%). These Vietnamese children had a range of respiratory viruses which underscores the need for enhanced acute respiratory infection surveillance in tropical developing countries.

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    • "The sputum samples were tested by multiplex PCR, which is a conventional PCR with mixing three sets of pathogen specific primers to identify three typical pathogenic bacteria: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Viral nucleic acid was extracted from VTM using the QIAamp viral RNA extraction kit and tested for 13 previously described respiratory viruses: influenza A/B (FLUA, FLUB), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Human adenovirus (HAdV), Human rhinovirus (HRV), Human bocavirus (HBoV), Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) type 1–4, and Human coronavirus OC43/229E (HCoV) [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) including Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infectious disease that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The patterns of aetiological pathogens differ by region and country. Special attention must be paid to CAP in Southeast Asia (SEA), a region facing rapid demographic transition. Estimates burden and aetiological patterns of CAP are essential for the clinical and public health management. The purposes of the study are to determine the incidence, aetiological pathogens, clinical pictures and risk factors of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the Vietnamese adult population. A prospective surveillance for hospitalised adult CAP was conducted in Khanh Hoa Province, Central Vietnam. All adults aged >=15 years with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) admitted to a provincial hospital from September 2009 to August 2010 were enrolled in the study. Patients were classified into CAP and non-pneumonic LRTI (NPLRTI) according to the radiological findings. Bacterial pathogens were identified from sputum samples by the conventional culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis; 13 respiratory viruses were identified from nasopharyngeal specimens by PCR. Of all 367 LRTI episodes examined, 174 (47%) were CAP. Older age, the presence of underlying respiratory conditions, and higher index score of smoking were associated with CAP. The one-year estimated incidence of hospitalised adult CAP in our study population was 0.81 per 1,000 person years. The incidence increased considerably with age and was highest among the elderly. The case fatality proportion of hospitalised CAP patients was 9.8%. Among 286 sputum samples tested for bacterial PCR, 79 (28%) were positive for H. influenzae, and 65 (23%) were positive for S. pneumoniae. Among 357 samples tested for viral PCR, 73 (21%) were positive for respiratory viruses; influenza A (n = 32, 9%) was the most common. The current adult CAP incidence in Vietnam was relatively low; this result was mainly attributed to the young age of our study population.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · BMC Infectious Diseases
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    • "Tupasi et al. demonstrated that RSV was the most common viral cause among children admitted with acute lower respiratory infection in the Philippines [33]. This was consistent with our present study as well as with other recent studies in developing countries [35,36,45,47]. RSV can be classified into two major groups; however, their proportions may change during epidemics [48]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Pneumonia remains a leading cause of child death in developing countries. The viruses in severe pneumonia remain poorly defined. Methods The study was conducted at the Eastern Visayas Regional Medical Center in Tacloban City, Philippines from May 2008 to May 2009. Patients aged 8 days to 13 years old who were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics with severe pneumonia were enrolled for the study. Upon admission, polymerase chain reaction was performed using nasopharyngeal swabs and blood cultures to detect respiratory viruses and bacteria, respectively. Result Among the 819 patients enrolled, at least one virus was detected in 501 cases (61.2%). In addition, 423 cases were positive for a single virus while bacteria were detected in the blood culture sample of 31 cases. The most commonly detected viruses were human rhinoviruses (n = 189), including types A (n = 103), B (n = 17), and C (n = 69), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (n = 165). Novel viruses such as human metapneumovirus, human coronavirus NL63, human bocavirus, and human polyomaviruses WU and KI were also detected. There were 70 deaths, and one or more viruses were detected in 35 (50%) of these cases. Positivity only for influenza A virus (OR = 4.3, 95% CI = 1.3-14.6) was significantly associated with fatal outcome. From the blood culture, Burkholderia cepacia group (n = 9), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 4), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 4), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 1), and Salmonella C1 (n = 1) were also isolated. Conclusion Viruses were commonly detected in children with severe pneumonia in the Philippines. Hence, viral etiologies should be considered while developing better effective strategies to reduce child pneumonia-related deaths in developing countries.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · BMC Infectious Diseases
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    • "Most studies, including those in Asia, show that the most common causes of respiratory viral infections are RSV and rhinoviruses [3,22-24]. Our laboratory does not routinely detect rhinoviruses, but RSV was the most frequently detected respiratory virus, particularly in infants less than one year old. "
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    ABSTRACT: Viral respiratory tract infections (RTI) are relatively understudied in Southeast Asian tropical countries. In temperate countries, seasonal activity of respiratory viruses has been reported, particularly in association with temperature, while inconsistent correlation of respiratory viral activity with humidity and rain is found in tropical countries. A retrospective study was performed from 1982-2008 to investigate the viral etiology of children (≤ 5 years old) admitted with RTI in a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 10269 respiratory samples from all children ≤ 5 years old received at the hospital's diagnostic virology laboratory between 1982-2008 were included in the study. Immunofluorescence staining (for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A and B, parainfluenza types 1-3, and adenovirus) and virus isolation were performed. The yearly hospitalization rates and annual patterns of laboratory-confirmed viral RTIs were determined. Univariate ANOVA was used to analyse the demographic parameters of cases. Multiple regression and Spearman's rank correlation were used to analyse the correlation between RSV cases and meteorological parameters. A total of 2708 cases were laboratory-confirmed using immunofluorescence assays and viral cultures, with the most commonly detected being RSV (1913, 70.6%), parainfluenza viruses (357, 13.2%), influenza viruses (297, 11.0%), and adenovirus (141, 5.2%). Children infected with RSV were significantly younger, and children infected with influenza viruses were significantly older. The four main viruses caused disease throughout the year, with a seasonal peak observed for RSV in September-December. Monthly RSV cases were directly correlated with rain days, and inversely correlated with relative humidity and temperature. Viral RTIs, particularly due to RSV, are commonly detected in respiratory samples from hospitalized children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. As in temperate countries, RSV infection in tropical Malaysia also caused seasonal yearly epidemics, and this has implications for prophylaxis and vaccination programmes.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · BMC Pediatrics
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