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Abstract

To investigate the effects of heavy strength training on the mean power output in a 5-min all-out trial following 185 min of submaximal cycling at 44% of maximal aerobic power output in well-trained cyclists. Twenty well-trained cyclists were assigned to either usual endurance training combined with heavy strength training [E+S; n=11 (♂=11)] or to usual endurance training only [E; n=9 (♂=7, ♀=2)]. The strength training performed by E+S consisted of four lower body exercises [3 × 4-10 repetition maximum (RM)], which were performed twice a week for 12 weeks. E+S increased 1 RM in half-squat (P≤0.001), while no change occurred in E. E+S led to greater reductions than E in oxygen consumption, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and rate of perceived exertion (P<0.05) during the last hour of the prolonged cycling. Further, E+S increased the mean power output during the 5-min all-out trial (from 371 ± 9 to 400 ± 13 W, P<0.05), while no change occurred in E. In conclusion, adding strength training to usual endurance training improves leg strength and 5-min all-out performance following 185 min of cycling in well-trained cyclists.

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... One training technique for improving neuromuscular force production in athletes is strength training 11 . Research in road cyclists has shown that the potential neuromuscular adaptations from strength training can improve CE [12][13][14][15] 12,13,16,17 , anaerobic function (i.e. sprinting ability) [16][17][18] , time-trial performance 12,13,16,19 and fractional utilisation 20 . ...
... One training technique for improving neuromuscular force production in athletes is strength training 11 . Research in road cyclists has shown that the potential neuromuscular adaptations from strength training can improve CE [12][13][14][15] 12,13,16,17 , anaerobic function (i.e. sprinting ability) [16][17][18] , time-trial performance 12,13,16,19 and fractional utilisation 20 . ...
... Research in road cyclists has shown that the potential neuromuscular adaptations from strength training can improve CE [12][13][14][15] 12,13,16,17 , anaerobic function (i.e. sprinting ability) [16][17][18] , time-trial performance 12,13,16,19 and fractional utilisation 20 . However, most of the previous research in cycling has implemented interventions that have lacked scientific support regarding the optimisation of maximal-and explosive-strength development in athletes. ...
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Cycling economy (CE), power at maximal oxygen uptake (WV̇O2max) and anaerobic function (i.e. sprinting ability) are considered to be the best physiological performance indicators in elite road cyclists. In addition to cardiovascular function, these physiological indicators are partly dictated by neuromuscular factors. One technique to improve neuromuscular function in athletes is through strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 20 week maximal- and explosive-strength training intervention on strength (maximal- , explosive-strength & bike-specific explosive-strength), WV̇O2max, CE and body composition (body mass, fat & lean mass) in cyclists. Fifteen competitive road cyclists were divided into an intervention group (endurance training AND strength training: n = 6; 38.0 ± 10.2 years; 69.1 ± 3.6 kg; 1.77 ± 0.04 m) and a control group (endurance training ONLY: n = 9; 34.8 ± 8.5 years; 72.5 ± 7.2 kg; 1.78 ± 0.05 m). The intervention group strength trained for twenty weeks. Each participant completed three assessments: physiology (CE, WV̇O2max, power at 2mmol/L & W4mmol/L blood lactate [W2/4mmol/L BLa]), strength (isometric mid-thigh pull [IMTP], squat-jump height & 6s bike-sprint peak power) and body composition (body mass, fat mass, overall-lean & leg-lean). The results showed between- and within-group significant changes in the intervention group for maximal-strength, bike-specific explosive-strength, absolute WV̇O2max, body mass, overall-lean & leg-lean at week 20 (p < 0.05). The control group showed no significant within-group changes in strength, physiological or body composition measures. This study demonstrates that twenty weeks of strength training can significantly improve maximal-strength, bike-specific explosive-strength qualities and absolute WV̇O2max in competitive road cyclists.
... Some years ago, we conducted a more thorough investigation on the effects of strength training on cycling performance and performance determinants in female cyclists [2,15]. This study utilized a strength training program, a testing regime, and testing equipment identical to what we used in male cyclists with beneficial effects on cycling performance [1,16,17], making these studies very suitable for comparing the effects between male and female cyclists. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the only study using a strength training program with a sufficient volume and training load to investigate if female cyclists can benefit from strength training. ...
... Interestingly, there are indications that heavy strength training improves cycling economy after prolonged submaximal cycling, also in well-trained cyclists, which is especially relevant in road cycling. [16]. ...
... Since most studies investigating the effects of strength training on cycling performance include only male cyclists, we performed a study on the effects of strength training on cycling performance and performance determinants in female cyclists [2,15]. The female cyclists in this study performed a strength training program identical to what we previously used to induce beneficial effects on cycling performance in male cyclists [1,16,17]. This strength training program lasted for 11-12 weeks with two sessions per week with a training load of 10-4 RM, including four exercises for the lower body with three sets. ...
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During the last decade numerous review articles have been published on how concurrent strength and endurance training affect cycling performance. However, none of these have reviewed if there are any sex differences in the effects of concurrent training on cycling performance, and most research in this area has been performed with male cyclists. Thus, the aim of the current paper is to review the scientific literature on the effect of concurrent training on cycling performance in male and female cyclists with a special emphasis on potential sex differences. The results indicate that both male and female cyclists experience a similar beneficial effect from concurrent training on cycling performance and its physiological determinants compared to normal endurance training only. Some data indicate that women have a larger effect on cycling economy, but more studies are needed to explore this further. Furthermore, the adaptations to strength training thought to be responsible for the beneficial effects on cycling performance seem to be very similar between men and women. Interestingly, increased muscle cross-sectional area in the main locomotor muscles seems to be an important adaptation for improved performance, and, contrary to popular belief, cyclists should aim for increased muscle cross-sectional area when adding strength training to their normal training. We conclude that both male and female cyclists can improve their cycling performance by adding strength training to their normal training.
... Finally, there is a sport specific high power strength period focusing on maximal power development (Kraemer and Ratamess, 2004;Fleck, 2011). It has been shown positive effects of HST on various factors related to cycling performance, without any negative interference effects on the endurance capacity (Koninckx et al., 2010;Ronnestad et al., 2010aRonnestad et al., ,b, 2011Ronnestad et al., , 2015aRonnestad et al., , 2016Aagaard et al., 2011;Ronnestad and Mujika, 2014;Vikmoen et al., 2016). To the best of our knowledge, the effect on cycling performance of going directly from the basic strength-training phase to the sport specific maximal power development phase has not been compared with the traditional approach of moving from the basic strength phase to the maximum strength phase. ...
... In the 5-min all-out test, the SST and the HST showed significant increases in APO by 5.7 and 3.3%, respectively, with no significant differences between groups. The 5-min all-out test was chosen as a functional measure of the capacity for very intensive cycling (Hansen et al., 2006;Ronnestad et al., 2011;Vikmoen et al., 2016), with both aerobic and anaerobic contribution. No previous studies have examined the effects of SST on such tests, while improvement has been reported after HST (Ronnestad et al., 2011;Vikmoen et al., 2016). ...
... The 5-min all-out test was chosen as a functional measure of the capacity for very intensive cycling (Hansen et al., 2006;Ronnestad et al., 2011;Vikmoen et al., 2016), with both aerobic and anaerobic contribution. No previous studies have examined the effects of SST on such tests, while improvement has been reported after HST (Ronnestad et al., 2011;Vikmoen et al., 2016). The direct mechanisms behind this study's 5-min APO improvement after SST remain unclear. ...
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PurposeTo compare the effects of short-sprint training (SST) and heavy-strength training (HST) following a 4-week strength-training period on sprint and endurance capacities in well-trained cyclists.Methods Twenty-eight competitive cyclists (age 29 ± 6 years) with maximal oxygen uptake () of 61.1 ± 5.9 mL⋅min–1⋅kg–1 participated. After a 4-weeks preparation strength-training period, the participants were randomized to add either HST or SST to their usual endurance training for the subsequent 6 weeks. Body composition, and power output at blood lactate concentration ([La–]) of 4 mmol⋅L–1, as well as a 100 min cycling test including 6 and 30-s sprints, 60 min cycling at [La–] of 2 mmol⋅L–1 and 5-min all-out cycling were performed before the 4-week preparation strength-training period, and before and after the 6-week intervention period. In addition, 1 repetition maximum (RM) in half-squat and 55-m maximal sprints on the cyclists’ own bikes were measured before and after the 6-week intervention.ResultsSST was superior to HST in 6-s sprint performance, both in a fresh state (4.7 ± 2.6% vs. 1.1 ± 3.5%) and after prolong cycling (6.1 ± 1.8% vs. 1.8 ± 4.2%), in 30-s sprint (3.7 ± 2.8% vs. 1.3 ± 2.5%) and in 55-m seated sprint on own bike (4.3 ± 2.1% vs. 0.2 ± 1.8%) (all p < 0.002). HST induced a larger 1RM improvement in the half-squat test than SST (9.3 ± 3.6% vs. −3.9 ± 3.8%; p < 0.001). No group differences were revealed in the 5-min all-out test, , power output at 4 mmol⋅L–1 [La–], or in gross efficiency.ConclusionSST led to a greater increase in average and peak power output on all sprint tests compared to HST, whereas HST led to a greater increase in maximal strength. No group differences were found in relative changes in endurance capacities. Altogether, our results show a high degree of specificity in the adaptations of both SST and HST.
... After a 5-min warm up on an ergometer cycle at RPE of 11-12, the participants performed a 1RM leg press test (Keiser AIR300 Leg Press, Keiser Corporation, Fresno, USA). This test was performed to rule out that potential performance gains were associated to changes in strength, since previous studies have demonstrated that strength training can improve cycling performance (Rønnestad et al., 2011;Rønnestad et al., 2015). The participants sat with knees flexed at 90° to 96° and the hips flexed at approximately 45° with the individual seating position being identical for pre and post-tests. ...
... During the 2 nd last 5-min step, [La -] and GE was measured to assess metabolic strain in a more fatigued state ([La -] fatigue and GE fatigue , respectively). The 30-min at 2 mmol•L -1 [La -] followed by measurement of [La -] and GE was performed since we previously have observed different training adaptations in GE between fresh and more fatigued state (Rønnestad et al., 2011). A 15-min cycling performance test followed directly after the measurement of GE (Figure 1). ...
... While there were no differences between groups in [La -] fresh , HEAT reduced [La -] fatigue to a larger extent than CON. The latter observations are in in line with previous findings in well trained endurance athletes, indicating that favourable adaptations at submaximal exercise intensities are more challenging to induce in the fresh state than after prolonged exercise (Rønnestad et al., 2011;Vikmoen et al., 2017;Øfsteng et al., 2018). The lack of an effect of HEAT on GE in the fresh state is in accordance with heat training studies lasting 2-5 weeks performed on trained cyclists (Karlsen et al., 2015b;Mikkelsen et al., 2019). ...
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New findings: What is the central question of this study? We set out to test the hypothesis that hemoglobin mass and red blood cell volume would become increased in elite cyclists training in a hot environment compared to control group training in normal temperature. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate that five weeks of heat training increases hemoglobin mass in elite cyclists. At the same time we reveal small to intermediate effect sizes for exercise parameters favoring heat training. Abstract: In this study we tested the hypothesis that performing one hour of regular light exercise in a heat chamber (HEAT; 37.8 ± 0.5°C; 65.4 ± 1.8% humidity) five times·week-1 for a total of five weeks increases hemoglobin mass (Hbmass ) and exercise performance in elite cyclists (V̇O2max = 76.2 ± 7.6 mL·min-1 ·kg-1 ). 23 male volunteers were assigned into HEAT (n = 11) or CON (n = 12; 15.5 ± 0.1°C; 25.1 ± 0.0% humidity) training groups. Hbmass was determined before and after the intervention period in conjugation with and an extensive exercise test protocol (conducted in 16-19°C). HEAT increased (p < 0.05) Hbmass by 42 g from 893 ± 78 to 935 ± 108 g whereas Hbmass remained unchanged (+ 6 g) in CON. Furthermore, statistical analysis revealed a time-group interaction (p < 0.05). The greater increase in Hbmass in HEAT did however not manifest in a greater increase in V̇O2max (225 ± 274 mL·min-1 in HEAT and 161 ± 202 mL·min-1 in CON). While HEAT reduced (p < 0.05) lactate levels during some of the submaximal exercise tests, there were no statistical difference between other performance parameters. There were however small to intermediate effect sizes favoring HEAT for lactate threshold power output (2.8 ± 3.9 vs. -0.4 ± 5.1% change, ES = 0.34), gross economy in the fatigued state (0.19 ± 0.42 vs. -0.12 ± 0.49%-point change, ES = 0.52) and 15-min mean power (6.9 ± 8.4 vs. 3.4 ± 5.1% increase, ES = 0.22). This study demonstrates an increase in Hbmass and small to intermediate effect sizes on exercise variables in elite cyclists following a five-week heat training intervention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... During the last decade, increased attention has been given to the effects of adding strength training to endurance athletes' normal training on running and cycling performance (e.g., Paavolainen et al. 1999;Aagaard et al. 2011;Ronnestad et al. 2011;Sedano et al. 2013). Improvements in performance have been reported in both running (Paavolainen et al. 1999;Storen et al. 2008;Sedano et al. 2013;Damasceno et al. 2015) and cycling (Koninckx et al. 2010;Ronnestad et al. 2010a;Aagaard et al. 2011;Ronnestad et al. 2015). ...
... Performance in an all-out effort at the end of long competitions should also be affected by the fatigue developed during the competition. In Ronnestad et al. (2011), such performance was simulated by 3 h of submaximal cycling followed by a 5-min all-out test. Power output during the 5-min all-out test was improved following 12 weeks of heavy strength training in well-trained male cyclists. ...
... Power output during the 5-min all-out test was improved following 12 weeks of heavy strength training in well-trained male cyclists. This was related to improved cycling economy and reduced physiological strain during the final hour of the submaximal trial, leaving the strength-trained athletes less fatigued before the 5-min all-out test (Ronnestad et al. 2011). However, no previous study has assessed effects of heavy strength training on all-out performance following a prolonged submaximal work or physiological responses during prolonged submaximal running. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of adding heavy strength training to female duathletes' normal endurance training on both cycling and running performance. Nineteen well-trained female duathletes (VO2max cycling: 54 ± 3 ml∙kg−1∙min−1, VO2max running: 53 ± 3 ml∙kg−1∙min−1) were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four lower body exercises [3 × 4-10 repetition maximum (RM)] twice a week for 11 weeks. Running and cycling performance were assessed using 5-min all-out tests, performed immediately after prolonged periods of submaximal work (3 h cycling or 1.5 h running). E+S increased 1RM in half squat (45 ± 22%) and lean mass in the legs (3.1 ± 4.0%) more than E. Performance during the 5-min all-out test increased in both cycling (7.0 ± 4.5%) and running (4.7 ± 6.0%) in E+S, whereas no changes occurred in E. The changes in running performance were different between groups. E+S reduced oxygen consumption and heart rate during the final 2 h of prolonged cycling, whereas no changes occurred in E. No changes occurred during the prolonged running in any group. Adding strength training to normal endurance training in well-trained female duathletes improved both running and cycling performance when tested immediately after prolonged submaximal work.
... The identification of new training interventions to further improve the economy of endurance athletes, such as the addition of strength training (ST) to training programs, has therefore been extensively studied. 1,[4][5][6][7][8][9] The completion of concurrent endurance and ST can substantially load the neuromuscular system, resulting in improvements in musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate of force development (RFD), and maximal strength. 1,4,5,[8][9][10][11] This has been shown to lead to significant improvements in the economy of movement in both endurance cyclists 4,7,8,10 and runners. ...
... 1,[4][5][6][7][8][9] The completion of concurrent endurance and ST can substantially load the neuromuscular system, resulting in improvements in musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate of force development (RFD), and maximal strength. 1,4,5,[8][9][10][11] This has been shown to lead to significant improvements in the economy of movement in both endurance cyclists 4,7,8,10 and runners. 1,6 While there is a large body of evidence supporting ST implementation for both cycling and RE improvements, there are only a limited number of studies examining its effects on triathlon physiological and performance variables 1,12,13 with 2 of these studies focusing on just one of the individual disciplines of triathlon in isolation and completed by participants who specialized in short-distance triathlons. ...
... 1,[4][5][6][7][8][9] The completion of concurrent endurance and ST can substantially load the neuromuscular system, resulting in improvements in musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate of force development (RFD), and maximal strength. 1,4,5,[8][9][10][11] This has been shown to lead to significant improvements in the economy of movement in both endurance cyclists 4,7,8,10 and runners. 1,6 While there is a large body of evidence supporting ST implementation for both cycling and RE improvements, there are only a limited number of studies examining its effects on triathlon physiological and performance variables 1,12,13 with 2 of these studies focusing on just one of the individual disciplines of triathlon in isolation and completed by participants who specialized in short-distance triathlons. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The completion of concurrent strength and endurance training can improve exercise economy in cyclists and runners; however, the efficacy of strength training (ST) implementation to improve economy in long-distance (LD) triathletes has not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate physiological outcomes in LD triathletes when ST was completed concurrently to endurance training. Methods: A total of 25 LD triathletes were randomly assigned to either 26 weeks of concurrent endurance and ST (n = 14) or endurance training only (n = 11). The ST program progressed from moderate (8-12 repetitions, ≤75% of 1-repetition maximum, weeks 0-12) to heavy loads (1-6 repetitions, ≥85% of 1-repetition maximum, weeks 14-26). Physiological and performance indicators (cycling and running economy, swim time, blood lactate, and heart rate) were measured during a simulated triathlon (1500-m swim, 60-min cycle, and 20-min run) at weeks 0, 14, and 26. Maximal strength and anthropometric measures (skinfolds and body mass) were also collected at these points. Results: The endurance strength group significantly improved maximal strength measures at weeks 14 and 26 (P < .05), cycling economy from weeks 0 to 14 (P < .05), and running economy from weeks 14 to 26 (P < .05) with no change in body mass (P > .05). The endurance-only group did not significantly improve any economy measures. Conclusions: The addition of progressive load ST to LD triathletes' training programs can significantly improve running and cycling economy without an increase in body mass.
... The identification of new training interventions to further improve the economy of endurance athletes, such as the addition of strength training (ST) to training programs, has therefore been extensively studied. 1,[4][5][6][7][8][9] The completion of concurrent endurance and ST can substantially load the neuromuscular system, resulting in improvements in musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate of force development (RFD), and maximal strength. 1,4,5,[8][9][10][11] This has been shown to lead to significant improvements in the economy of movement in both endurance cyclists 4,7,8,10 and runners. ...
... 1,[4][5][6][7][8][9] The completion of concurrent endurance and ST can substantially load the neuromuscular system, resulting in improvements in musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate of force development (RFD), and maximal strength. 1,4,5,[8][9][10][11] This has been shown to lead to significant improvements in the economy of movement in both endurance cyclists 4,7,8,10 and runners. 1,6 While there is a large body of evidence supporting ST implementation for both cycling and RE improvements, there are only a limited number of studies examining its effects on triathlon physiological and performance variables 1,12,13 with 2 of these studies focusing on just one of the individual disciplines of triathlon in isolation and completed by participants who specialized in short-distance triathlons. ...
... 1,[4][5][6][7][8][9] The completion of concurrent endurance and ST can substantially load the neuromuscular system, resulting in improvements in musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate of force development (RFD), and maximal strength. 1,4,5,[8][9][10][11] This has been shown to lead to significant improvements in the economy of movement in both endurance cyclists 4,7,8,10 and runners. 1,6 While there is a large body of evidence supporting ST implementation for both cycling and RE improvements, there are only a limited number of studies examining its effects on triathlon physiological and performance variables 1,12,13 with 2 of these studies focusing on just one of the individual disciplines of triathlon in isolation and completed by participants who specialized in short-distance triathlons. ...
... Many studies have reported that concurrent training can lead to impaired neuromuscular adaptations as compared to strength training only [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. Furthermore, adding strength training to endurance athletes' normal training has been reported to improve performance in many endurance sports [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26]. However, the data are equivocal and many studies report no negative effect on strength related adaptations after concurrent training [27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34], or no beneficial effects on endurance performance when endurance athletes additionally perform strength training [35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45]. ...
... Therefore, some years ago, our group conducted a more thorough investigation on the effects of strength training on various aspects of cycling performance and performance determinants in female cyclists [25,26]. Furthermore, we used a strength training program identical to what has previously been reported to improve performance in male cyclists [21,23]. The strength training program lasted for 12 weeks with 2 sessions per week with a training load of 10-4 RM. ...
... The strength training program lasted for 12 weeks with 2 sessions per week with a training load of 10-4 RM. The effects of 12 weeks of heavy strength training on muscle strength, muscle hypertrophy and various aspects of cycling performance was very similar in both the male [21,23] and female cyclists [25,26] in these studies, and the results from these studies are summed up in table 1. In neither men nor women did strength training have any effect on VO 2max compared to control cyclists only performing their normal endurance training. ...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes what is currently known about the physiological adaptations to concurrent training in women compared to men, and if there are sex differences in the adaptations that should be considered when prescribing combined training programs. The chapter commences with a brief overview over relevant physiological differences between men and women. Thereafter, a review of the literature regarding possible sex differences in the effects of concurrently performing endurance training on the typical adaptations to strength training, and on the effects of adding strength training to the training routine of endurance athletes will follow.
... The identification of new training interventions to further improve the economy of endurance athletes, such as the addition of strength training (ST) to training programs, has therefore been extensively studied. 1,[4][5][6][7][8][9] The completion of concurrent endurance and ST can substantially load the neuromuscular system, resulting in improvements in musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate of force development (RFD), and maximal strength. 1,4,5,[8][9][10][11] This has been shown to lead to significant improvements in the economy of movement in both endurance cyclists 4,7,8,10 and runners. ...
... 1,[4][5][6][7][8][9] The completion of concurrent endurance and ST can substantially load the neuromuscular system, resulting in improvements in musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate of force development (RFD), and maximal strength. 1,4,5,[8][9][10][11] This has been shown to lead to significant improvements in the economy of movement in both endurance cyclists 4,7,8,10 and runners. 1,6 While there is a large body of evidence supporting ST implementation for both cycling and RE improvements, there are only a limited number of studies examining its effects on triathlon physiological and performance variables 1,12,13 with 2 of these studies focusing on just one of the individual disciplines of triathlon in isolation and completed by participants who specialized in short-distance triathlons. ...
... 1,[4][5][6][7][8][9] The completion of concurrent endurance and ST can substantially load the neuromuscular system, resulting in improvements in musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate of force development (RFD), and maximal strength. 1,4,5,[8][9][10][11] This has been shown to lead to significant improvements in the economy of movement in both endurance cyclists 4,7,8,10 and runners. 1,6 While there is a large body of evidence supporting ST implementation for both cycling and RE improvements, there are only a limited number of studies examining its effects on triathlon physiological and performance variables 1,12,13 with 2 of these studies focusing on just one of the individual disciplines of triathlon in isolation and completed by participants who specialized in short-distance triathlons. ...
... The inclusion of ST into longdistance (LD) triathletes' programs can improve both cycling economy (CE) and running economy (RE) which is considered critical for success in LD triathlon (58,62). Furthermore, research has demonstrated that ST can significantly improve performance variables (economy, time-trial performance, reduced heart rate [HR] at submaximal intensities, velocity at VȮ 2 max [vVȮ 2max], and power at VȮ 2 max [wVȮ 2max]) in single mode endurance sports such as cycling and running (10,11,25,61,71,72,79,80,83,90,91,98,100). Long-distance triathlon is classified as any triathlon distance greater than an Olympic distance race (.1,500-m swim, 40-km cycle, and 10-km run) (59) with the 2 most common forms known as a half-iron distance (1.9-km swim, 90-km cycle, and 21.1-km run) and full irondistance (3.8-km swim, 180-km cycle, and 42.2-km run) distance races. ...
... Although there are numerous studies supporting the implementation of ST to improve performance and physiological variables in endurance athletes (10,11,25,61,71,72,79,80,83,90,91,98,, practical application papers primarily focus on running (8), singlemode sports (9), or are outdated (20). Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to educate coaches and athletes on the benefits of completing concurrent strength and endurance training to improve physiological factors contributing to LD triathlon performance. ...
... The endurance-strength group also showed an increase in electromyography activity in the vastus lateralis, allowing the authors to conclude the increase in maximal strength most likely resulted from neural mechanisms such as increased neural activation, more efficient motor unit synchronization, more efficient excitability of the a-motor neurons, and decreased Golgi tendon organ inhibition (42). The significant improvement in maximal strength (6%), was smaller than that of other similar studies in endurance cyclists and runners that have shown improvements in maximal strength measures between 14-45% (10,62,77,79,90,91,100). The relatively smaller improvements in maximal strength and EMG activity seen by Hausswirth et al. did not translate to improvements in CE, therefore suggesting that 5 weeks of heavy ST may not be a sufficient training duration to elicit significant CE changes. ...
... For a resistance training regimen to be considered effective, such adaptations must result in improved athletic performance. Several studies on cyclists have reported an improved maximal strength, rate of force development (RFD), and muscle hypertrophy after additional resistance training (31,32,35,43). These adaptations were associated with improvements in endurance cycling performance and relevant performance indices, including power output at lactate threshold (31,35), cycling economy (32,43), performance during an all-out cycling sprint (31,35), and W max (31). ...
... Several studies on cyclists have reported an improved maximal strength, rate of force development (RFD), and muscle hypertrophy after additional resistance training (31,32,35,43). These adaptations were associated with improvements in endurance cycling performance and relevant performance indices, including power output at lactate threshold (31,35), cycling economy (32,43), performance during an all-out cycling sprint (31,35), and W max (31). However, the positive effects of resistance training adaptations on cycling performance and relevant physiological factors have not been shown in all studies consistently. ...
... The resistance training program by Bishop et al. (14) included only bilateral squats, which seems to provide insufficient movement specificity for cycling. In contrast to that, most of the other aforementioned studies (23,31,32,35) designed the resistance training regimen as cyclingspecific as possible using unilateral exercises (i.e., cyclic movement on only one side) in addition to the standard bilateral exercises. However, during the unilateral training, these studies did not consider the alternating movement pattern of cycling. ...
Article
Ji, S, Donath, L, and Wahl, P. Effects of alternating unilateral vs. bilateral resistance training on sprint and endurance cycling performance in trained endurance athletes: A 3-armed, randomized, controlled, pilot trial. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-Traditional preparatory resistance training for cyclists mainly relies on simultaneous bilateral movement patterns. This lack of movement specificity may impede transfer effects to specific aerobic and anaerobic requirements on the bike. Hence, this study investigated the effects of resistance training in alternating unilateral vs. simultaneous bilateral movement pattern on strength and anaerobic as well as aerobic cycling performance indices. Twenty-four trained triathletes and cyclists (age: 31.1 ± 8.1 years; V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 57.6 ± 7.1 ml·min-1·kg-1) were randomly assigned to either an alternating unilateral (AUL), a simultaneous bilateral (BIL) training group or a control group (CON). Ten weeks of resistance training (4 × 4-10 repetition maximum) were completed by both training groups, although CON maintained their usual training regimen without resistance training. Maximal strength was tested during isometric leg extension, leg curl, and leg press in both unilateral and bilateral conditions. To compare the transfer effects of the training groups, determinants of cycling performance and time to exhaustion at 105% of the estimated anaerobic threshold were examined. Maximal leg strength notably increased in both training groups (BIL: ∼28%; AUL: ∼27%; p < 0.01) but not in CON (∼6%; p > 0.54). A significant improvement in cycling time trial performance was also observed in both training groups (AUL: 67%; BIL: 43%; p < 0.05) but not for CON (37%; p = 0.43). Bilateral group exhibited an improved cycling economy at submaximal intensities (∼8%; p < 0.05) but no changes occurred in AUL and CON (∼3%; p > 0.24). While sprint cycling performance decreased in CON (peak power: -6%; acceleration index: -15%; p < 0.05), improvement in favor of AUL was observed for acceleration abilities during maximal sprinting (20%; d = 0.5). Our pilot data underpin the importance of resistance training independent of its specific movement pattern both for improving the endurance cycling performance and maximal leg strength. Further research should corroborate our preliminary findings on whether sprint cycling benefits favorably from AUL resistance training.
... All the study details, including purpose, athletes, research design and quality assessment, are shown in Table 2: author name and year of publication, characteristics of athletes (number, gender, mean age, mean VO 2 max, experience and reported endurance training), research design (type of research and athletes assignment to a study groups) and quality assessment by the PEDro Scale. Among the 17 included studies, a total of 334 national and international athletes (n = 244 male, n = 90 female), with a mean age of 27.75 + 6.76 and a VO 2 max range between 52.4 and 80 mL/kg/min, were distributed in a specific group as follows: 10 studies used the randomized controlled trial (RCT) model [15,[17][18][19][20]23,26,[28][29][30], randomly allocating the participants into the control or intervention groups; four non-randomized studies stratified participants for gender, age and VO 2 max [16,22,25,27]; three studies [21,24,31] used the self-choice method to allocate the subjects in the groups. All subjects were "Highly trained" or "High level" athletes following usual endurance training ("ET declared"), performed in specific heart rate (HR) zones in nine studies [18,20,21,[24][25][26][27][28]30]. ...
... Among the 17 included studies, a total of 334 national and international athletes (n = 244 male, n = 90 female), with a mean age of 27.75 + 6.76 and a VO 2 max range between 52.4 and 80 mL/kg/min, were distributed in a specific group as follows: 10 studies used the randomized controlled trial (RCT) model [15,[17][18][19][20]23,26,[28][29][30], randomly allocating the participants into the control or intervention groups; four non-randomized studies stratified participants for gender, age and VO 2 max [16,22,25,27]; three studies [21,24,31] used the self-choice method to allocate the subjects in the groups. All subjects were "Highly trained" or "High level" athletes following usual endurance training ("ET declared"), performed in specific heart rate (HR) zones in nine studies [18,20,21,[24][25][26][27][28]30]. ...
... The main characteristics of strength intervention protocols are reported in Table 3: type of strength training (Maximal, Explosive, Plyometric and Resistance), type of exercises (multi-joint movement, open or closed kinetic chain), volume (sets and repetitions), frequency (times per week), time (number of weeks) and periodization (when the study was performed according to the sport Season). In detail, the types of strength intervention were: maximal strength training (MST) [16,17,[19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]; resistance strength training (RST) [17,18]; plyometric strength training (PST) [15,17,18]; explosive strength training (EST) [15,16]; or combinations of these types [15][16][17][18]. All studies used at least one multi-joint, closed kinetic chain exercise (squat, leg press, lunge, squat jump-SJ, counter movement jump-CMJ, drop jump-DJ, etc.); two studies used resistance machine exercise only [23,29], whereas all other studies used free weights, bodyweight resistance or a combination of machines and free weights. ...
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Non-sport-specific strength training is a way to increase endurance performance; however, which kind of exercise (maximal, plyometric, explosive or resistance strength training) gives the best results is still under debate. Scientific publications were analyzed according to the PRISMA checklist and statement. The initial search yielded 500 studies, 17 of which were included in this review using the PEDro Scale. Maximal strength training boosted the ability to express strength particularly in cross-country skiing and cycling, increasing endurance performance, measured as a decrease of the endurance performance tests. In running, explosive strength training did not generate advantages, whereas plyometric strength training led to an improvement in the endurance performance tests and work economy. In running it was possible to compare different types of non sport-specific strength training and the plyometric one resulted the best training methodology to enhance performance. However, studies on other sports only investigated the effects of maximal strength training. It resulted more effective in cross-country skiing (although only one study was eligible according to the inclusion criteria) and in the cycling component of the triathlon and, by contrast, induced modest effects on cyclists’ performance, suggesting different type of strength would probably be more effective. In conclusion, each sport might optimize performance by using appropriate non sport-specific strength training, which, however, should be studied individually.
... In turn, a high capacity for anaerobic metabolism is considered important in light of the frequent changes in intensity during a bike race, particularly during attacks or sprints (35) with a high knee extensor maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) being linked with high sprint power (28). Several reports have demonstrated that concurrent (i.e., supplementary) heavy-load resistance training can enhance cycling performance to an even greater extent (2,22,34,(42)(43)(44)(45)(46)(47). Thus, studies examining the effect of concurrent resistance and endurance training in cyclists have reported positive effects on lactate threshold (shifted to higher watts [W]) (40,44) and lower energy turnover for a given submaximal power output (42,45,47). ...
... Several reports have demonstrated that concurrent (i.e., supplementary) heavy-load resistance training can enhance cycling performance to an even greater extent (2,22,34,(42)(43)(44)(45)(46)(47). Thus, studies examining the effect of concurrent resistance and endurance training in cyclists have reported positive effects on lactate threshold (shifted to higher watts [W]) (40,44) and lower energy turnover for a given submaximal power output (42,45,47). Moreover, no negative effects of concurrent training on VȮ 2 max have been observed (2,22,39,42,(45)(46)(47). ...
... Thus, studies examining the effect of concurrent resistance and endurance training in cyclists have reported positive effects on lactate threshold (shifted to higher watts [W]) (40,44) and lower energy turnover for a given submaximal power output (42,45,47). Moreover, no negative effects of concurrent training on VȮ 2 max have been observed (2,22,39,42,(45)(46)(47). ...
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Bláfoss, R, Rikardo, J, Andersen, AØ, Hvid, LG, Andersen, LL, Jensen, K, Christensen, PM, Kvorning, T, and Aagaard, P. Effects of resistance training cessation on cycling performance in well-trained cyclists: an exploratory study. J Strength Cond Res 36(3): 796-804, 2022-Supplementary (i.e., concurrent) resistance training can enhance cycling performance among competitive cyclists. However, a lack of knowledge exists about the retention (decay profile) in mechanical muscle function and cycling performance after concurrent resistance and endurance training. The present exploratory intervention study investigated the effect of 6 weeks of resistance training cessation when preceded by 8 weeks of concurrent resistance and endurance training on mechanical muscle function and cycling performance in 9 male well-trained competitive cyclists (V̇o2max = 66 ± 7 ml·min-1·kg-1). Cyclists performed periodized resistance training targeting leg and core muscles for 8 weeks as a supplement to their normal endurance (cycling) training. This was followed by 6 weeks of endurance training only (retention period) leading up to the start of the competitive season. Maximal leg extensor power, isometric leg extensor strength (maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]), rate of force development (RFD), and long-term cycling performance (2-hour submaximal cycling at 55% of Wmax), followed by 5-minute max cycling were evaluated. After 8 weeks of concurrent resistance and endurance training, leg extensor power, MVC, and RFD increased by 12, 15, and 17%, respectively while mean power output (W) during 5-minute max cycling increased by 7% (p < 0.05). Training-induced gains in MVC and 5-minute max cycling power were retained after 6-week cessation of resistance training (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that competitive cyclists can focus on cycling training alone for at least 6 weeks leading up to competition without losing attained gains in maximal muscle strength and cycling performance achieved by preceding periods of concurrent resistance training.
... Enhancement in performance and strength reported in the previous paragraphs is attributed to improvements in physiological [4,51] and neuromuscular parameters [51][52][53]. Specifically, performance gains may be attributed to improvements in maximal oxygen uptake that has been reported in top level cyclists, national level rowers, and well-trained runners after 6-12 weeks of concurrent RT-endurance training [54][55][56][57][58]. We may hypothesize that comparable enhancements in swimming performance may be attributed to improvement of both aerobic endurance and strength indices [32]. ...
... Provided that RT-SWIM or SWIM-RT orders have not directly tested in competitive swimmers, there is no supportive evidence of one over the other. Considering other sports paradigms (running, cycling, skiing) that compared RT-endurance or endurance-RT orders, there is evidence to suggest similar improvements in power output during high-intensity tests after 6-25 weeks [54][55][56]60]. In addition, similar maximal strength gains with both training orders after 8-14 weeks of training were observed [54][55][56]60,61]. ...
... Considering other sports paradigms (running, cycling, skiing) that compared RT-endurance or endurance-RT orders, there is evidence to suggest similar improvements in power output during high-intensity tests after 6-25 weeks [54][55][56]60]. In addition, similar maximal strength gains with both training orders after 8-14 weeks of training were observed [54][55][56]60,61]. Possibly, competitive swimmers will benefit from increased 1-RM strength in dry-land-based exercises (i.e., bench press) [8], or in-water-based tests [4], either with RT-SWIM or SWIM-RT orders. ...
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Dry-land resistance exercise (RT) is routinely applied concurrent to swimming (SWIM) training sessions in a year-round training plan. To date, the impact of the acute effect of RT on SWIM or SWIM on RT performance and the long-term RT-SWIM or SWIM-RT training outcome has received limited attention. The existing studies indicate that acute RT or SWIM training may temporarily decrease subsequent muscle function. Concurrent application of RT-SWIM or SWIM-RT may induce similar physiological alterations. Such alterations are dependent on the recovery duration between sessions. Considering the long-term effects of RT-SWIM, the limited existing data present improvements in front crawl swimming performance, dry-land upper and lower body maximum strength, and peak power in swim turn. Accordingly, SWIM-RT training order induces swimming performance improvements in front crawl and increments in maximum dry-land upper and lower body strength. Concurrent application of RT-SWIM or SWIM-RT training applied within a training day leads in similar performance gains after six to twelve weeks of training. The current review suggests that recovery duration between RT and SWIM is a predisposing factor that may determine the training outcome. Competitive swimmers may benefit after concurrent application with both training order scenarios during a training cycle.
... It has been observed improved work economy during the last part of 3-hr prolonged cycling among both male and female cyclists that added STR to their usual training routine. 17, 18 The superior work economy likely explained the improved 5-minutes all-out cycling performance after the prolonged exercise with added STR-training both in men 18 and women. 17 Furthermore, some studies indicate that adding vibration to a strength exercise can acutely increase maximal force and power output. ...
... It has been observed improved work economy during the last part of 3-hr prolonged cycling among both male and female cyclists that added STR to their usual training routine. 17, 18 The superior work economy likely explained the improved 5-minutes all-out cycling performance after the prolonged exercise with added STR-training both in men 18 and women. 17 Furthermore, some studies indicate that adding vibration to a strength exercise can acutely increase maximal force and power output. ...
... In those studies, concurrent strength and endurance training induced significantly better 5-minutes all-out performance following 3 hours of submaximal cycling compared to endurance training only. 17,18 In these two studies, group differences in work economy occurred during the last 1-2 hours of the prolonged test when the cyclists started to get some exhaustion. In this study, VO 2 and HR were reduced at all time points during the post-test, but no difference was seen between the two groups. ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training with or without vibration to cross-country (XC) skiers' endurance training on double poling (DP) performance, physiological and kinematic adaptations. Twenty-one well-trained male XC skiers combined endurance- and upper-body strength-training three times per week, either with (n=11) or without (n=10) superimposed vibrations for 8 weeks, whereas eight skiers performed endurance training only (CON). Testing included 1RM in upper-body exercises, work economy, neural activation, oxygen saturation in muscle and DP kinematics during a prolonged submaximal DP roller ski test which was directly followed by a time to exhaustion (TTE) test. TTE was also performed in rested state and the difference between the two TTE-tests (TTEdiff ) determined the ability to maintain DP performance after prolonged exercise. Vibration induced no additional effect on strength or endurance gains. Therefore, the two strength-training groups were pooled (STR, n=21). 1RM in STR increased more than in CON (P < 0.05), and there were no differences in changes between STR and CON in any measurements during prolonged submaximal DP. STR improved TTE following prolonged DP (20±16%, P < 0.001) and revealed a moderate effect size compared to CON (ES = 0.80; P = 0.07). Furthermore, STR improved TTEdiff more than CON (P = 0.049). In conclusion, STR superiorly improved 1RM strength, DP performance following prolonged submaximal DP and TTEdiff , indicating a specific effect of improved strength on the ability to maintain performance after long-lasting exercise. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Aagaard et al., 2011;Bastiaans, van Diemen, Veneberg & Jeukendrup, 2001;Koninckx, Leemputte & Hespel, 2010;Rønnestad, Hansen & Raastad,. 2010a;Rønnestad, Hansen & Raastad 2011& Sunde, et al. 2010). It has recently been suggested that strength training interventions that have a positive impact on measurements relevant for cycling performance includes heavy strength training with multiple leg exercises and typically lasts 8-12 weeks (Rønnestad & Mujika, 2013). ...
... short, 3-5 min, submaximal bouts of exercise), it appears there is little change after combining heavy strength training with endurance training in well-trained and elite cyclists, despite improved performance in all-out trials lasting 40-45 min (Aagaard et al., 2011, Rønnestad et al., 2010b, Rønnestad et al., 2015. However, in well-trained cyclists a larger improvement in cycling economy was observed in the strength-training group than in the control group during the last hour of 185-min submaximal cycling (Rønnestad, Hansen & Raastad, 2011). The improved economy was accompanied by reduced HR, RPE, [la -], and improved performance in a 5-min all-out trial performed immediately following the 185 min of submaximal cycling. ...
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Elite cyclists have often a limited period of time available during their short preparation phase to focus on development of maximal strength; therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of 10-week heavy strength training on lean lower-body mass, leg strength, determinants of cycling performance and cycling performance in elite cyclists. Twelve cyclists performed heavy strength training and normal endurance training (E&S) while 8 other cyclists performed normal endurance training only (E). Following the intervention period E&S had a larger increase in maximal isometric half squat, mean power output during a 30-s Wingate sprint (P < 0.05) and a tendency towards larger improvement in power output at 4 mmol ∙ L−1 [la−] than E (P = 0.068). There were no significant difference between E&S and E in changes in 40-min all-out trial (4 ± 6% vs. −1 ± 6%, respectively, P = 0.13). These beneficial effects may encourage elite cyclists to perform heavy strength training and the short period of only 10 weeks should make it executable even in the compressed training and competition schedule of elite cyclists.
... relative change in O 2 -cost during prolonged DP was in favor the group that had trained upper-body muscular endurance, possibly contributing to the enhanced performance due to a lower level of fatigue before the 1,000-m time. These findings are in accordance with Rønnestad et al. (2011) who showed increased 5 min all-out performance following 185 min of cycling after a heavy strength training intervention. However, mechanisms for increase in work economy, when including heavy strength training or muscular endurance training, remain unclear. ...
... However, mechanisms for increase in work economy, when including heavy strength training or muscular endurance training, remain unclear. Furthermore, in both the present study and in Rønnestad et al. (2011) the reduction in O 2 -cost should be taken with caution since the relative differences in O 2 -cost between groups was not significant. ...
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This study investigated the effect of muscular endurance training on O2-cost and performance in double poling (DP) on a rollerski treadmill. Twenty-two well-trained cross-country skiers (31 ± 4 years, 77 ± 9 kg, 181 ± 8 cm, VO2max running: 64 ± 5 mL·kg−1·min−1) were counter-balanced to either a combined muscular endurance and running interval training group [MET; n = 11 (♂ = 9, ♀ = 2)], or an endurance running interval training group [ET; n = 11 (♂ = 9, ♀ = 2)]. Both groups continued their normal low-and moderate intensity training, but replaced 2 weekly high intensity-training sessions with two project-specific sessions for 6 weeks. In these sessions, MET combined upper-body muscular endurance training (4 × 30 repetitions, 90 s rest between sets) and running intervals (3 × 4 or 2 × 6 min, 3 min rest), while ET performed running intervals only (6 × 4 or 4 × 6 min, 3 min rest). The DP test-protocol consisted of 50 min submaximal poling for O2-cost measurement, followed by a self-paced 1,000-m performance test. In addition, subjects performed a VO2max test in running. MET increased muscular endurance (P < 0.05) and 1RM in simulated DP (P < 0.01) more than ET. Further, MET reduced the 1,000-m time and O2-cost compared to baseline values (P < 0.05), and tended to improve the 1,000-m time more than ET (P = 0.06). There were no changes in VO2max running or VO2peak DP in either MET or ET. In conclusion, 6 weeks of muscular endurance training increased both muscular endurance and 1RM in simulated DP. Further, specific upper-body muscular endurance training improved DP performance and thus, seems as a promising training model to optimize performance in well-trained cross-country skiers.
... While there were no differences between groups in [La − ] fresh , HEAT reduced [La − ] fatigue to a larger extent than CON. The latter observations are in line with previous findings in well-trained endurance athletes, indicating that favourable adaptations at submaximal exercise intensities are more challenging to induce in the fresh state than after prolonged exercise (Øfsteng et al., 2018;Rønnestad et al., 2011;Vikmoen, Rønnestad, Ellefsen, & Raastad, 2017). The lack of an effect of HEAT on GE in the fresh state is in accordance with heat training studies lasting 2-5 weeks performed on trained cyclists (Karlsen et al., 2015b;Mikkelsen et al., 2019). ...
... During the second last 5 min step, [La − ] and GE were measured to assess metabolic strain in a more fatigued state ([La − ] fatigue and GE fatigue , respectively). The 30 min at 2 mmol l −1 [La − ] followed by measurement of [La − ] and GE was performed since we previously have observed different training adaptations in GE between fresh and more fatigued states(Rønnestad et al., 2011). A 15 min cycling performance test followed directly after the measurement of GE(Figure 1). ...
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The objective was to compare the efficacy of three different heat acclimation protocols to improve exercise performance in the heat. Thirty four cyclists completed one of three 10-day interventions 1) 50-min cycling per day in 35°C, 2) 50-min cycling per day wearing thermal clothing, 3) 50-min cycling wearing thermal clothing plus 25 min hot water immersion (HWI) per day. Pre- and post- intervention hemoglobin mass, intravascular volumes and core temperature were determined at rest. Heart rate, sweat rate, blood lactate concentration and core temperature were evaluated during 15-min submaximal and 30-min all-out cycling performance conducted in 35.2 ± 0.1°C and 61 ± 1 % relative humidity. There were no significant between-group differences in any of the determined variables. None of the interventions statistically altered any of the parameters investigated as part of the 15-min submaximal trial. However, following the intervention period, heat chamber, thermal clothing and thermal clothing + HWI all improved 30-min all-out average power in the heat (9.5±3.8%, 9.5±3.6 and 9.9±5.2%, respectively, p<0.001, F=192.3). At termination of the 30-min all-out test, the increase in blood lactate concentration, rate of perceived exertion and sweat rate were not different between the three interventions. In conclusion, daily training sessions conducted either in ambient 35°C, while wearing thermal clothing in temperate conditions or while wearing thermal clothing combined with HWI are equally effective for improving exercise performance in the heat.
... The majority of concurrent training studies to date have shown that resistance training combined with endurance training enhances endurance adaptation to a greater extent than endurance training alone [3]. Common mechanisms that have been proposed to explain this phenomenon include alterations in muscle fibre-type recruitment pattern, greater muscle force generation capacity, increased proportion of type IIA fibres and reduced proportion of type IIB fibres, and a shift toward a fatigueresistance yet more powerful muscle phenotype, all of which can improve movement economy [4,5]. ...
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A single bout of resistance training induces residual fatigue, which may impair performance during subsequent endurance training if inadequate recovery is allowed. From a concurrent training standpoint, such carry-over effects of fatigue from a resistance training session may impair the quality of a subsequent endurance training session for several hours to days with inadequate recovery. The proposed mechanisms of this phenomenon include: (1) impaired neural recruitment patterns; (2) reduced movement efficiency due to alteration in kinematics during endurance exercise and increased energy expenditure; (3) increased muscle soreness; and (4) reduced muscle glycogen. If endurance training quality is consistently compromised during the course of a specific concurrent training program, optimal endurance development may be limited. Whilst the link between acute responses of training and subsequent training adaptation has not been fully established, there is some evidence suggesting that cumulative effects of fatigue may contribute to limiting optimal endurance development. Thus, the current review will (1) explore cross-sectional studies that have reported impaired endurance performance following a single, or multiple bouts, of resistance training; (2) identify the potential impact of fatigue on chronic endurance development; (3) describe the implications of fatigue on the quality of endurance training sessions during concurrent training, and (4) explain the mechanisms contributing to resistance training-induced attenuation on endurance performance from neurological, biomechanical and metabolic standpoints. Increasing the awareness of resistance training-induced fatigue may encourage coaches to consider modulating concurrent training variables (e.g., order of training mode, between-mode recovery period, training intensity, etc.) to limit the carry-over effects of fatigue from resistance to endurance training sessions.
... The majority of concurrent training studies to date have shown that resistance training combined with endurance training enhances endurance adaptation to a greater extent than endurance training alone [3]. Common mechanisms that have been proposed to explain this phenomenon include alterations in muscle fibre-type recruitment pattern, greater muscle force generation capacity, increased proportion of type IIA fibres and reduced proportion of type IIB fibres, and a shift toward a fatigueresistance yet more powerful muscle phenotype, all of which can improve movement economy [4,5]. ...
... e. preserv ing the capacity to produce PO after prior longduration moder ateintensity exercise) is improved by longduration low intensity training. On the contrary, it has been shown that this capacity improved after a program of strength training, i. e. a non specific training strategy [20,21]. Therefore, even if all three groups involved in our study obtained success in their respective category, it is not possible to assert that the training specificity they adopted was a successful strategy, as cyclists might already possess out standing pre-season fitness and performance level which might allow them to achieve success independently from the training pattern adopted. ...
Article
The aim was to compare the training characteristics of junior, under 23 and professional road cyclists. Training data collected during the 2019 competitive season of thirty male cyclists, divided into three age-related categories (JUN; U23; PRO), were retrospectively analyzed for training characteristics, external and internal training load. Higher duration per training session were observed in PRO (2.6 ± 0.3 h) compared to both U23 (2.2 ± 0.3 h; P < 0.001) and JUN (2.0 ± 0.2 h; P < 0.001). Elevation gain per distance was higher in PRO (13.8 ± 1.9 m⋅km-1) compared to U23 (10.6 ± 0.9 m⋅km-1; P = 0.001) and JUN (6.7 ± 0.3 m⋅km-1; P < 0.001), and in U23 compared to JUN (P < 0.001). Annual total work was lower in JUN (3694 ± 467 kJ⋅kg-1) compared to U23 (5268 ± 746 kJ⋅kg-1; P = 0.001) and PRO (5759 ± 1103 kJ⋅kg-1; P < 0.001). eTRIMP per hour was higher in JUN (151 ± 40) compared to both U23 (115 ± 23; P = 0.003) and PRO (112 ± 22; P = 0.013). JUN spent more training time at medium and high heart rate intensity zones compared to U23 and PRO (P < 0.05).
... Performance in an all-out effort at the end of long competitions should also be affected by the 82 fatigue developed during the competition. In Ronnestad et al. (2011) such performance was 83 simulated by 3 h of submaximal cycling followed by a 5 min all-out test. Power output during 84 the 5 min all-out test was improved following 12 weeks of heavy strength training in well-85 trained male cyclists. ...
... The proposed mechanisms for these improvements in endurance performance are improved neural function (maximal voluntary contraction, rate of force development [RFD]), increases in type IIA muscle fibers (less fatigable), and increased muscle -ECM -tendon stiffness (Aagaard and Andersen 2010;Aagaard et al. 2011). Further, the addition of strength training has been observed to improve exercise economy better than endurance training alone (Sunde et al. 2010;Beattie et al. 2014;Vikmoen et al. 2015) and the inclusion of strength training may enhance performance during the later stages of competition (Rønnestad et al. 2011). One way to distinguish between the muscle -ECM -stiffness and neural adaptations would be to perform the strength/plyometric training on one leg and determine whether cross-limb transfer has resulted in improved performance in the opposite limb indicative of a neural adaptation (see below). ...
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The capacity for human exercise performance can be enhanced with prolonged exercise training, whether it is endurance- or strength-based. The ability to adapt through exercise training allows individuals to perform at the height of their sporting event and/or maintain peak physical condition throughout the life span. Our continued drive to understand how to prescribe exercise to maximize health and/or performance outcomes means that our knowledge of the adaptations that occur as a result of exercise continues to evolve. This review will focus on current and new insights into endurance and strength-training adaptations and will highlight important questions that remain as far as how we adapt to training.
... However, endurance capacity is known as the ability to maintain a constant power output over a given time [25,34] and, thus, changes in neuromuscular function may substantially affect performance outcomes [25]. Indeed, previous studies have shown that strength training-induced improvements in endurance performance are attributed to adaptations within the neuromuscular system both in endurance runners [15, 22-24, 35, 37] and cyclists [1,4,28,36]. Interestingly, it has previously been shown that the positive effects of strength training may occur independently to changes in VO 2max [24,33,35]. ...
Article
This study examined neuromuscular adaptations in recreational endurance runners during 24 weeks of same-session combined endurance and strength training (E+S, n=13) vs. endurance training only (E, n=14). Endurance training was similar in the 2 groups (4-6x/week). Additional maximal and explosive strength training was performed in E+S always after incremental endurance running sessions (35-45 min, 65-85% HRmax). Maximal dynamic leg press strength remained statistically unaltered in E+S but decreased in E at week 24 (-5±5%, p=0.014, btw-groups at week 12 and 24, p=0.014 and 0.011). Isometric leg press and unilateral knee extension force, EMG of knee extensors and voluntary activation remained statistically unaltered in E+S and E. The changes in muscle cross-sectional (CSA) differed between the 2 groups after 12 (E+S+6±8%, E -5±6%, p<0.001) and 24 (E+S+7±7%, E -6±5%, p<0.001) weeks. 1 000 m running time determined during an incremental field test decreased in E+S and E after 12 (-7±3%, p<0.001 and -8±5%, p=0.001) and 24 (-9±5%, p=0.001 and -13±5%, p<0.001) weeks. Strength training performed always after an endurance running session did not lead to increased maximal strength, CSA, EMG or voluntary activation. This possibly contributed to the finding of no endurance performance benefits in E+S compared to E. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
... Cumulative evidence support that addition of strength to endurance training improves performance in endurance events (Yamamoto et al., 2008(Yamamoto et al., , 2010Rønnestad et al., 2010;Aagaard et al., 2011;Rønnestad et al., 2011b;Beattie et al., 2014;Vikmoen et al., 2015). Mechanistically, improved endurance performance after strength training maybe due to improvements in exercise economy (Sunde et al., 2010;Balsalobre-Fernández et al., 2016) and muscle power (Paavolainen et al., 2000). ...
... After a 10 min warming-up at a work rate of 150 W and 1 min passive rest, the test started on an exercise intensity which was equivalent to 3 W/kg * [participant's body mass, kg]. This equivalent provided comparable relative starting exercise intensities for all participants and corresponded to a power output (PO) that would elicit ∼65-70% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2max ; Hawley and Noakes, 1992;Rønnestad et al., 2011). PO was increased every 2 min by 30 W until the participant reached volitional exhaustion (i.e., cadence <80 rpm). ...
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Introduction: To achieve personal goals in exercise task completion, exercisers have to regulate, distribute, and manage their effort. In endurance sports, it has become very commonplace for athletes to consult task-related feedback on external devices to do so. The aim of the present study was to explore the importance of the presence of this information by examining the influence of the absence of commonly available task-related feedback on effort distribution and performance in experienced endurance athletes. Methods: A 20-km cycling time trial was performed. Twenty Participants from a homogenous cyclist population were appointed to a group that did not receive any feedback (NoF), or a group that could consult task-related feedback (i.e., speed, heart rate, power output, cadence, elapsed time, and elapsed distance) continuously during their trial (FF). Results: The distribution of power output (PO) differed between groups. Most evident is the spurt at the end of the trial of FF, which was not incorporated by NoF. Nevertheless, no between-group differences were found in performance time (FF: 28.86 ± 3.68 vs. NoF: 30.95 ± 2.77 min) and mean PO controlled by body mass (FF: 3.61 ± 0.60 vs. NoF: 3.43 ± 0.38 W/kg). Also, no differences in rating of perceived exertion scores were found. Conclusion: The current study provides a first indication that prior knowledge of task demands together with reliance on bodily and environmental information can be sufficient for experienced athletes to come to comparable time trial performances. This questions the necessity of the presence of in-race instantaneous task-related feedback via external devices for maximizing performance. Moreover, it seems that different pacing strategies emerge depending on sources of information available to experienced athletes.
... A 20-min individual warm-up was performed before the start of the graded protocol to exhaustion for determination of VO2max. This test has been described elsewhere [15]. Briefly, the test was initiated with 1 min of cycling at a power output corresponding to 3 W·kg -1 (rounded down to the nearest 50 W). ...
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The importance of accumulated time ≥90% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) to improve performance in well‐trained endurance athletes is well established. The present study compared the acute effects of adding vibrations (VIB; 40 Hz) to the work intervals during a high‐intensity cycling session (HIT) with a traditional HIT session without vibration (TRAD) on time ≥90% of VO2max, time ≥90% of peak heart rate (HRpeak), electromyography (EMG) activity and mean power in well‐trained cyclists (n=10, VO2max=78.6±7.4 mL·min⁻¹·kg⁻¹). The order of VIB and TRAD was randomized and consisted of 6x5 min work intervals performed with the highest possible mean power across the work intervals (2.5 min standardized relief periods). VIB was superior to TRAD on time ≥90% of VO2max, (10.99±7.00 vs. 6.95±5.28 min, respectively), time ≥90% of HRpeak (24.61±2.38 vs. 19.97±4.12 min, respectively) and averaged EMG activity in m. Vastus Lateralis during the work intervals (all p<0.05). The EMG/power output ratio across all work intervals was higher in VIB than TRAD (p < 0.05). Mean values across work intervals showed no difference between VIB and TRAD in mean power, rate of perceived exertion, or blood lactate concentration. Thus, the present study indicated that adding vibration to the work intervals during a HIT session can acutely increase the physiological responses of the cardiovascular system and increase time ≥90% VO2max and should therefore be considered in order to optimize the exercise stimulus of well‐trained cyclists. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Therefore, both dry-land and in-water strength training can be beneficial to performance during a triathlon swim [49]. Lower-body strength and power training can improve cycling ability and time trial performance [50,51] by reducing oxygen uptake, HR, blood lactate concentration, and RPE during prolonged cycling [52], and by eliciting an earlier peak torque during the pedal stroke [51]. Lower-body explosive strength training [53] and plyometric training [54] can also enhance running economy and performance. ...
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Triathlon is characterized by the multidisciplinary nature of the sport where swimming, cycling, and running are completed sequentially in different events, such as the sprint, Olympic, long-distance, and Ironman formats. The large number of training sessions and overall volume undertaken by triathletes to improve fitness and performance can also increase the risk of injury, illness, or excessive fatigue. Short- and medium-term individualized training plans, periodization strategies, and work/rest balance are necessary to minimize interruptions to training due to injury, illness, or maladaptation. Even in the absence of health and wellbeing concerns, it is unclear whether cellular signals triggered by multiple training stimuli that drive training adaptations each day interfere with each other. Distribution of training intensity within and between different sessions is an important aspect of training. Both internal (perceived stress) and external loads (objective metrics) should be considered when monitoring training load. Incorporating strength training to complement the large body of endurance work in triathlon can help avoid overuse injuries. We explore emerging trends and strategies from the latest literature and evidence-based knowledge for improving training readiness and performance during competition in triathlon.
... Note that an improved cycling economy was observed during the last hour of 3 hours of submaximal cycling after a period of concurrent strength and endurance training in well-trained cyclists. 5 Given that many road-cycling races are characterized by their prolonged duration at submaximal exercise intensities within the peloton, this finding may be highly relevant for the final competition outcome. On the contrary, Hausswirth et al 23 did not find improved cycling economy after strength training in well-trained triathletes when measured after 5 to 15 minutes, 55 to 70 minutes, and 105 to 120 minutes of a 2-hour submaximal cycling test. ...
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Despite early and ongoing debate among athletes, coaches, and sport scientists, it is likely that resistance training for endurance cyclists can be tolerated, promotes desired adaptations that support training, and can directly improve performance. Lower-body heavy strength training performed in addition to endurance-cycling training can improve both short- And long-term endurance performance. Strength-maintenance training is essential to retain strength gains during the competition season. Competitive female cyclists with greater lower-body lean mass (LBLM) tend to have ~4-9% higher maximum mean power per kg LBLM over 1 s to 10 min. Such relationships enable optimal body composition to be modeled. Resistance training off the bike may be particularly useful for modifying LBLM, whereas more cycling-specific training strategies like eccentric cycling and single-leg cycling with a counterweight have not been thoughtfully investigated in well-trained cyclists. Potential mechanisms for improved endurance include postponed activation of less efficient type II muscle fibers, conversion of type IIX fibers into more fatigueresistant IIa fibers, and increased muscle mass and rate of force development.
... Previous research findings suggest that short-term strength training can enhance GE (Paton and Hopkins, 2005;Ronnestad et al., 2011;Sunde et al., 2010), even though the mechanisms linking strength training and improvements in GE are unknown . Therefore, to eliminate its influence on the GE, no strength training was performed by the cyclists between both tests. ...
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This study assessed gross efficiency (GE) during a single competitive season and determined the relationship between GE and maximum oxygen uptake (V̇O 2max ) in young elite cyclists (n = 15, 20.1 ± 1.4 yrs, 177.5 ± 5.7 cm, 68.3 ± 6.2 kg, 45.2 ± 7.5 mm of six skinfolds) during a competitive season. Participants completed at two occasions (T1 = April; T2 = July), a progressive bike protocol (initial intensity = 100 W, 35 W increments every 3 min) until volitional exhaustion to assess V̇O 2max and submaximal variables. A single capillary blood sample was drawn from the left earlobe immediately after completion of each exercise load to determine lactate thresholds. Cyclists’ GE was calculated as ([work accomplished/energy expended] x 100). No significant differences were obtained in GE at any workload between T1 and T2 or in the mean GE between T1 (19.3%) and T2 (19.4%) testing (p = 0.93). No significant association was found between mean GE and V̇O 2max at either T1 (r = -0.28, p = 0.30), or T2 (r = -0.27, p = 0.32). GE of young elite cyclists might not vary during the most important phase of the training season and GE was not related to V̇O 2max . A lower accumulated volume and intensity of training of these cyclists may account for their lower GE in comparison to older professional cyclists and might not have been enough to foster higher increases of GE in cyclists with lower V̇O 2max .
... Research supports the inclusion of lower-body strength training for endurance cycling cohorts, with previous work reporting beneficial effects of strength training on cycling performance (Rønnestad et al., 2010;Rønnestad et al., 2011). Therefore, a trained endurance cohort should prove a suitable population to investigate the role of endurance exercise intensity within a concurrent training programme. ...
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This study examined whether the intensity of endurance stimuli modifies the adaptation in strength and endurance following concurrent training and whether the acute molecular response to concurrent exercise is affected by training status. Using a parallel group design, trained cyclists were randomized to either resistance exercise followed by moderate intensity continuous training (RES + MICT, n = 6), or resistance exercise followed by work matched high intensity interval training (RES + HIIT, n = 7), across an 8 weeks training programme. A single RES + MICT or RES + HIIT exercise stimulus was completed 1 week before and within 5 days of completing the training programme, to assess phosphorylation of protein kinases of the mTOR and AMPK signaling pathways. There were no main effects of time or group on the phosphorylation of protein kinases in response to concurrent exercise stimulus pre- and post-training intervention (p > 0.05). Main effects of time were observed for all maximal strength exercises; back-squat, split-squat, and calf-raise (p < 0.001), with all improving post intervention. A time × group interaction was present for V̇O2peak, with the RES + MICT group displaying a preferential response to that of the RES + HIIT group (p = 0.010). No time nor group effects were observed for 5 min time trial performance, power at 2 and 4 mmol L−1 (p > 0.05). Whilst preliminary data due to limited sample size the intensity of endurance activity had no effect on performance outcomes, following concurrent training. Further, the acute molecular response to a concurrent exercise stimulus was comparable before and after the training intervention, suggesting that training status had no effect on the molecular responses assessed.
... activity, as has been reported after a period of sprinting (51), which may have affected gross efficiency. Improved gross efficiency exclusively in the semifatigued state has previously been reported in studies of combined strength and endurance training (52,53), consequently improving 5-min performance in the semifatigued state after prolonged exercise, without affecting performance in the fresh state (W max ). This would arguably translate into maintained gross efficiency during prolonged exercise, which is of relevance during the cycling competitions of up to 300 km long, maintaining or improving competition-relevant performance, and might therefore also partly explain the differently affected 5-min mean power in SPR compared with CON. ...
Article
Purpose: This study investigated the effects of including sprints within low-intensity training (LIT)-sessions during a 14-d training camp focusing on LIT, followed by 10 days recovery (Rec), on performance and performance-related measures in elite cyclists. Methods: During the camp, a sprint training group (SPR, n = 9) included 12x30-s maximal sprints during five LIT-sessions, whereas a control group (CON, n = 9) performed distance-matched LIT only. Training load was equally increased in both groups by 48 ± 27% during the training camp and subsequently decreased by -56 ± 23% during the recovery period compared to habitual training. Performance tests were conducted before the training camp (Pre) and after Rec. Muscle biopsies, haematological measures and stress/recovery questionnaires were collected Pre and after the camp (Post). Results: 30-s sprint (SPR vs CON: 4 ± 4%, p < 0.01) and 5-min mean power (SPR vs CON: 4 ± 8%, p = 0.04) changed differently between groups. In muscle, Na+-K+β1 protein content changed differently between groups, decreasing in CON compared to SPR (-8 ± 14%, p = 0.04), while other proteins showed similar changes. SPR and CON displayed similar increases in red blood cell volume (SPR: 2.6 ± 4.7%, p = 0.07, CON: 3.9 ± 4.5%, p = 0.02) and VO2 at 4 mmol·L-1 [BLa-] (SPR: 2.5 ± 3.3%, p = 0.03, CON: 2.2 ± 3.0%, p = 0.04). No changes were seen for VO2max, Wmax, haematological measures, muscle enzyme activity and stress/recovery measures. Conclusion: Inclusion of 30-s sprints within LIT-sessions during a high-volume training camp affected competition-relevant performance-measures and Na+-K+β1 protein content differently than LIT only, without affecting sport-specific stress/recovery or any other physiological measure in elite cyclists.
... There is indeed some reluctance among cyclists to include resistance exercises in their usual training regimen due to the potential gains in body mass, which might reduce relative PO (W·kg −1 ) and thus hinder performance (Mujika et al., 2016). In this regard, the percentage increase in total body mass was very similar with the two interventionsand below 2.0% in both cases -which is in line with the results of previous research, showing a 1-3% increase in cyclists' body mass after TRT interventions (Bastiaans et al., 2001;Rønnestad et al., 2010Rønnestad et al., , 2011Vikmoen et al., 2016;Beattie et al., 2017). It is also worth noting that besides improving time trial performance when expressed in absolute values (W), VBRT tended to improve performance relative to body mass (W·kg −1 , p = 0.080). ...
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We assessed the effects of a short-term velocity-based resistance training (VBRT, where exercise intensity is individualized based on the loads and repetitions that maximize power output) program compared with traditional resistance training (TRT, where the same number of repetitions and relative load are used for every individual) on body composition, muscle strength/power, and endurance performance in competitive female cyclists. Seventeen participants were randomly assigned to 6 weeks (two sessions/week) of TRT (n = 8) or VBRT (n = 9), during which they maintained their usual endurance program. Both interventions included squat, hip thrust, and split squat exercises. Training loads were continuously registered, and outcomes were measures of muscle strength/power, body composition, and endurance performance (incremental test and 8-min time trial). No differences between TRT and VBRT groups were found for overall internal training loads during resistance training or cycling sessions (p > 0.05). Both interventions led to significant improvements in all strength/power-related outcomes, but VBRT induced greater improvements than TRT in maximum muscle strength and power as assessed with the hip thrust exercise (p < 0.05 for the group by time interaction effect). However, no significant group by time interaction effect was found for body composition or endurance performance-related outcomes. In conclusion, the addition of a short-term intervention of VBRT or TRT to the usual training regimen of competitive female cyclists improves muscle strength/power, albeit VBRT might induce superior gains on maximum strength/power for the hip thrust exercise.
... 2,3 Evidence is particularly strong for the benefits of RT on cycling performance, 5,6 with different studies showing that the addition of heavy RT (eg, 2 sessions per week of 2-3 sets of between 4 and 10 repetition maximum [RM]) to the usual endurance training regime results in increased lower-limb strength and power, as well as in improvements in markers of endurance performance (eg, cycling economy, lactate threshold, and overall time trial performance). [7][8][9][10] It remains unclear, however, whether this type of "traditional" RT (TRT) program for improving cycling performance is superior to RT programs that have gained popularity in recent years, notably velocity-based RT (VBRT). ...
Article
Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of optimum power load training (OPT, training with an individualized load and repetitions that maximize power output) and traditional resistance training (TRT, same number of repetitions and relative load for all individuals) in professional cyclists. Methods: Participants (19 [1] y, peak oxygen uptake 75.5 [6] mL/kg/min) were randomly assigned to 8 weeks (2 sessions per week) of TRT (n = 11) or OPT (n = 9), during which they maintained their usual cycle training schedule. Training loads were continuously registered, and measures of muscle strength/power (1-repetition maximum and maximum mean propulsive power on the squat, hip thrust, and lunge exercises), body composition (assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and endurance performance (assessed on both an incremental test and an 8-min time trial) were collected before and at the end of the intervention. Results: OPT resulted in a lower average intensity (percentage of 1-repetition maximum) during resistance training sessions for all exercises (P < .01), but no differences were found for overall training loads during resistance or cycling sessions (P > .05). Both programs led to significant improvements in all strength/power-related parameters, muscle mass (with no changes in total body mass but a decreased fat mass), and time-trial performance (all Ps < .05). A trend toward increased power output at the respiratory compensation point was also found (P = .056 and .066 for TRT and OPT, respectively). No between-groups differences were noted for any outcome (P > .05). Conclusion: The addition of either TRT or OPT to an endurance training regimen of elite cyclists results in similar improvements of body composition, muscle strength/power, and endurance performance.
... This may be due to the large volume of concurrent aerobic training interfering with strength adaptations. Previous studies demonstrated that considerable development of maximal strength abilities is possible, even when trained concurrently to large volumes of aerobic exercise (5,21,32). However, explosive strength abilities, i.e., rate of force development, seem to be negatively affected (21), which may explain the missing effects of on-block force production during the freestyle sprint start. ...
Article
Born, DP, Stöggl, T, Petrov, A, Burkhardt, D, Luethy, F, and Romann, M. Analysis of freestyle swimming sprint start performance after maximal strength or vertical jump training in competitive female and male junior swimmers. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-To investigate the freestyle swimming sprint start performance before and after 6 weeks of maximal strength compared with vertical jump training. With a between-group repeated-measure design, 21 junior swimmers (12 female and 9 male) competing in national and international championships performed 2 weekly sessions of either maximal strength (heavy-loaded back squat and deadlift exercise) or vertical jump training (unloaded box jumps) for 6 weeks during the precompetition phase of the seasonal main event. Session ratings of perceived exertion were used to compare the load of both training programs. Before and after the training period, sprint start performance was investigated on a starting block equipped with force plates synchronized to a 2-dimensional motion capture system. Total training load did not differ between the 2 groups. Sprint start performance and most kinematic and kinetic parameters remained unaffected. In pooled data of the U17 swimmers, however, 5-m, 15-m, and 25-m split times were improved with maximal strength (p 5 0.02, 0.03, and 0.01), but not with vertical jump training (p 5 0.12, 0.16, and 0.28). Although there was no global effect, focus on the subgroup of U17 swimmers showed an improved sprint start performance with 2 sessions of maximal strength training integrated into a 16-hour training week. Although outcomes of the conditioning program seemed to be affected by the training history and performance level of the athletes involved, strength and conditioning coaches are encouraged to introduce maximal strength training at a young age.
... This test has been described elsewhere. 27 Briefly, the test was initiated with 1 min of cycling at a power output corresponding to 3 W·kg -1 (rounded down to the nearest 50 W). Power output was subsequently increased by 25 W every min until exhaustion, defined as a cadence below 60 rpm. ...
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The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 3 weeks with three weekly sessions (ie, nine sessions in total) of short intervals (SI; n = 9; 3 series with 13 × 30-second work intervals interspersed with 15-second recovery and 3-minutes recovery between series) against effort-matched (rate of perceived effort based) long intervals (LI; n = 9; 4 series of 5-minute work intervals with 2.5-minutes recovery between series) on performance parameters in elite cyclists ( V ˙ O 2max 73 ± 4 mL min-1 kg-1 ). There were no differences between groups in total volume and intensity distribution of training during the intervention period. SI achieved a larger (P < .05) relative improvement in peak aerobic power output than LI (3.7 ± 4.3% vs -0.3 ± 2.8%, respectively), fractional utilization of V ˙ O 2max at 4 mmol L-1 [La- ] (3.0 ± 5.8 percent points vs -3.5 ± 2.7 percent points, respectively), and larger relative increase in power output at 4 mmol L-1 [La- ] (2.0 ± 6.7% vs -2.8 ± 3.4, respectively), while there was no group difference in change of V ˙ O 2max . Improvements in performance measured as mean power output during 20-minute cycling test were greater (P < .01) in SI compared with LI (4.7 ± 4.4% vs -1.4 ± 2.2%, respectively). Mean effect size of the improvement in the above variables revealed a small to large effect of SI training vs LI training. The data thus demonstrate that the present SI protocol induces superior training adaptations compared with the present LI protocol in elite cyclists.
... Nowadays, much is known about the effects of different physiological and biomechanical factors to these differently defined indicators of mechanical efficiency [5,8,9,[26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]. However, it is less studied how these differently defined indicators of mechanical efficiency interact with each other and how sensible these indices are methodologically. ...
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Background: Much is known about theoretical bases of different mechanical efficiency indices and effects of physiological and biomechanical factors to them. However, there are only a few studies available about practical bases and interactions between these efficiency indices, which were the aims of the present study. Methods: Fourteen physically active men (n = 12) and women (n = 2) participated in this study. From the incremental test, six different mechanical efficiency indices were calculated for cycling work: gross (GE) and net (NE) efficiencies, two work efficiencies (WE), and economy (T) at 150 W, and in addition delta efficiency (DE) using 3-5 observation points. Results: It was found that the efficiency indices can be divided into three groups by Spearman's rank correlation: GE, T, and NE in group I; DE and extrapolated WE in group II; and measured WE in group III. Furthermore, group II appeared to have poor reliability due to its dependence on a work-expended energy regression line, which accuracy is poorly measured by confidence interval. Conclusion: As efficiency indices fall naturally into three classes that do not interact with each other, it means that they measure fundamentally different aspects of mechanical efficiency. Based on problems and imprecisions with other efficiency indices, GE, or group I, seems to be the best indicator for mechanical efficiency because of its consistency and unambiguity. Based on this methodological analysis, the baseline subtractions in efficiency indices are not encouraged.
... Starting from a conceptual framework where physiological attributes of fatigue resistance have been clarified, future studies have to investigate the best training strategies to improve this attribute. In this regard, some pioneering studies 25,29 seem to suggest that strength training could be a possible way to skin the cat. ...
Purpose: To investigate the relationship of field-derived power and physical performance parameters with competition success in road cycling climbing specialists of age-related categories and to explore cross-sectional differences between high-ranked (HIGHR) climbing specialists of each category. Methods: Fifty-three male climbers participated in this study (junior [JUN], n = 15; under 23 [U23], n = 21; professional [PRO], n = 17). Training and racing data collected during the 2016–19 competitive seasons were retrospectively analyzed for record power outputs (RPOs) and RPOs after prior accumulated work. Results: In JUN, body mass, absolute RPOs, and relative RPOs were higher in HIGHR compared with low ranked (d = 0.97–2.20, large; P = .097–.001); in U23 and PRO, the percentage decrease in RPOs after 20, 30, 40, and 50 kJ·kg−1 was less in HIGHR compared with low ranked (d = 0.77–1.74, moderate–large; P = .096–.004). JUN HIGHR presented lower absolute and relative RPO- 20 min (η2p = .34 − .38, large; P = .099–.001) and higher percentage decrease in RPOs after prior accumulated work compared with U23 and PRO HIGHR (η2p = .28 − .68, large; P = .060–.001); percentage decrease in RPOs after prior accumulated work was the only parameter differentiating U23 and PRO HIGHR, with PRO declining less in relative RPO-1 min, RPO-5 min, and RPO-20 min after 20 to 50 kJ·kg−1 (η2p = .28 − .68, large; P = .090–.001). Conclusions: Superior absolute and relative RPOs characterize HIGHR JUN climbing specialists. Superior fatigue resistance differentiates HIGHR U23 and PRO climbers compared with low ranked, as well as PRO versus U23 climbers.
... Road cycling performance is primarily a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 limited by aerobic energy capacity, but strength (anaerobic) training has been shown to be a valuable supplementary to the traditional endurance training for cyclists [1,2]. Rønnestad et al [3] showed that 12 weeks of strength training improved cycling economy during long-duration submaximal cycling and increased the mean power output in a final 5 min with maximal effort. Other studies support these findings [4], but the beneficial effects of strength training is not unequivocal [1]. ...
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Eccentric cycling training induces muscle hypertrophy and increases joint power output in non-athletes. Moreover, eccentric cycling can be considered a movement-specific type of strength training for cyclists, but it is hitherto unknown if eccentric cycling training can improve cycling performance in trained cyclists. Twenty-three male amateur cyclists were randomized to an eccentric or a concentric cycling training group. The eccentric cycling was performed at a low cadence (~40 revolution per minute) and the intensity was controlled by perceived effort (12–17 on the Borgs scale) during 2 min intervals (repeated 5–8 times). The cadence and perceived effort of the concentric group matched those of the eccentric group. Additionally, after the eccentric or concentric cycling, both groups performed traditionally aerobic intervals with freely chosen cadence in the same session (4–5 x 4–15 min). The participants trained twice a week for 10 weeks. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal aerobic power output (Wmax), lactate threshold, isokinetic strength, muscle thickness, pedaling characteristics and cycling performance (6- and 30-sec sprints and a 20-min time trial test) were assessed before and after the intervention period. Inferences about the true value of the effects were evaluated using probabilistic magnitude-based inferences. Eccentric cycling induced muscle hypertrophy (2.3 ± 2.5% more than concentric) and augmented eccentric strength (8.8 ± 5.9% more than concentric), but these small magnitude effects seemed not to transfer into improvements in the physiological assessments or cycling performance. On the contrary, the eccentric training appeared to have limiting or detrimental effects on cycling performance, measured as Wmax and a 20-min time trial. In conclusion, eccentric cycling training did not improve cycling performance in amateur cyclists. Further research is required to ascertain whether the present findings reflect an actual lack of efficacy, negative effects or a delayed response to eccentric cycling training.
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Background: Cycling competitions are often of long duration and include repeated high-intensity efforts. Purpose: To investigate the effect of repeated maximal sprints during 4 hours of low-intensity cycling on gross efficiency (GE), electromyography patterns, and pedaling technique compared with work-matched low-intensity cycling in elite cyclists. Methods: Twelve elite, male cyclists performed 4 hours of cycling at 50% of maximal oxygen uptake either with 3 sets of 3 × 30-second maximal sprints (E&S) during the first 3 hours or a work-matched cycling without sprints (E) in a randomized order. Oxygen uptake, electromyography, and pedaling technique were recorded throughout the exercises. Results: GE was reduced from start to the end of exercise in both conditions (E&S: 19.0 [0.2] vs 18.1 [0.2], E: 19.1% [0.2%] vs 18.1% [0.2%], both P = .001), with no difference in change between conditions (condition × time interaction, P = .8). Integrated electromyography increased from start to end of exercise in m. vastus lateralis and m. vastus medialis (m. vastus medialis: 9.9 [2.4], m. vastus lateralis: 8.5 [4.0] mV, main effect of time: P < .001 and P = .03, respectively) and E&S increased less than E in m. vastus medialis (mean difference -3.3 [1.5] mV, main effect of condition: P = .03, interaction, P = .06). The mechanical effectiveness only decreased in E&S (E&S: -2.2 [0.7], effect size = 0.24 vs E: -1.3 [0.8] percentage points: P = .04 and P = .8, respectively). The mean power output during each set of 3 × 30-second sprints in E&S did not differ (P = .6). Conclusions: GE decreases as a function of time during 4 hours of low-intensity cycling. However, the inclusion of maximal repeated sprinting does not affect the GE changes, and the ability to sprint is maintained throughout the entire session.
Chapter
Amongst well-trained cyclists, there is a small difference in performance. Therefore, coaches and athletes strive for the optimal training strategies. As a consequence of this, strength training off the bike, as a mean of optimizing the performance on the bike, has received gradually more attention during the last decade. Particularly, the effects of adding heavy strength training to the normal endurance training on the bike have been a topic of increasing interest amongst both the scientists and the practitioners. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly describe how strength training influences important physiological determinants of cycling endurance performance, present potential mechanisms behind the effects of strength training on cycling performance, and give practical recommendations for combination of strength- and endurance training.
Thesis
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In this thesis I contribute to the discourse on disturbing bodies and athletic performances in female sports through the phantom category of ‘intersex’. As ‘Intersex’ is disputed as an identity and represents a wide range of anatomic makeups, Iain Morland designates it as a phantom category. I adopt this usage as it problematises the category and trouble the logic of ‘intersexphobia’ that circulates around the female body and athletic performance ideals in elite sports. This research contributes new understandings of the phantom category of intersex because it is the first study to bring together in a dialogue IOC/IAAF medical representatives involved in the management/treatment of athletes with intersex variations, intersex organisation representatives and female athletes. By juxtaposing their voices I have complicated the ways in which it is possible to understand members of each group and elucidated strategies and relations of power which structure the discourses related to the phantom category of intersex in elite sport. This study has a strong archival element, drawing on pertinent material from the Olympic Museum in Switzerland. This archival research extends understanding of the history of medical testing of ‘unreal women’ and underscores the influence of Avery Brundage, a central figure in the development, standardisation and implementation of the femininity tests, both nationally and internationally. This archival research has also enabled me to contribute to an understanding of how sport medical experts have vigorously questioned the IOC’s insistence upon defining femininity through testing since the 1970s. It also afforded access to and analysis of a previously unreported IOC survey directed towards women athletes at the Lillehammer Games (1994) on the subject of gender verification. To make sense of this historically layered and diverse data, covering material from 1928 to 2012, this study employs several analytic strategies. I consider Foucauldian genealogical strategies when analysing continuing and discontinuing concepts of knowledges and truths which mark and regulate particular bodies and athletic performances as normal versus abnormal. Expanding on frameworks of biopower and biopedagogy I also scrutinise whose truths and knowledges are privileged and therefore who is seen as more competent than others to tell the truth about these issues. By also attending to Foucauldian concepts of “subjugated knowledges” and their “insurrection”, this study conceptualises the understandings and subjective experiences of female athletes who have been tried and tested and of intersex organisations. This thesis also draws on Morland’s idea of “one’s embodied cultural location”, Nikki Sullivan’s concept of somatechnologies and Pierre Bourdieu’s notion of habitus. Together these frameworks form critical components when considering how structuring structures and subjective experiences inform how participants justify or contest the employment of particular somatechnologies to conceptualise and limit corporeality and athletic performances in female sports. In bringing all these voices into dialogue and by uncovering new material at the Olympic Archives, I have opened up new ways of thinking about how bodies and athletic performances are marked and regulated. I have also developed understandings of how ongoing practices of the regulation of female athletic bodies are justified, continued and discontinued.
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O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar trabalhos que investigaram os efeitos do treinamento de força (TF) para o desempenho de endurance. Os principais fatores fisiológicos determinantes das provas de endurance (PE) são o consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2max), o limiar anaeróbio (LAn) e a economia de movimento (EM). Ambos VO2max e LAn são bem estimulados com meios e métodos tradicionais de treinamento e essas duas variáveis parecem ser pouco sensíveis ao TF em pessoas treinadas. Por outro lado, a EM pode ser aperfeiçoada com o TF, mesmo em indivíduos bem treinados em endurance. Portanto, concluímos que o TF colabora para a melhora na endurance, por meio do incremento da EM, e esses resultados sugerem mudança de paradigma na periodização do treinamento de PE. The aim of this study was to review studies that analyzed the effects of resistance training (RT) on endurance performance. The main physiological determinants of endurance events is the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), anaerobic threshold (AT) and economy of movement (EM). Both, VO2max and AT, are very encouraged with the means and traditional methods of training and these two variables appear to be few sensitive to people already trained in RT. On the other hand, EM can be improved with the RT even in endurance-trained individuals. Therefore, we conclude that RT contributes to the improvement in endurance, through the increase in EM, and these results suggest a paradigm shift in periodization training of endurance events.
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The aim of the study was to establish the differences in the motor ability profile of a person who was considered a promising ski jumper a few years ago and is now a top cyclist. He quickly made progress in his ski-jumping career and, at the age of 16, he became one of the most talented Slovenian ski jumpers. At the Nordic Junior World Ski Championships he won a medal twice in team competitions. As a junior athlete he won three competitions in the FIS Continental Cup. Unfortunately, a severe fall on the ski-jump on 22 March 2007 prematurely ended the ski-jumping career of the then minor athlete. At 22, his big desire for sport activity brought him into cycling which appears to be completely different from ski jumping. Following a few years' training, he succeeded in joining the top professional cyclists. In the last two seasons he scored top results in this endurance sport, including a silver medal at the 2017 World Championship in time trial. At the end of his ski-jumping career in 2010, he was well prepared in terms of basic motor abilities and he had an excellent morphological profile. Besides typically ski-jumping abilities, he also had a high endurance component of power which surely eased his transition to top cycling. After seven years of strenuous training and cycling competitions, his final score of potential competitive performance in ski jumping significantly decreased. The largest decline was established in the tests of dynamic jumping power and movement coordination, which are important measurement instruments in ski jumping. He was still able to achieve high level of repetitive power of legs and abdominal muscles. As regards balance, flexibility and movement speed he has preserved a high level of movement potential, which can be of great benefit to him when developing cycling technical skills, especially in the technique of riding in difficult, new and unexpected conditions. đNamen raziskave je bil ugotoviti razlike v profilu gibalnih sposobnosti pred nekaj leti perspek-tivnega smučarja skakalca in danes vrhunskega kolesarja. V svoji skakalni karieri je dokaj hitro napredoval in pri 16 letih postal eden od najbolj talentiranih slovenskih skakalcev. Žal je ver-jetno hud padec 22. 3. 2007 takrat še mladoletnega športnika na letalnici povzročil prehiter konec kariere smučarja skakalca. Njegova velika želja po športni dejavnosti ga je pri 22 letih pripeljala v kolesarski šport, ki se zdi povsem drugačen od smučarskih skokov. Že po nekajletni vadbi je uspel priti med vrhunske profesionalne kolesarje. V zadnjih dveh sezonah je v tem vzdržljivostnem športu osvojil vrhunske rezultate vključno s srebrno kolajno na svetovnem pr-venstvu leta 2017 v kronometru. Ob koncu skakalne kariere je bil v letu 2010 dobro pripravljen v prostoru osnovnih gibalnih sposobnosti in je imel odlično morfološko profiliranost. Poleg tipično skakalnih gibalnih sposobnosti ga je odlikovala tudi visoka vzdržljivostna komponenta moči, kar mu je prav gotovo olajšalo prehod med vrhunske kolesarje. Po sedmih letih naporne-ga treniranja in tekmovanj v kolesarstvu se je njegova končna ocena potencialne tekmovalne uspešnosti v smučarskih skokih značilno znižala. Še največji padec je bil ugotovljen pri testih dinamične skočne moči in koordinacije gibanja, ki so v smučarskih skokih pomembni merski instrumenti. Še vedno je dosegel visoko raven repetitivne moči nog in trebušnih mišic. Pri ravnotežju, gibljivosti in gibalni hitrosti je ohranil visoko raven gibalnega potenciala, kar mu lahko koristi pri razvoju kolesarskih tehničnih spretnostih, še zlasti pri tehniki vožnje v oteže-nih, novih in nepričakovanih pogojih. Ključne besede: smučarski skakalec, kolesar, morfološki in motorični profil.
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[Main text in Slovene]. The most important predictors of performance in endurance sports are maximal oxygen uptake, the second lactate threshold or critical power and movement efficiency. For a long time it was believed that resistance training is not suitable for endurance athletes due to unwanted increases in muscle mass and training of muscle fibres that are not important for those athletes. Based on the literature review that we performed we conclude that resistance training positively affects numerous important determinants of endurance performance and that there are no downsides reported. Studies report that addition of resistance training can have possitive effects as only as 8 weeks after the onset of such training. Resistance training can thus very effectively contribute towards better performance provided that exercise is designed according to the needs of a discipline and the athlete. The main reasons for efficacy of resistance training appears to be improved movement efficiency, maximal locomotion speed, improvements of anaerobic capacity and concomitant delayed onset of fatigue.
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Efecto de un programa de entrenamiento de fuerza y acondicionamiento en seco sobre las habilidades físicas en practicantes federados en natación O efeito de um programa de treino de força e condicionamento em seco nas capacidades físicas e partida em praticantes regulares de natação previamente federados ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 10-week strength and conditioning (S&C) program in physical capacities and start in previously federated and regular swimming practitioners. 16 swimmers (9 male, 17.00±2.16 years of age, 179.14±5.76 cm of height and 69.79±3.11 kg of weight; 7 female, 15.86±2.34 years of age, 163.86±4.98 cm of height and 60.19±3.60 kg of weigh) were equality, but randomly separated in two groups (control group and experimental group, CG and EG, respectively). In the pre-test, swimmers performed three starts in two different models, grab start and track start, the best start was registered. Kinematic parameters of the swimming start and time at 15 m were determined. Flexibility, countermovement jump and 3 kg medicine ball throw were also assessed. In post-test, 10-weeks after a regular 2-sessions week specific dry-land S&C program of 60 min was performed by the EG, all tests were repeated. Flexibility, strength and muscular power gains were significant in EG, contrarily to CG. Swimming start flight phase variables improved more in EG compared to CG, with specificities observed in grab and track start but not a linear consequence with performance in 15-m mark in both groups. A 10-week dry-land S&C program can provide benefits in physical capacities in regular swimming practitioners, fact that may improve the initial phase of the swimming start, prior to the underwater moment, which should deserve attention by the coaches in daily training aiming performance enhancement at 15 m. RESUMEN El propósito de esto estudio fue evaluar el efecto de un programa de fuerza y acondicionamiento (F&A) en seco de 10 semanas sobre las habilidades físicas y el salto en practicantes habituales de natación previamente federados. 16 nadadores (9 masculino, 17.00±2.16 años de edad, 179.14±5.76 cm de altura y 69.79±3.11 kg de peso and 7 mujer, Cita: Silva, C.; Jesus, J.; Vilarigues, I.; Aranha, I.; Candeias, I.; Santos, F., Figueiredo, T.; Espada, M. (2022). Effects of a 10-week dry-land strength and conditionining program in physical capacities and start of previously federated and regular swimming practicioners. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 22(1), 230-244 Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 22, 1 (enero) Dry strength and conditioning training for swimmers 231 15.86±2.34 años de edad, 163.86±4.98 cm de altura y 60.19±3.60 kg de peso) fueron equitativamente, pero al azar divididos en dos grupos (control y experimental, respectivamente, GC e GE). En el pre-test realizaron tres saltos en dos modelos, grab start e track start, siendo el mejor registrado. Se han determinado parámetros cinemáticos del salto en natación y el tiempo a los 15 m. También se evaluaron la flexibilidad, el salto con contramovimiento y el lanzamiento de una pelota medicinal de 3 kg. En el post-test, 10 semanas después de un programa de F&A en seco con 2 sesiones semanales de 60 min interpretado por GE, las pruebas se repitieron. Las mejoras de flexibilidad, fuerza y potencia muscular fueron significativas en el GE, en contraste con el GC. Las variables de la fase de vuelo en el salto mejoraron más en el GE en comparación con el CG, con especificidades observadas en el grab start e track start, pero no una consecuencia lineal con el rendimiento a 15 m en ambos grupos. Un programa de F&A seco de 10 semanas puede promover beneficios en las habilidades físicas de nadadores habituales, hecho que puede mejorar la fase inicial del salto en la natación, previa al momento subacuático, que debe merecer la atención de los entrenadores en las sesiones diarias con el objetivo de a una mejora del rendimiento a 15 m. Palabras clave: Entrenamiento, Fuerza, Flexibilidad, Cinemática, Rendimiento. RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de um programa de força e condicionamento (F&C) em seco de 10 semanas nas capacidades físicas e salto em praticantes regulares de natação previamente federados. 16 nadadores (9 masculinos, 17.00±2.16 anos de idade, 179.14±5.76 cm de altura e 69.79±3.11 kg de peso; 7 femininos, 15.86±2.34 anos de idade, 163.86±4.98 cm de altura e 60.19±3.60 kg de peso) foram equitativamente, mas de forma aleatória divididos em dois grupos (controlo e experimental, respetivamente, GC e GE). No pré-teste, nadadores realizaram três saltos em dois modelos, grab start e track start, sendo registado o melhor. Foram determinados parâmetros do salto na natação e o tempo aos 15 m. Flexibilidade, salto em contramovimento e lançamento de bola medicinal de 3 kg foram também avaliados. No pós-teste, 10 semanas após programa de F&C em seco com 2 sessões semanais de 60 min realizado por GE, testes foram repetidos. As melhorias de flexibilidade, força e potência muscular foram significativas no GE, contrariamente ao GC. As variáveis da fase inicial do salto associadas ao voo melhoraram mais no GE comparativamente ao GC, com especificidades observadas no grab start e track start, mas não uma consequência linear com o desempenho aos 15 m em ambos os grupos. Um programa de F&C em seco de 10 semanas pode promover benefícios nas capacidades físicas de praticantes regulares de natação, facto que pode melhorar a fase inicial do salto na natação, anterior ao momento subaquático, que deve merecer atenção pelos treinadores nas sessões diárias visando uma melhoria de desempenho aos 15 m.
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The purpose in conducting this investigation was: 1) To confirm that muscular strength is related to cycling economy, and 2) To determine if maximal force production at sport-specific velocities has a stronger relationship with exercise economy than other velocities.
Chapter
Current literature provides some evidence for comprised neuromuscular adaptations when endurance and strength training are performed concurrently although this has typically not been observed for cardiorespiratory adaptations. However, if appropriate progression and recovery between endurance and strength training is not accounted for, the residual effects of fatigue from previous strength training sessions may impair the quality of subsequent endurance training sessions. This chapter will present studies that have reported the attenuation of endurance performance as a result of strength training-induced fatigue, the possible training variables that may affect this phenomenon and possible recommendations to minimise the impact of strength training-induced fatigue on the quality of subsequent endurance training sessions.
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This study determined the effects of a 10-week strength training program on running economy in 12 female distance runners who were randomly assigned to either an endurance and strength training program (ES) or endurance training only (E). Training for both groups consisted of steady-state endurance running 4 to 5 days a week, 20 to 30 miles each week. The ES undertook additional weight training 3 days a week. Subjects were tested pre and post for [latin capital V with dot above]O2, max, treadmill running economy, body composition, and strength. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to determine significant differences between and within groups. The endurance and strength training program resulted in significant increases in strength (p < 0.05) for the ES in both upper (24.4%) and lower body (33.8%) lifts. There were no differences in treadmill [latin capital V with dot above]O2, max and body composition in either group. Running economy improved significantly in the ES group, but no significant changes were observed in the E group. The findings suggest that strength training, when added to an endurance training program, improves running economy and has little or no impact on [latin capital V with dot above]O2, max or body composition in trained female distance runners. (C) 1997 National Strength and Conditioning Association
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training on endurance performance and selected muscle characteristics of female cyclists. Twenty-one endurance-trained, female cyclists, aged 18-42 yr, were randomly assigned to either a resistance training (RT; N = 14) or a control group (CON; N = 7). Resistance training (2X x wk(-1)) consisted of five sets to failure (2-8 RM) of parallel squats for 12 wk. Before and immediately after the resistance-training period, all subjects completed an incremental cycle test to allow determination of both their lactate threshold (LT) and peak oxygen consumption VO2). In addition, endurance performance was assessed by average power output during a 1-h cycle test (OHT), and leg strength was measured by recording the subject's one repetition maximum (1 RM) concentric squat. Before and after the 12-wk training program, resting muscle was sampled by needle biopsy from m. vastus lateralis and analyzed for fiber type diameter, fiber type percentage, and the activities of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and phosphofructokinase. After the resistance training program, there was a significant increase in 1 RM concentric squat strength for RT (35.9%) but not for CON (3.7%) (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant changes in OHT performance, LT, VO2, muscle fiber characteristics, or enzyme activities in either group (P > 0.05). The present data suggest that increased leg strength does not improve cycle endurance performance in endurance-trained, female cyclists.
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Unlabelled: This study investigated the variation in freely chosen pedal rate between subjects and its possible dependence on percentage myosin heavy chain I (%MHC I) in m. vastus lateralis, maximum leg strength and power, as well as efficiency. Additionally, the hypothesis was tested that a positive correlation exists between percentage MHC I and efficiency at pre-set pedal rates but not at freely chosen pedal rate. Twenty males performed cycling at low and high submaximal power output ( approximately 40 and 70% of the power output at which maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) was attained at 80 r.p.m.) with freely chosen and pre-set pedal rates (61, 88, and 115 r.p.m.). Percentage MHC I as well as leg strength and power were determined. Freely chosen pedal rate varied considerably between subjects: 56-88 r.p.m. at low and 61-102 r.p.m. at high submaximal power output. This variation was only partly explained by percentage MHC I (21-97%) as well as by leg strength and power. Interestingly, %MHC I correlated significantly with the pedal rate at which maximum peak crank power occurred (r = -0.81). As hypothesized, %MHC I and efficiency were unrelated at freely chosen pedal rate, which was in contrast to a significant correlation found at pre-set pedal rates (r = 0.61 and r = 0.57 at low and high power output, respectively). Conclusions: Subjects with high percentage MHC I chose high pedal rates close to the pedal rates at which maximum peak crank power occurred, while subjects with low percentage MHC I tended to choose lower pedal rates, favouring high efficiency. Nevertheless, the considerable variation in freely chosen pedal rate between subjects was neither fully accounted for by percentage MHC I nor by leg strength and power. Previously recognized relationships between percentage Type I ( approximately %MHC I) and efficiency as well as between pedal rate and efficiency were confirmed for pre-set pedal rates, but for freely chosen pedal rate, these variables were unrelated.
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Impairment in strength development has been demonstrated with combined strength and endurance training as compared with strength training alone. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of combining conventional 3 d[middle dot]wk-1 strength and endurance training on the compatibility of improving both [latin capital V with dot above]O2peak and strength performance simultaneously. Sedentary adult males, randomly assigned to one of three groups (N = 10 each), completed 10 wk of training. A strength-only (S) group performed eight weight-training exercises (4 sets/exercise, 5-7 repetitions/set), an endurance-only (E) group performed continuous cycle exercise (50 min at 70% heart rate reserve), and a combined (C) group performed the same S and E exercise in a single session. S and C groups demonstrated similar increases (P < 0.0167) in 1RM squat (23% and 22%) and bench press (18% for both groups), in maximal isometric knee extension torque (12% and 7%), in maximal vertical jump (6% and 9%), and in fat-free mass (3% and 5%). E training did not induce changes in any of these variables. [latin capital V with dot above]O2peak (ml[middle dot]kg-1min-1) increased (P < 0.01) similarity in both E (18%) and C (16%) groups. Results indicate 3 d[middle dot]wk-1 combined training can induce substantial concurrent and compatible increases in [latin capital V with dot above]O2peak and strength performance. (C)1995The American College of Sports Medicine
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The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of whole body vibration (WBV) at different vibration frequencies on 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in recreationally strength trained subjects and untrained subjects. While performing a 1RM test in half squat, trained (8 men) and untrained (5 men and 3 women) subjects were randomly exposed to WBV with a frequency of 20 Hz, 35 Hz, 50 Hz (amplitude, 3 mm), or control conditions with no vibration. 1RM in half squat was assessed in a Smith Machine while subjects were standing on a vibration platform. Both untrained and recreationally strength trained subjects increased their 1RM at a vibration frequency of 50 Hz compared with no vibration (p < 0.05), and untrained subjects increased their 1RM to a larger extent than recreationally trained subjects (8.7% vs. 4.9%; p < 0.05). However, there was no difference in 1RM while vibrating at a frequency of 20 Hz and 35 Hz compared with no vibrations in either of the groups. In conclusion, WBV with a frequency of 50 Hz increases 1RM in both recreationally strength trained and untrained subjects, whereas vibration frequencies of 20 Hz and 35 Hz do not have this effect. Untrained subjects increased their 1RM at WBV at 50 Hz to a larger extent than recreationally strength trained subjects. Therefore, if the purpose is to increase the stimulus to the neuromuscular system to a greater extent than traditional strength training, the WBV frequency should be 50 Hz and the exercises should be heavily loaded (as in traditional strength training).
Article
We tested the hypothesis that a greater activation of fast-twitch (FT) fibres during dynamic exercise leads to a higher muscle oxygen uptake (VO2 ) and energy turnover as well as a slower muscle on-kinetics. Subjects performed one-legged knee-extensor exercise for 10 min at an intensity of 30 W without (CON) and with (CUR) arterial injections of the non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent cisatracurium. In CUR, creatine phosphate (CP) was unaltered in slow twitch (ST) fibres and decreased (P < 0.05) by 28% in FT fibres, whereas in CON, CP decreased (P < 0.05) by 33% and 23% in ST and FT fibres, respectively. From 127 s of exercise, muscle VO2 was higher (P < 0.05) in CUR compared to CON (425 +/- 25 (+/- S.E.M.) versus 332 +/- 30 ml min(-1)) and remained higher (P < 0.05) throughout exercise. Using monoexponential fitting, the time constant of the exercise-induced muscle VO2 response was slower (P < 0.05) in CUR than in CON (55 +/- 6 versus 33 +/- 5 s). During CUR and CON, muscle homogenate CP was lowered (P < 0.05) by 32 and 35%, respectively, and also muscle lactate production was similar in CUR and CON (37.8 +/- 4.1 versus 35.2 +/- 6.2 mmol). Estimated total muscle ATP turnover was 19% higher (P < 0.05) in CUR than in CON (1196 +/- 90 versus 1011 +/- 59 mmol) and true mechanical efficiency was lower (P < 0.05) in CUR than in CON (26.2 +/- 2.0 versus 30.9 +/- 1.5%). In conclusion, the present findings provide evidence that FT fibres are less efficient than ST fibres in vivo at a contraction frequency of 1 Hz, and that the muscle VO2 kinetics is slowed by FT fibre activation.
Article
The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of change in effort sense and the value of this pattern in predicting work end-point at relatively high work intensity (80% VO2 max). The patterns of change of various physiological functions were also observed. Two modes of work (walking and running) were compared to ascertain generalizability of results. 26 healthy male volunteers served as subjects. Time to exhaustion (ET) did not differ between walking and running. As work continued during both tasks, significant increases of VE, VE/VO2, VE/VCO2 and HR and a significant decrease of ETCO2 were observed; while VO2 and R remained fairly constant. VO2 and VE during the run were about 5% greater than during the walk; there were no differences in other measures. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) from the Borg Scale were identical for both conditions, increasing in a near linear fashion from a value of 12.9 at 25% of total work time to 18.9 at exhaustion. Ratings obtained at 25 and 50% ET were extrapolated to time of exhaustion; the point of intercept corresponded to ratings of perceived exertion for maximal work. At exhaustion, subjects rated perception of respiratory exertion for the walk as less than that for the run; perception of leg exertion was not different for the two conditions. Plasma lactate, epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations following exercise did not differ between the two conditions. The findings for the walking experiment were essentially replicated in a second investigation involving another 28 subjects. It is concluded that, with the exception of VO2 and some ventilatory parameters, walking and running at the same relative work intensity resulted in comparable perceptual and physiological responses. Psychophysical judgments made early during work were reasonably accurate predictors of exhaustion time.
Article
We determined that the variability in the oxygen cost and thus the caloric expenditure of cycling at a given work rate (i.e., cycling economy) observed among highly endurance-trained cyclists (N = 19; mean +/- SE; VO2max, 4.9 +/- 0.1 l.min-1; body weight, 71 +/- 1 kg) is related to differences in their % Type I muscle fibers. The percentage of Type I and II muscle fibers was determined from biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle that were histochemically stained for ATPase activity. When cycling a Monark ergometer at 80 RPM at work rates eliciting 52 +/- 1, 61 +/- 1, and 71 +/- 1% VO2max, efficiency was determined from the caloric expenditure responses (VO2 and RER using open circuit spirometry) to steady-state exercise. Gross efficiency (GE) was calculated as the ratio of work accomplished.min-1 to caloric expenditure.min-1, whereas delta efficiency (DE) was calculated as the slope of this relationship between approximately 50 and 70% VO2max. The % Type I fibers ranged from 32 to 76%, and DE when cycling ranged from 18.3 to 25.6% in these subjects. The % Type I fibers was positively correlated with both DE (r = 0.85; P less than 0.001; N = 19) and GE (r = 0.75; P less than 0.001; N = 19) during cycling. Additionally, % Type I fibers was positively correlated with GE (r = 0.74; P less than 0.001; N = 13) measured during the novel task of two-legged knee extension; performed at a velocity of 177 +/- 6 degrees.s-1 and intensity of 50 and 70% of peak VO2 for that activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Neuromuscular and hormonal adaptations to prolonged strength training were investigated in nine elite weight lifters. The average increases occurred over the 2-yr follow-up period in the maximal neural activation (integrated electromyogram, IEMG; 4.2%, P = NS), maximal isometric leg-extension force (4.9%, P = NS), averaged concentric power index (4.1%, P = NS), total weight-lifting result (2.8%, P less than 0.05), and total mean fiber area (5.9%, P = NS) of the vastus lateralis muscle, respectively. The training period resulted in increases in the concentrations of serum testosterone from 19.8 +/- 5.3 to 25.1 +/- 5.2 nmol/l (P less than 0.05), luteinizing hormone (LH) from 8.6 +/- 0.8 to 9.1 +/- 0.8 U/l (P less than 0.05), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from 4.2 +/- 2.0 to 5.3 +/- 2.3 U/l (P less than 0.01), and testosterone-to-serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) ratio (P less than 0.05). The annual mean value of the second follow-up year for the serum testosterone-to-SHBG ratio correlated significantly (r = 0.84, P less than 0.01) with the individual changes during the 2nd yr in the averaged concentric power. The present results suggest that prolonged intensive strength training in elite athletes may influence the pituitary and possibly hypothalamic levels, leading to increased serum levels of testosterone. This may create more optimal conditions to utilize more intensive training leading to increased strength development.
Article
There is a great demand for perceptual effort ratings in order to better understand man at work. Such ratings are important complements to behavioral and physiological measurements of physical performance and work capacity. This is true for both theoretical analysis and application in medicine, human factors, and sports. Perceptual estimates, obtained by psychophysical ratio-scaling methods, are valid when describing general perceptual variation, but category methods are more useful in several applied situations when differences between individuals are described. A presentation is made of ratio-scaling methods, category methods, especially the Borg Scale for ratings of perceived exertion, and a new method that combines the category method with ratio properties. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are discussed in both theoretical-psychophysical and psychophysiological frames of reference.
Article
The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the heart rate response of 8 professional cyclists (26+/-3 yr; 68.9+/-5.2 kg; V02max: 74.0+/-5.8 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) during the 3-week Tour de France as an indicator of exercise intensity. Subjects wore a heart rate telemeter during 22 competition stages and recorded data were analysed using computer software. Two reference heart rates (corresponding to the first and second ventilatory thresholds or VT1 and VT2) were used to establish three levels of exercise intensity defined as phases I (<VT1), II (VT1 -VT2) and III (<VT2). The average total time spent by each subject in each of the 3 phases respectively was approximately 71, 23 and 8 h. The relative contributions of each phase were 70, 23 and 7%. The percentage relative contribution of each phase was significantly different (p<0.01) in each of the competition stages (time trials, flat stages, "high-mountain" stages and "medium-mountain" stages). Exercise intensity was particularly high during the time trials and high mountain stages. It may be concluded that during an endurance event such as the Tour de France, although the overall contribution of moderate (VT1 to VT2) or high intensity exercise (>VT2) is substantially lower than that of light, aerobic exercise (<VT1), a clear distinction must be made between the different type of stages (i.e. easy, flat parcours vs mountain stages or time trials) and the role of each cyclist in the team must be also considered.
Article
The present study examines the hypothesis that maximal strength training improves work economy and anaerobic threshold in trained female cross-country skiers while working on a ski ergometer. Fifteen female cross-country skiers (17.9 +/- 0.3 yr, 166.7 +/- 1.3 cm, 60.1 +/- 1.9 kg, and 55.3 +/- 1.3 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) participated in the study. Eight skiers made up the high-intensity strength-trained group, and seven served as the control group. Endurance performance was tested on a specially instrumented ski ergometer. Strength training and testing simulated double poling in cross-country skiing. A significant (P < 0.001) improvement in double-poling economy on the ski ergometer was observed among the strength-trained group. Anaerobic threshold did not change during the experimental period for either group. After a 9-wk training period, time to exhaustion increased from 5.2 (+/-0.9) to 12.3 (+/-1.6) min (P < 0.001) and from 4.0 (+/-0.9) to 6.3 (+/-0.9) min (P < 0.01) for the strength and control group, respectively. Time to exhaustion was significantly higher (P < 0.001) for the strength group compared with the control group after training. One repetition maximum increased 14.5% (1.8) (P < 0.001) in the strength group but was unchanged in the control group. Expressed in relation to peak force at one repetition maximum, strength training resulted in a significant reduction in the relative available force employed working on the ski ergometer (P < 0.01). Time to peak force at maximal aerobic velocity on the ski ergometer was significantly reduced in the strength-training group (P < 0.01). It is concluded that maximal strength training in the upper-body improved the double-poling performance by improved work economy. Work economy was improved by a reduction in relative workload and time to peak force while double poling.
Article
In the exercising human, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is limited by the ability of the cardiorespiratory system to deliver oxygen to the exercising muscles. This is shown by three major lines of evidence: 1) when oxygen delivery is altered (by blood doping, hypoxia, or beta-blockade), VO2max changes accordingly; 2) the increase in VO2max with training results primarily from an increase in maximal cardiac output (not an increase in the a-v O2 difference); and 3) when a small muscle mass is overperfused during exercise, it has an extremely high capacity for consuming oxygen. Thus, O2 delivery, not skeletal muscle O2 extraction, is viewed as the primary limiting factor for VO2max in exercising humans. Metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle are, however, critical for improving submaximal endurance performance. Endurance training causes an increase in mitochondrial enzyme activities, which improves performance by enhancing fat oxidation and decreasing lactic acid accumulation at a given VO2. VO2max is an important variable that sets the upper limit for endurance performance (an athlete cannot operate above 100% VO2max, for extended periods). Running economy and fractional utilization of VO2max also affect endurance performance. The speed at lactate threshold (LT) integrates all three of these variables and is the best physiological predictor of distance running performance.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of concurrent strength and endurance training on strength, endurance, endocrine status and muscle fibre properties. A total of 45 male and female subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups; strength training only (S), endurance training only (E), concurrent strength and endurance training (SE), or a control group (C). Groups S and E trained 3 days a week and the SE group trained 6 days a week for 12 weeks. Tests were made before and after 6 and 12 weeks of training. There was a similar increase in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) in both groups E and SE (P < 0.05). Leg press and knee extension one repetition maximum (1 RM) was increased in groups S and SE (P < 0.05) but the gains in knee extension 1 RM were greater for group S compared to all other groups (P < 0.05). Types I and II muscle fibre area increased after 6 and 12 weeks of strength training and after 12 weeks of combined training in type II fibres only (P < 0.05). Groups SE and E had an increase in succinate dehydrogenase activity and group E had a decrease in adenosine triphosphatase after 12 weeks of training (P < 0.05). A significant increase in capillary per fibre ratio was noted after 12 weeks of training in group SE. No changes were observed in testosterone, human growth hor