Article

Prophylactic Efficacy of Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) on Testis of Lead-Exposed Mice

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Abstract

Lead poisoning is a worldwide health problem, and its treatment is under investigation. The aim of this study was to access the efficacy of Coriandrum sativum (coriander) in reducing lead-induced changes in mice testis. Animal exposed to lead nitrate showed significant decrease in testicular SOD, CAT, GSH, total protein, and tissue lead level. This was accompanied by simultaneous increase in the activities of LPO, AST, ALT, ACP, ALP, and cholesterol level. Serum testosterone level and sperm density were suppressed in lead-treated group compared with the control. These influences of lead were prevented by concurrent daily administration of C. sativum extracts to some extent. Treating albino mice with lead-induced various histological changes in the testis and treatment with coriander led to an improvement in the histological testis picture. The results thus led us to conclude that administration of C. sativum significantly protects against lead-induced oxidative stress. Further work need to be done to isolate and purify the active principle involved in the antioxidant activity of this plant.

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... Even if some plants fail to enhance spermatogenesis in normal rodents ( (Kanter, 2010), radiation (Pande, kumar, & Kumar, 1998), lead (Sharma, Kansal, & Sharma, 2010), cadmium (Asadi et al., 2014), gentamicin (Nouri, Khaki, Azar, & Rashidi, 2009) and nicotine (Ping, Hashim, & Adli, 2014). ...
... The protective effect of these plants was attributed to their antioxidant activity in many studies (Danladi et al., 2013;Patil, Vora, & Pillai, 2012;Sharma et al., 2010). ...
... Exerted antioxidant activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (Ardestani & Yazdanparast, 2006) Artemisia herba alba Improved sperm mobility in diabetic rats (Al Bakhait, 2008) Exerted strong free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities which are related to their polyphenol contents (Seddik, Nadjet, Abderrahmane, Harzallah, & Lekhmici, 2010) Aloe vera Reduced radiation-induced damage to germ cells (Pande et al., 1998) Exhibited antioxidant effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats (Rajasekaran, Sivagnanam, & Subramanian, 2005) Coriandrum sativum Protected the testis from lead toxicity (Sharma et al., 2010) Protected against lead-induced oxidative stress (Sharma et al., 2010) Daucus carota Protective effect of seed extracts in gentamicin treated rats (Nouri et al., 2009) Seed extract reduced oxidative stress in rats (Singh, Singh, Chandy, & Manigauha, 2012) Foeniculum vulgare Protective effect of fennel essential oil against genotoxicity induced by cyclophosphamide (Tripathi, Tripathi, Patel, & Pancholi, 2013) Reduced oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide (Tripathi et al., 2013) Lepidium ...
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Male sexual dysfunction is a serious problem which has an impact on the quality of life. In Jordanian folk medicine, 56 plant species were reported to be used by males to improve sexual potency and as aphrodisiacs. The aim of this study was to search for scientific evidence justifying their folk use. Of the 15 studied plants, only five were found to enhance spermatogenesis. The other 10 were reported to decrease spermatogenesis at least by one study. The majority of the studied plants possessed a protective effect on testis in different in vivo models as well as antioxidant activities. The effect of these plants on steroidogenesis and the hypothalamic-gonadal axis was also reviewed. The effect of only five plants was studied on sexual behaviour enhancement and three of them were active. Three of the four studied plants enhanced erection. The mechanism of action of active constituents isolated from the studied plants was also investigated. In conclusion, many plants used in Jordanian folk medicine decreased or had no effect on spermatogenesis in animal models. These plants have antioxidant and/or adaptogenic effects, and this may result in a beneficial action on male reproductive system.
... Contrary to the present findings, there are experimental studies that demonstrate significant decrease in SOD activity in rats following oral administration of lead (Haleagrahara et al., 2010;Hamed et al., 2010) or mice (Xu et al., 2009). However, other studies revealed unchanged SOD activity in lead-exposed rats (Bandhu et al., 2006;Lodi et al., 2011) or mice (Sharma et al., 2010). ...
... Decreased SOD activity may also be caused by the interaction of lead and known metal cofactors of SOD1 and SOD3, such as zinc or copper. Decreased SOD activity may also have been provoked by interaction of lead and sulfhydryl groups, which are known to be essential for SOD activity (Flora et al., 2004;Hamed et al., 2010;Sharma et al., 2010;Xia et al., 2010;Yu et al., 2008). ...
... The findings obtained in animal research concerning CAT activity do not support our study. The enzymic activity of CAT was decreased in the majority of studies in rats (Lodi et al., 2011;Sivaprasad et al., 2003;Xia et al., 2010) and mice (Sharma et al., 2010;Xu et al., 2009). In addition, other groups obtained inconsistent data, where certain groups found increased CAT activity (Bandhu et al., 2006;Farmand et al., 2005), while others found CAT activity to be unaltered (Vaziri et al., 2003). ...
Article
In this study, we sought to understand the influence of occupational lead-exposure on the gene expression (Sod1) and activity (SOD) of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, Gpx1) in leukocytes and erythrocytes. The study group consisted of 45 healthy male employees of a lead-zinc works and was divided into two subgroups: those with low exposure to lead (LE) and those with high exposure to lead (HE). In addition, 17 healthy male administrative workers participated in the study as the control group. The gene expression levels of both Sod1 and Gpx1 were significantly increased in the LE group as compared to the control group. By contrast, we noted only an insignificant tendency for increased gene expression of both Sod1 and Gpx1 in the HE group. The expression and activity of catalase were unchanged. Nevertheless, SOD and GPx activities in erythrocytes was significantly elevated in both examined subgroups, whereas SOD activity in leukocytes was raised only in the LE group. The results of this study led us to conclude that lead has a significant influence not only on the activities of antioxidant enzymes but also on the dose-dependent expression in their genes.
... [1] Lead is an environment pollutant and metabolic poison with a variety of toxic effects, among which is its adverse influence on renal, hepatic and reproductive system. [2] Its exposure mainly occurs through the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Absorbed Pb (whether inhaled or ingested) is stored in soft tissues. ...
... The increase in LPO level and decrease in the endogenous antioxidant enzymes viz., SOD, CAT, GST and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as GSH and protein content were observed in the present study. The results obtained are in consistent with our previous report [20,1,2] as well as others reports. [21][22][23][24][25][26][27] The interesting finding is that the Aswagandha extract was able to scavenge the oxidative damage produced due to lead nitrate toxicity as evidence by decreased lipid peroxidative process and increased antioxidant status of the body. ...
... These influences of lead were prevented by concurrent daily administration of Coriandrum sativum extracts to some extent. Treating albino mice with lead-induced various histological changes in the testis, while the treatment with coriander led to an improvement in the histological testis picture [165]. The protective activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum seed against lead-induced oxidative stress was studied in rats. ...
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The phytochemical screening of Coriandrum sativum showed that it contained essential oil, tannins, terpenoids, reducing sugars, alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, fatty acids, sterols and glycosides. It also contained high nutritional values including proteins, oils, arbohydrates, fibers and wide range of minerals, trace elements and vitamins. The previous pharmacological studies revealed that it possessed anxiolytic, antidepressant, sedative-hypnotic, anticonvulsant, memory enhancement, improvement of orofacial dyskinesia, neuroprotective, antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, insecticidal, antioxidant, cardiovascular, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antidiabetic, mutagenic, antimutagenic, anticancer, gastrointestinal, deodorizing, dermatological, diuretic, reproductive, hepatoprotective, detoxification and many other pharmacological effects. The current review was designed to give an overview on the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Coriandrum sativum.
... The present study suggests that lead exerts possible hepatotoxic effect as the increase in ALT and ALP suggest liver damage. Lead alters the level of ALT activity in the tissues by disrupting their membrane (Sharma et al. 2009). Consequently, there will be a discharge of the cell content into the blood stream and ALT activity is known to increase only in heavy metal poisoning, toxic hepatosis, and muscular dystrophy.Herman et al. (2009)also reported elevated levels of this enzyme in rats exposed to oral administration of lead acetate. ...
Article
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It is well known that plant products are helpful in ameliorating heavy metal toxicity in experimental animals. Here, we investigated the effect of Terminalia arjuna (TA) bark extract (25 and 75 mg/kg p.o.) on lead acetate (LA; 150 mg/kg; i.p.) induced oxidative stress, hepato and nephrotoxicity in male Swiss albino mice. In the present study, morphological alterations in three organs- liver, kidney and brain have been analyzed by H&E staining. The lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were also estimated. The functional tests showed a higher grade of liver and renal toxicity in LA-treated mice. We observed an acute LA-induced injury in liver, kidney and brain as indicated by vacuolated tissue architecture with huge loss of cells. Acute lead exposure for 24 h leads to enhanced LPO in liver, kidney and brain with concomitant reduction in GSH content and CAT, SOD, GR and GPx activities. However, treatment of mice with TA bark extract reduced the serum markers of liver and renal toxicity and resulted in protection of histological features and reduced the LPO content and increased the GSH level significantly. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were also restored by the treatment of TA Bark extract. These findings suggest that TA bark extract is able to mitigate adverse effects of lead acetate induced toxicity and can be used as pharmacological intervention against metal toxicity.
... Serum testosterone level and sperm density are suppressed in lead-treated group compared with the control. Treatment with Coriandrum sativum extract shown to restore these levels [114][115][116]. Cholesterol has been levels are possibly reduced due to increased rate of its degradation to bile acids and Venkatesh Thuppil et al neutral sterols [117]. ...
Article
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Lead, a ubiquitous metal, is one of the most abundant elements present on earth. Its easy availability and cost effectiveness made it an extremely popular component in the industrial revolution. However, its hazardous health effects were not considered at the time. Over the last few decades, with the adverse effects of lead coming to the forefront, nations across the world have started to recognize and treat lead toxicity. The most reliable and used method until now has been chelation therapy. Recent research has suggested the use of natural products and sources to treat lead poisoning with minimal or no side effects. This review has tried to summarize a few of the natural products/ sources being investigated by various groups.
... This was shown by Sharma who treated rats with lead acetate and observed significant decrease in testicular SOD, CAT, GSH, total protein, serum testosterone level and sperm density. These lead induced changes were prevented by concurrent daily administration of Coriandrum sativum (Sharma et al., 2010). Exposure of rats to lead acetate showed a significant decrease in epididymal weight, sperm count, sperm motility and testosterone level. ...
Article
Lead is a heavy metal which is reported to have toxicological effects on various organs in humans and animals. Due to its toxicological effects this study reviews current literature on the toxicological profile of lead on the testis, bone, blood and lungs and the possible roles of mitigating agents. In this study reports showed that in the brain lead induced cerebellar edema, cerebral satellitosis and encephalomalacia with impairments in cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. Lead impairment of haematological parameters manifested as decrease in packed cell volume, haematoglobin, red blood cell count and total erythrocyte count. Anemia, leucopenia, neutropenia, lymphopenia and monocytopenia were also reported. Lead treated testis was characterized by reduction in the weight of sex glands, testicular sperm counts, daily sperm production, sperm density, sperm viability, sex hormones with increase in sperm abnormalities. Histopathological study of lead treated testis revealed loss of germ cells with pyknotic nuclei and vacuolated cytoplasm. Apoptosis of sertoli cells, leydig cells and mitochondria degeneration were reported. Lead treated lungs were characterized by mononuclear cell proliferation, mononuclear cell invasion, collagen fibre accumulation in the interalveolar septa and pneumonia. The antioxidants status of these organs were impaired making these organs vulnerable to lead induced oxidative stress. This laid credence to the generation of reactive oxygen species as one of the mechanisms of lead induced toxicological effects in various organs. In this study it was also observed that the toxicological effects of lead were mitigated by vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, zinc and calcium. Chemical agents like melanin, casein, DMSA and CaNa2-EDTA also mitigated lead induced toxicity. Some extracts of plant origin also ameliorated the toxicological effects of lead. Some of these mitigating agents may require further evaluation if they could be of clinical application.
... Fresh cilantro has numerous purported health benefits. It is rich in flavonoid antioxidants, which have been shown to have antibacterial, antiviral, and chemoprotective activity (Sharma, Kansal, & Sharma, 2010). Cilantro has also been shown in vivo to chelate and detoxify heavy metals (Kubo, Fujita, Kubo, Nihei, & Ogura, 2004). ...
... These influences of lead were prevented by concurrent daily administration of Coriandrum sativum extracts to some extent. Treating albino mice with lead-induced various histological changes in the testis, while the treatment with coriander led to an improvement in the histological testis picture [79]. ...
... Pathan et al. [62] showed that the aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum seed has anxiolytic effect and have potential analgesic effects which is the reason that Coriandrum sativum L. has been recommended for relief of anxiety and insomnia in Iranian folk medicine. Ertas et al. [63] Sharma et al [64] studied the prophylactic efficacy of coriander on testis of lead exposed mice. Serum testosterone level and sperm density were suppressed in lead-treated group. ...
... A diet rich in sulfur containing amino acids such as Nacetylcysteine and methionine help in the generation of antioxidants glutathione in the body and food sources include soybeans, beef, lamb, sunflowers seeds, chicken, oats, pork, fish, cheese, eggs, legumes, and wheat. Other active substances such as allecin (or diallyl thiosulfinate) from garlic, an organosulfur compound known to chelate heavy metals including lead [122], [123]; a mice study shows that cucurmin (chemically diferuloylmethane), a compound from organically grown turmeric have protective effects on lead induced neurotoxicity [124]; β-carotene from carrots and other natural food sources such as bananas, pineapple, oranges, oats, tomato, rice, barley and sweet corn enhances melatonin production and protects tissues from lead induced free radical damage [125], [126].The healthy medicinal herb, cilantro is another remedy for lead poisoning. Animal studies with cilantro have shown to reduce the amount of lead accumulated in bones of lead exposed mice and removes lead settled in kidney tissues, decreases the urinary excretion of ALA and inhibition of ALAD [99], [127]. ...
... Subsequently, the extract was subjected to fractionation and its activity as chelating agent was tested, as proposed by Rondina et al., (1991). To evaluate the biological activity of C. sativum as a chelating agent and to find a natural treatment that is less invasive than synthetic products, we developed A. salina lethality to determine the LD 50 This was done because this technique has a potential correlation with specific toxicity tests (McLaughlin, 1998) and is based on the suggestion of WHO (2002) for natural products safety. In this paper, we found a LD 50 > 1,000 mg/mL for C. sativum methanol extract. ...
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Background The rate of lead poisoning has decreased in recent years due to increased health control in industries that use this metal. However, it is still a public health problem worldwide. The use of various plants with chelating properties has been a topic of research today. In traditional medicine, it is said that Coriandrum sativum has chelating properties, but there is no scientific evidence to support this fact. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the chelating effect of methanol extract of coriander and its fractions on Wistar rats intoxicated with lead. Materials and Methods In this research, male Wistar rats were poisoned with 50 mg/kg of lead acetate and treated with 50 mg/kg of methanol extract and its fractions. The extract and its fractions were administered to four treatment groups. Positive and negative controls were established. Hemoglobin, hematocrit and lead concentrations were analyzed; liver was evaluated histologically in control and treatment groups. Results The methanol extract of coriander presented a LD50 >1000 mg/dL. The group administered with the methanol extract showed significant difference in the levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit compared to the negative control group. Lead concentration in treatment groups showed a decrease compared to the positive control. Histological evaluation of tissue showed less damage in groups administered with methanolic extract and its fractions compared to the positive control which presented structural alterations. Conclusion Coriander extracts protect liver and lower lead concentration in rats intoxicated with lead in contrast to the positive control group.
... Pathan et al. [62] showed that the aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum seed has anxiolytic effect and have potential analgesic effects which is the reason that Coriandrum sativum L. has been recommended for relief of anxiety and insomnia in Iranian folk medicine. Ertas et al. [63] Sharma et al [64] studied the prophylactic efficacy of coriander on testis of lead exposed mice. Serum testosterone level and sperm density were suppressed in lead-treated group. ...
... Lead is a multifactorial toxic agent. It can directly disturb protein synthesis and enzymes activation, blocks trace elements absorption, and binds to sulfhydryl group resulting in decrease of body reserves of sulfhydryl antioxidants [46]. The inhibition of protein synthesis might be due to its damaging effect towards DNA and RNA structures [44]. ...
Article
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Background: Health benefits of designed functional foods using dairy fermented products in co-production with medicinal herbs are under comprehensive investigations. Yoghurt has triggered a functional food revolution while green tea and Moringa oleifera represent precious source of high content of various types of antioxidants and micronutrients. Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation are suggested mechanisms involved in lead toxicity. The aim of present study was to assess protective effects of green tea and moringa leave extracts and their bio-yoghurts against lead acetate-induced oxidative stress in male rats by following liver weight and enzymes and lipids profile.
... The results revealed that QB extract improves sperm parameters which were declined by Pb. Previous research have reported ameliorative effects of herbs on the male reproductive system against Pbtoxicity in animal models (Dorostghoal et al., 2014;Elgawish et al., 2014;Sharma et al., 2010). Our results are in parallel with these reports. ...
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Objective: Exposure to heavy metals such as lead (Pb) results in oxidative stress induction in the male reproductive system. Herbal medicine can be utilized as antioxidant agents against oxidative stress. Quercus brantii (QB) has shown antioxidant activity in previous studies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate effects of QB hydro-alcoholic extract against Pb-induced oxidative stress in the male mice reproductive system. Materials and Methods: Forty-two NMRI adult male mice were randomly divided into 7 groups of 6 animals each. Group I was the control group that received no treatment. Group II was the sham group and received 0.2 ml distilled water. Groups III and IV received QB hydro-alcoholic extract 500 and 1000 mg/kg bw, respectively. Group V received Pb 1000 ppm/kg bw. Group VI and VII received Pb 1000 ppm/kg bw and QB extract 500 and 1000 mg/kg bw, respectively. All groups received treatment via oral gavage. After 35 days, sperm parameters (i.e. sperm motility, count and morphology) were evaluated. Levels of sex hormones including LH, FSH, and testosterone, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in animals’ serum. Results: Exposure to Pb negatively affected sperm parameters (i.e. sperm motility, count and morphology), decreased serum concentrations of sex hormones (i.e. LH, FSH, and testosterone), TAC and SOD activity but increased MDA levels. However, co-administration of 500 and 1000 mg/kg bw QB hydro-alcoholic extract and Pb considerably improved sperm parameters (i.e. sperm motility, count and morphology), increased sex hormones (i.e.LH, FSH, and testosterone), TAC, and SOD activity while decreased MDA levels in animals’ serum. Conclusion: Administration of QB extracts (Low dose and high dose) is able to protect the male reproductive system of mice against Pb-induced oxidative stress.
... reduction in protein level in lead intoxicated mice (Fig.3). Lead is multifactorial and directly interrupts enzyme activation, competitively inhibits trace mineral absorption, binds to sulfhydryl proteins (interrupting structural protein synthesis), alters calcium homeostasis, and lowers the level of available sulfhydryl antioxidant reserves in the body [25]. Moreover, lead disturbs intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis and damages the endoplasmic reticulum, which in turn results in reduction of protein synthesis [26]. ...
... It is known to increase tissue glutathione (GSH) levels. In this study, GSH was increased in SDS treatment group and there is a possibility that lead might interact with GSH forming a complex that can be excreted [22]. This may be one of the possible mechanisms of lead chelation in this study. ...
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Lead has heavy metal toxicity which endangers human and animal health. Salidroside (SDS) is a natural antioxidant that has extensive pharmacological usage. However, its protective effects on lead-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity has not been reported. In this study, we established an animal model to evaluate the protective effects of SDS on chronic lead exposure induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity. Forty healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were assigned to control group (control, animals were provided with distilled water, n = 10); lead acetate-exposed group (PbAc, animals received lead acetate solution of 500 ppm for 60 days, n = 10); low dosage of SDS-treated group (PbAc-SDS-L, lead acetate exposed animals were given intragastric SDS 150 mg/kg body weight for 60 days, n = 10); and high dosage of SDS-treated group (PbAc-SDS-H, lead acetate exposed animals were given intragastric SDS 300 mg/kg body weight for 60 days, n = 10). The results showed that lead exposure caused a significant increase in serum ALP, AST, ALT, and TB (P < 0.01), and these were reversed after treatment with salidroside for 60 days. Compared to the control, the liver GSH, SOD, and GSH-Px were decreased significantly after lead acetate exposure (P < 0.01). However, after treatment with SDS for 60 days, those were dose-dependently reversed. Similarly, MDA was significantly increased in the PbAc group (P < 0.01), and it was significantly decreased in SDS treatment group. Moreover, SDS ameliorated lead-induced congestion and necrosis of hepatocytes. In addition, the RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results revealed that the PbAc group showed a significant increase in the protein and mRNA of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) in rat liver. Treatment with SDS significantly reversed CYP2E1 and NOX2 expressions in the liver of lead-exposed rats. The results above indicated that SDS has obvious antioxidant activity; it can cure liver injury caused by lead acetate by inhibiting oxidative stress and increasing the antioxidant stress activity, thus improving the liver tissue structure.
... Animal study shows that coriander seed extract effectively alleviates lead-induced oxidative stress in different regions of rat brain and testis [10,11]. With regard to the effect of coriander leaves and stalks on lead accumulation, on the other hand, Aga et al. [12] reports that lead accumulation is decreased in the bone. ...
Article
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Coriandrum sativum (coriander) is an annual herb of the Apiaceae family and has been used as a traditional remedy. Here we examined whether heated leaf extract of coriander decreases the concentrations of heavy metals in tissues. Male ddY mice were given a drinking water containing 0.25% of heated leaf extract of coriander for 8 weeks. Eight weeks after the intake, the concentrations of zinc, iron, copper, arsenic, and cadmium were measured in the liver and kidney. The intake of coriander did not modify the concentrations of all heavy metals tested in the liver, but decreased the concentrations of iron, arsenic, and cadmium in the kidney. Because heavy metals can induce oxidative stress, the effect of coriander intake on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress was compared between slices from the kidney and liver. The slices were immersed in Ringer solution containing 100 μM hydrogen peroxide and aminophenyl fluorescein (APF), a probe for detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS). APF fluorescence was markedly increased in the control kidney slices, while the increase was completely blocked in kidney slices from coriander intake group. In contrast, APF fluorescence was also markedly increased in the control liver slices, while the increase was not blocked by coriander intake. The present study indicates that intake of coriander leaf extract contributes to powerful resistance to oxidative stress in the kidney, probably via decreased concentrations in heavy metals. It is likely that decrease in arsenic concentration to the detection limit is a major factor for the resistance.
... functioning (hydrolases, isomerases, ligases, lyases, reductases, and transferases) in various biological systems such as lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism, ATP production, redox homeostasis (SOD2), DNA synthesis, and cellular signaling, where they act as neuromodulators in protein structures with antioxidant properties such as SOD1 (Adebayo et al., 2016;el-Sewedy et al., 1974;Sharma et al., 2010;Sommer et al., 2018). Zinc also acts in glutamatergic synaptic transmission, inhibiting N-methyl-D-aspartate and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor activity, thus modulating neuronal excitability and long-term synaptic plasticity (Takeda et al., 2004). ...
Article
This study aimed to investigate the effects of Coriandrum sativum aqueous extract (CSAE) on the rat progeny of mothers exposed to methylmercury (MeHg). The presence of bioactive compounds and CSAE's antioxidant capacity been evaluated, and the offspring were assessed for their total mercury levels, motor behavioral parameters and oxidative stress in the cerebellum. The analysis of the bioactive compounds revealed significant amounts of polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, as well as a variety of minerals. A DPPH test showed the CSAE had important antioxidant activity. The MeHg + CSAE group performed significantly better spontaneous locomotor activity, palmar grip strength, balance, and motor coordination in behavioral tests compared the MeHg group, as well as in the parameters of oxidative stress, with similar results to those of the control group. The MeHg + CSAE group also had significantly reduced mercury levels in comparison to the MeHg group. Based on the behavioral tests, which detected large locomotor, balance, and coordination improvements, as well as a reduction in oxidative stress, we conclude that CSAE had positive functional results in the offspring of rats exposed to MeHg.
... Coriander also has potent antioxidant and antimicrobial activities (Charles, 2013), and interestingly, it showed protective effect against metals toxicity. The protective role of seed extract of C. sativum against lead toxicity has been reported in mice and rats (Kumar, Dale, Rao, Rajanna, & Rajanna, 2013;Sharma, Kansal, & Sharma, 2010;Sharma, Kansal, Sharma, Lodi, & Sharma, 2011;Téllez-López et al., 2017;Velaga, Yallapragada, Williams, Rajanna, & Bettaiya, 2014). The deposition of lead in bone of mice has been reduced in response to oral administration of C. sativum (Aga et al., 2001). ...
Article
The current study was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of Coriandrum sativum seed powder (CP) and extract (CE) on some immune functions of Oreochromis niloticus, without or with exposure to the immunotoxicant metal lead (Pb). Fish (n = 300) were divided into ten groups, in triplicate. First group (Cont) was fed on the basal control diet. Second (CP20) and third (CP30) groups were fed on CPsupplemented diets at 20 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg respectively, while fourth (CE20) and fifth (CE30) groups were fed on CE-supplemented diets at 20 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg respectively. Fish of the sixth (Cont-Pb), seventh (CP20-Pb), eighth (CP30-Pb), ninth (CE20-Pb) and tenth (CE30-Pb) groups were exposed to lead (Pb) at 20.2 mg/L and received same diets presented to groups; Cont, CP20, CP30, CE20 and CE30 respectively. The experiment lasted for 45 days. CP and CE dietary supplementation not only significantly enhanced the immune functions, serum lysozyme, nitric oxide, bactericidal activities and relative expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) of O. niloticus in a concentration-dependent manner, but also ameliorated the lead-induced immunosuppressive effects, especially in CE30 received groups. Additionally, lead-induced fish mortality and levels of lead residues in fish musculature were significantly reduced in response to feeding on CP- and CE-supplemented diets, especially in CE30. Therefore, it could be concluded that coriander dietary supplementation, especially the extract (CE) at 30 mg/kg diet, could be used to enhance the immune response of O. niloticus and to counteract the immunotoxic effects of lead exposure.
... Coriander is used for digestive issues including stomach discomfort, appetite loss, hernia, nausea, vomiting, bowel spasms and bowel gas. It is also used to treat measles, hemorrhoids, toothaches, worms and joint pain, as well as bacterial and fungal infections (Cortes-Eslava et al.,2010;Rattanachaikunsopon et al.,2010 ;Samojlik, 2010;Sharma, et al, 2010;Silva et al.,2011). ...
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The present study focused on the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Coriander sativum (CS) containing structural polymers, phenolic compounds and glycosidic bioactive macromolecules. Plant phenolic compounds can act as antioxidants, lignin, and attractants like flavonoids and carotenoids. Henceforth, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared extracellularly by the combinatorial action of stabilizing and reduction of the CS leaf extract. The biologically synthesized CS-AgNPs were studied by UV-spectroscopy, zeta potential determination, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis to characterize and confirm the formation of crystalline nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles demonstrated strong antimicrobial activity against all microbial strains examined with varying degrees. The scavenging action on free radicals by CS-AgNPs showed strong antioxidant efficiency with superoxide and hydroxyl radicals at different concentrations as compared with standard ascorbic acid. The presence of in vitro anticancer effect was confirmed at different concentrations on the MCF-7 cell line as revealed with decrease in cell viability which was proportionately related to the concentration of CS-AgNPs illustrating the toxigenic nature of synthesized nanoparticles on cancerous cells.
... In another study by Sharma et al (18), rats were administered lead nitrate for 7 days. Biochemical tests afterwards showed a significant increase in PC and a significant decrease in SOD level. ...
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Lead causes damage to the whole body by inducing oxidative stress. This includes the testis, in which spermatogenesis is affected. Etlingera elatior, a consumable plant that is being extensively studied for its high anti-oxidant properties, was tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. Rats were divided into groups consisting of a control, lead acetate only, Etlingera elatior treatment only, concurrent treatment of lead acetate and Etlingera elatior, post-treatment of lead acetate followed by Etlingera elatior and preventive group of Etlingera elatior followed by lead acetate. The substances were administered for 14 days and the effects were measured by protein carbonyl content (PCC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the testis, as well as the testosterone level in the serum. Histological changes in the testis were also observed. Results showed that Etlingera elatior induced a significant reduction in the testis PCC activity, while at the same time it significantly increased the activities of SOD and GPx in the testis, and the testosterone level in the serum. Etlingera elatior also improved the histology of the testis when compared to the lead acetate-treated group. On the whole, Etlingera elatior is effective against oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the testis.
... Lead poisoning is a potential factor in brain damage, mental impairment and severe behavioral problems, as well as anemia, kidney insufficiency, neuromuscular weakness, and coma. 1 Increasing concern has been expressed about the rapidly increasing level of chemicals in the environment, particularly lead, which has well known hazardous effects. 2 Lead is an environment pollutant and metabolic poison with a variety of toxic effects, among which is its adverse influence on renal, hepatic and reproductive system. 3 Its exposure mainly occurs through the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Several antioxidant molecules such as glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) and antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) are the most common parameters used to evaluate lead induced oxidative damage. ...
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Withania somnifera (Solanaceae) is reported to have various biological activities including antioxidant, antitumor, antistress, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, hematopoetic, anti-ageing, anxiolytic, ant-depressive rejuvenating properties. Considering the antioxidant properties of WS, the aim of this study was to access the efficacy of WS in reducing lead-induced changes in mice brain. Animal exposed to lead nitrate showed significant decrease in brain SOD, CAT, GSH, GST and total protein. This was accompanied by simultaneous increase in the TBARS level. These influences of lead were prevented partially by concurrent daily administration of WS root extract. Histological examination of brain also revealed patho-physiological changes in lead nitrate exposed group and treatment with WS improved neuro histopathology. The results thus led us to conclude that administration of WS significantly protects against lead-induced neurotoxicity. Our data suggests that WS contains active ingredients that can counteract the deleterious effects of lead nitrate.
... Il coriandolo si lega a questi metalli separandoli dai tessuti e facilitandone l'eliminazione. Alcuni studi dimostrano che il coriandolo protegge contro lo stress ossidativo causato dal piombo [415] ed accelera la rimozione dei metalli pesanti dall'organismo [416] . ...
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during the covid lockdown there was an increased consumption of both natural and synthetic supplements. the aim of this thesis is to analyze the heavy metal amount in spices and plants used to create the supplements
... Essential oil from different parts, flavonoids, fatty acids, sterols, monoterpenes, -pinenes, limonene, -terpinene, p-cymene, borneol, citronellol, camphor, geraniol, coryndrin, dihydrochoryndrin, AE chorionides,-cytosterol, triacontane, trichosantanol, , psoralen, angelicin, choriandrinol, β-sitosterol glucoside, butyl phthalide, Z-ligustilide have been isolated [9,10]. Volatile components, flavonoids and isocoumarins, make up the main components of coriander [11,12,13]. It also contains coriander, vitamins A, B2 (riboflavin), C and dietary fiber. ...
Article
Coriander is a small aromatic perennial herbaceous plant that grows widely in western Asia, India, Pakistan, the Mediterranean basin, and the United States. Although all parts of the plant can be eaten, its fresh leaves and dry seeds are used more. fructose, sucrose), alkaloids, flavones, resins, tannins, anthroquinones, sterols (β-stesterol and β-cytosterelin), and fixed oils. Has a small amount of carminative agent. Coriander plant samples were collected by a specialist pharmacist and phytotherapist (Muammaer Şen). Cultured medicinal marshmallow herb flower was harvested and dried. The dried plant was sorted and packed in packages of 50 grams using precision scales. 100gr of randomly selected samples. It was sent to BATAM laboratory for analysis. The essential oil analysis of the coriander plant of the Konya region has been found in accordance with the pharmacopoeia standards. Coriander plant is used to take advantage of its heavy metal removal feature. Many factors can affect the essential oil ratio of the plant. It is possible to make maximum use of the essential oils of the coriander plant by making the environmental factors suitable.
... 9,10 Volatile components, flavonoids and isocoumarins, make up the main components of coriander. [11][12][13] It also contains coriander, vitamins A, B2 (riboflavin), C and dietary fiber. Its most important feature is the use of heavy metal ions from the body. ...
... Animal study showed that coriander seed extract effectively alleviates lead-induced oxidative stress in different regions of rat brain and testis (Sharma et al. 2010;Velaga et al. 2014). Also, the levels of lead in lead-exposed rat brain regions were reduced after treatment with coriander seed extract. ...
Article
According to the Food and Health Bureau and Trade and Industry Department of the Hong Kong Government, 90 % of the total food supply in Hong Kong was imported from the Mainland China. In addition, the hidden or illegal use of prohibited pesticides, food adulteration (e.g., using industrial salt in food processing, using gutter oil as cooking oil), and pollutions were periodically reported by the media. Excessive exposure to toxic heavy metals or persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from diet or environmental is inevitable amid industrialization and pollution. Understanding of the detoxification ability among nutrients in plant-based food (i.e., phytonutrients in green tea, onion, garlic, coriander, and turmeric) offers therapeutic and preventive effects against the poisoning effects due to these pollutants. Oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory actions are the common mechanisms for heavy metals or POPs toxicities, while phytonutrients counteracts these cellular insults by anti-oxidation, upregulation of anti-inflammatory pathways, and chelation.
Article
Lead exposure is known to cause apoptotic neurodegeneration and neurobehavioral abnormalities in developing and adult brain by impairing cognition and memory. Coriandrum sativum is an herb belonging to Umbelliferae and is reported to have a protective effect against lead toxicity. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to evaluate the protective activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum seed against lead-induced oxidative stress. Male Wistar strain rats (100-120 g) were divided into four groups: control group: 1,000 mg/L of sodium acetate; exposed group: 1,000 mg/L lead acetate for 4 weeks; C. sativum treated 1 (CST1) group: 250 mg/kg body weight/day for seven consecutive days after 4 weeks of lead exposure; C. sativum treated 2 (CST2) group: 500 mg/kg body weight/day for seven consecutive days after 4 weeks of lead exposure. After the exposure and treatment periods, rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, and the whole brain was immediately isolated and separated into four regions: cerebellum, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and brain stem along with the control group. After sacrifice, blood was immediately collected into heparinized vials and stored at 4 °C. In all the tissues, reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products (LPP), and total protein carbonyl content (TPCC) were estimated following standard protocols. An indicator enzyme for lead toxicity namely delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity was determined in the blood. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in ROS, LPP, and TPCC levels was observed in exposed rat brain regions, while δ-ALAD showed a decrease indicating lead-induced oxidative stress. Treatment with the hydroalcoholic seed extract of C. sativum resulted in a tissue-specific amelioration of oxidative stress produced by lead.
Article
Lead (Pb) is known to cause abnormal function of several systems including the male reproductive system, where it has been shown to reduce sperm count. In order to examine the morphological basis of the reduction in sperm count and a possible effect of vitamin E, lead acetate (1mg/kg body weight) was given to control and vitamin E-treated mice daily, intraperitoneally for 3 weeks. The testis and body of epididymis of the mice were subjected to electron microscopy study. Pb caused degenerative changes in spermatids inducing vacuolization and a reduction in the number of cytoplasmic organelles in Leydig cells. Pb also destroyed the stereocilia of epididymal epithelium. The addition of vitamin E ameliorated the severity of these morphological changes. In conclusion, Pb-induced reduction in sperm count may be due to changes in the ultrastructure of spermatids, epididymal epithelia and Leydig cells. These changes can be reduced by vitamin E.
Article
Lead is considered the most common occupational and environmental toxicants and it has serious potential health hazards to humans. Investigation of toxic effects expressed on the somniferous tubules and possible protective effects produced by vitamin E supplementation. Thirty adult male albino rats weight 100-150 g were included in the study. Rats were equally divided into three groups: Group I: Control group: Included 10 rats. They were subdivided into two subgroups: Subgroup la: Negative control group. Subgroup lb: Positive control group. Group II: the intoxicated group: included 10 rats that received lead acetate orally in a dose of 60 mg kg-1 b.w. dissolved in distilled water by gavage every other day for 6 weeks. Group III: included ten rats that received vitamin E, diluted in soya oil 150 mg kg-1 body weight by gavage every other day for 6 weeks, simultaneously with lead acetate in a similar dose to that of group II. At the end of study period, rats were sacrificed; blood samples were obtained for hormonal and blood lead levels evaluation; while testicular blocks were prepared for both histological and electron microscopy evolution. Lead intoxication was associated with decreased serum testosterone levels when compared to control groups, the effect that inhibited by vitamin E supplementation. Similar results were found for LH and FSH. In addition both histological and ultrastructural findings confirmed deleterious effects of lead toxicity and protective effects of vitamin E on semineferous tubules. Lead (Pb) caused degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules of mice testis and caused cellular abnormalities in testosterone-producing cells. In addition, vitamin E can reduce the impact of Pb toxicity in the male genital organs.
Article
This paper reports the effects of umbelliferous plants on Cd-induced micronucleus formation in Cdexposed mice. After ICR mice (7 w) were given free access to a 100 mg/kg Cd solution for 12 days, they were fed with a standard diet and a control diet supplemented with Petroselinum crispum (Pc) or Coriandrum sativum (Cs) for 70 days. Femoral bone marrow smears were prepared every 2 weeks, and micronucleus frequency was determined from the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte count. The micronucleus frequency obtained from the positive control group was approximately 2-fold higher than that in the negative control group (No Cd administration) (P < 0.05). However, micronucleus frequencies in the Cs and Pc groups were decreased by 21 - 60% (P < 0.05) compared to that of the positive control group. These results suggest that consumption of these two plants might inhibit genotoxicity and possibly even reduce the risk of aging and carcinogenesis induced by Cd.
Article
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Lead acetate-motivated oxidative stress can affect all organ systems, particularly the liver. Glutamine (Gln) has both antioxidant and chelating properties. Therefore, we investigated for the first time the effect of Gln on the biochemical and histopathological alternations in a rat model of lead toxicity. Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups (eight rats in each): untreated normal, lead poisoning, and two similar groups receiving Gln (0.1% in drinking water for 4 weeks). To induce lead poisoning, rats received 50 mg/L lead acetate in drinking water for 4 weeks. Oxidative stress indices (total glutathione, the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione, advanced protein oxidation products, malondialdehyde, and ferric ion reducing power) and inflammatory markers (hepatic nuclear factor-kβ expression, interleukin 1β level, and myeloperoxidase activity) were measured. Furthermore, biochemical markers of hepatotoxicity (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, and globulins) were measured. Histopathological examination evaluated lead-induced liver damage. The treatment compensated lead-induced biochemical and histopathological alternations in rat liver. Furthermore, it decreased lead acetate level, the NF-kβ gene expression, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers. Moreover, the treatment elevated total glutathione and reduced glutathione in the sera and liver homogenates of treated groups (p < 0.001). Glutamine could protect the liver against lead intoxication via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chelating properties. In addition, its downregulating effect on the hepatic NF-kβ signaling pathway confirms its hepatoprotective activity.
Article
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This article reviews the medicinal effects of Coriandrum sativum (coriander, cilantro, Chinese parsley). Despite its reputation among laypeople for removing heavy metals from the body, studies indicate that coriander is unlikely to do so. Research does show that coriander may help protect the body in general and, in particular, the liver from heavy metals and toxins; may have a beneficial effect in a variety of skin infections; has potential as a sunscreen; and may be beneficial in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. The herb also shows interesting anxiolytic, sedative, and pain-relieving effects.
Chapter
Coriander is a strongly aromatic, erect, herbaceous annual herb with strong antioxidant activity and this antioxidant activity correlated well with the phenolic compounds. This chapter describes the botany, history, producing regions, flavor and aroma, parts used, and active constituents. The chapter also highlights the uses of coriander in different recipes around the world. Coriander has been reported to have antibacterial, spasmolytic, stomachic, carminative, antimicrobial, antifungal, cholesterol-lowering, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Finally the medicinal uses, functional properties, and antioxidant properties of coriander are discussed in great detail.
Article
Lead (Pb) is a well-known multi-organ toxicant and it damages liver and kidney. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the therapeutic role of Coriandrum sativum seed extract against lead-induced oxidative stress in rat liver and kidney. Male rats were divided into four groups: control (1000 ppm sodium acetate) and exposed (1000 ppm lead acetate) for 4 weeks; Coriandrum sativumtreated 1 (CST1) 250 mg/kg body weight/day and Coriandrum sativum-treated 2 (CST2) 500 mg/ kg body weight/day (CST2) received separately the hydro-alcoholic seed extract of Coriandrum sativum for seven consecutive days after 4 weeks of lead exposure. After exposure and treatment periods, rats were sacrificed and the liver and kidney were isolated in all the groups. Blood was immediately stored at 4°C in heparinized vials. In liver and kidney, the reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products (LPP) and total protein carbonyl content (TPCC) were estimated following standard protocols. Delta-ALAD activity (δ-ALAD), Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, red blood cell (RBC) count, white blood cell (WBC) count, and mean cell volume (MCV) were determined in blood. The data suggested a significant (p<0.05) increase in ROS, LPP and TPCC of liver and kidney in the exposed group compared with their respective controls. ROS levels were high in kidney than in liver of lead exposed group. Though the recovery was similar in both the organs, CST2 group showed higher recovery than that of CST1 group. The maximum recovery for LPP was seen in CST2 treated kidney restoring back to normal levels. Maximum increase in TPCC levels was found in exposed kidney than in liver. Whereas recovery for TPCC was partial in liver of CST1 group but complete in liver of CST2. Delta-ALAD activity, Hb, RBC, WBC and MCV showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in exposed group. However, upon treatment with Coriandrum sativum, CST1 group showed partial restoration in some hematological parameters. Whereas, CST2 group showed restoration of deranged hematological parameters back to control. In conclusion, these results suggest that the seed extract of Coriandrum sativum might reduce the leadinduced oxidative stress organ specifically by its antioxidant and metal chelating activity and the mechanism needs to be studied further.
Article
The present communication attempts to evaluate the antioxidant potential on the seeds of Coriandrum sativum, Umbelliferae family. Administration of coriander extracts to lead induced mice countered oxidative stress as evidenced by significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and increased activity of SOD, CAT, and GSH and total protein content in the liver, kidney and testis of lead induced mice treated with coriander. Beside this, Treatment with coriander decreased the activity of AST, ALT enzyme and cholesterol level in the soft tissues of lead induced mice. Efficacy of coriander to reduce tissue lead concentration was also evaluated. Histopathological studies of kidney revealed that supplementation of coriander extract showed the tubules appear more or less normal. In conclusion, the treatment with coriander extracts ameliorated oxidative stress in lead induced mice due to the synergistic action of antioxidant phytochemicals, carotenoids, flavonoids etc. present in the extracts. From the findings of the study, the coriander is identified to possess antioxidant potential and hence it is worth to be considered as a natural chelating agent for lead intoxication.
Article
The lead-induced toxic effect on mitochondria in Sertoli cells is not well studied and the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here we reported the potential role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) in lead acetate-induced mitochondrial toxicity in mouse testicular Sertoli cells TM4 line. We found that lead acetate treatment significantly reduced the expression level of PGC-1α, but increased the level of MRP1 in mitochondria of TM4 cells. To determine the role of PGC-1α and MRP1 in lead acetate-induced mitochondrial toxicity, we then generated PGC-1α stable overexpression and MRP1 stable knockdown TM4 cells, respectively. The lead acetate treatment caused TM4 cell mitochondrial ultrastructure damages, a decrease in ATP synthesis, an increase in ROS levels, and apoptotic cell death. In contrast, stably overexpressing PGC-1α significantly ameliorated the lead acetate treatment-caused mitochondrial toxicity and apoptosis. Moreover, it was also found that stably knocking down the level of MRP1 increased the TM4 cell mitochondrial lead-accumulation by 4–6 folds. Together, the findings from this study suggest that PGC-1α and MRP1 plays important roles in protecting TM4 cells against lead-induced mitochondrial toxicity, providing a better understanding of lead-induced mitochondrial toxicity.
Article
Arsenic poisoning in ground water is one of the most sensitive environmental pollutant causing serious pollution all over the world. Chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water to humans leads to major public health related issues. There have been very meagre studies which reported that, the plant constituents proved to exhibit protective effect from arsenicosis. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the protective efficacy of Coriandrum sativum seeds extract against sodium arsenite induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice. In the present study twenty-four male healthy Swiss albino mice (30 ± 5 g) were divided into four groups (n = 6), where the control group received normal diet and water; group II and group III treated with sodium arsenite (2 mg per kg body weight per day) for 2 and 4 weeks respectively. The group IV mice were administered with C.sativum seeds extract at the dose of 150 mg per kg body weight per day for 4 weeks upon sodium arsenite pretreated (2 mg/kg body weight for 4 weeks per day) mice. After the complete dose duration, all the treatment group animals were sacrificed same day for haematological, biochemical and histopathological study. In the arsenic treated mice, there were significant (p < 0.0001) changes in the serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, urea, uric acid and creatinine as well as in the haematological parameters. In contrast, after the administration with C.sativum seeds extract upon arsenic pretreated mice, there was significant (p < 0.0001) improvement observed in the hepatic and renal biomarker parameters as well as haematological variables. In the arsenic intoxicated mice, after administration with C.sativum seeds extract there was significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in the arsenic concentration in blood, liver and kidney tissues as well as in the serum LPO levels. Furthermore, the histopathological study showed that, C.sativum seeds extract administrated group of mice significantly restored the liver and kidney at cellular level against arsenic induced toxicity. The entire study concludes that C.sativum seeds extract possesses the ameliorative effect against arsenic induced liver and kidney intoxication.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the association of WBV exercise with an aqueous extract of coriander on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate, on the concentration of some plasma biomarker, on the feed intake, on the body mass and on the stool consistency in rats. Rats were divided in four groups and submitted to different treatments for 40 days. The control group (CON) received deionized water. The group treated with coriander (COR) received the extract of coriander. The rats that were exposed to WBV exercises (WBV-E) also received deionized water. A group of animals received coriander and were exposed to WBV (COR+WBV-E). We found in testis a decrease (0.13±0.01 to 0.06±0.03) of the percentages of injected radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g) in the WBV-E in comparison with the COR. There is no significant alteration on the concentrations of the plasma biomarkers. The feed intake showed a statistically significant increase in WBV-E. No significant difference on the body mass was found. The stool analysis showed a statistical difference on the consistency between COR (hard and dry, darker) and all the other groups (normal). In conclusion, it was verified that possible modifications in some biochemical/physiological parameters of the rats submitted to WBV exercise would be capable to increase the feed intake without changing the body mass; and normalizing the stool consistency altered by the coriander supplementation. Further studies are needed to try to understand better the biological effects involving the association of WBV exercise and coriander.
Article
Background Humans are directly/indirectly exposed to hazardous chemicals from the aquatic environment. We investigated the protection of the Methods The animals were divided into six groups (n=8). Group I was given 1 mL of distilled water only, Group II received 1 mL of SPRW only, Group III received 200 mg/kg LTME before+1 mL of SPRW after, Group IV received 200 mg/kg LTME+1 mL of SPRW, Group V received 1 mL of SPRW before+200 mg/kg LTME after and Group VI received 200 mg/kg LTME only. The treatment was done via oral administration for 28 days. Results The HPLC results showed the abundance of quercetin and quercitrin. The SPRW increased 5′-nucleotidase with the concomitant decrease of ∆ Conclusions Interestingly, these alterations were differentially reversed by LTME via the elevation of steroidogenic enzymes and cellular ATP.
Chapter
The Middle East area, with its various climates, is rich in a significant number of plant species with medicinal properties. Traditional medical doctrines of Middle East countries such as Persian medicine, along with folk uses of medicinal plants by local people, provide a long list of herbal remedies for the treatment of andrological problems. There are also several pharmacological studies evaluating the effect of these medicinal plants on male reproductive system. This chapter is devoted to a short history of the use of medicinal plants in Middle East countries, as well as a summary of ethnopharmacological studies in this area, along with a collection of modern scientific evidences regarding the efficacy of herbal remedies for andrological problems.
Chapter
Several medicinal plants are traditionally used in different regions of Africa for the treatment of male infertility, sexual asthenia, erectile dysfunction, and impotency or used as an aphrodisiac. Scientific studies, mostly conducted in vitro or in animals, have proven the acclaimed traditional use of these plants to enhance sexual activities or sperm concentration, motility, and viability. Some of the mechanisms of actions associated with these plants include increased level of testosterone and the relaxation of the smooth cavernosal muscles. However, some plants were also shown to have detrimental effects on the male reproductive system. This may be due to the varying modes of plant extraction, duration of treatment, experimental design, dosage used, quality of the plant, or toxic effects. There is a need to standardize the protocols as well as to better understand the mechanism of actions of the respective plants. Further studies should be conducted using human subjects.
Article
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Infertility is regarded as a global health problem affecting 8–12% of couples. Male factors are regarded as the main cause of infertility in 40% of infertile couples and contribute to this condition in combination with female factors in another 20% of cases. Abnormal sperm parameters such as oligospermia, asthenospermia, and teratozoospermia result in male factor infertility. Several studies have shown the deteriorative impact of heavy metals on sperm parameters and fertility in human subjects or animal models. Other studies have pointed to the role of antioxidants in counteracting the detrimental effects of heavy metals. In the currents study, we summarize the main outcomes of studies that assessed the counteracting impacts of heavy metal and antioxidants on male fertility. Based on the provided data from animal studies, it seems rational to administrate appropriate antioxidants in persons who suffer from abnormal sperm parameters and infertility due to exposure to toxic elements. Yet, further human studies are needed to approve the beneficial effects of these antioxidants.
Article
Lead is a persistent environmental pollutant, and its toxicity continues to be a major health problem due to its interference with natural environment. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of flaxseed oil on lead acetate-mediated hepatic oxidative stress and toxicity in rats. Lead acetate enhanced lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production in both serum and liver with concomitant reduction in glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase activities, these findings were associated with DNA fragmentation. In addition, lead acetate caused liver injury as indicated by histopathological changed of the liver with an elevation in total bilirubin, serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and alkaline phosphatase. Treatment of rats with flaxseed oil resulted in marked improvement in most of the studied parameters as well as histopathological features. On the basis of the above results it can hypothesized that flaxseed oil is a natural product can be protect against lead acetate-mediated hepatic cytotoxicity.
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We previously observed that glucose deprivation induces cell death in multidrug-resistant human breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7/ADR). As a follow up we wished to test the hypothesis that metabolic oxidative stress was the causative process or at least the link between causative processes behind the cytotoxicity. In the studies described here, we demonstrate that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was activated within 3 min of being in glucose-free medium and remained activated for 3 h. Glucose deprivation for 2–4 h also caused oxidative stress as evidenced by a 3-fold greater steady state concentration of oxidized glutathione and a 3-fold increase in pro-oxidant production. Glucose and glutamate treatment rapidly suppressed MAPK activation and rescued cells from cytotoxicity. Glutamate and the peroxide scavenger, pyruvate, rescued the cells from cell killing as well as suppressed pro-oxidant production. In addition the thiol antioxidant, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, rescued cells from glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity and suppressed MAPK activation. These results suggest that glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity and alterations in MAPK signal transduction are mediated by oxidative stress in MCF-7/ADR. These results also support the speculation that a common mechanism of glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity in mammalian cells may involve metabolic oxidative stress.
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Recent studies have shown that lead causes oxidative stress by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species, reducing the antioxidant defense system of cells via depleting glutathione, inhibiting sulfhydryl-dependent enzymes, interfering with some essential metals needed for antioxidant enzyme activities, and/or increasing susceptibility of cells to oxidative attack by altering the membrane integrity and fatty acid composition. Consequently, it is plausible that impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance can be partially responsible for the toxic effects of lead. Where enhanced oxidative stress contributes to lead-induced toxicity, restoration of a cell's antioxidant capacity appears to provide a partial remedy. Several studies are underway to determine the effect of antioxidant supplementation following lead exposure. Data suggest that antioxidants may play an important role in abating some hazards of lead. To explain the importance of using antioxidants in treating lead poisoning the following topics are addressed: (i) Oxidative damage caused by lead poisoning; (ii) conventional treatment of lead poisoning and its side effects; and (iii) possible protective effects of antioxidants in lead toxicity.
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The assumption of oxidative stress as a mechanism in lead toxicity suggests that antioxidants might play a role in the treatment of lead poisoning. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of lipoic acid (LA) in rebalancing the increased prooxidant/antioxidant ratio in lead-exposed Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and Fischer 344 rats. Furthermore, LA's ability to decrease lead levels in the blood and tissues of lead-treated rats was examined. LA administration resulted in a significant improvement in the thiol capacity of cells via increasing glutathione levels and reducing malondialdehyde levels in the lead-exposed cells and animals, indicating a strong antioxidant shift on lead-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, administration of LA after lead treatment significantly decreased catalase and red blood cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. In vitro administration of LA to cultures of CHO cells significantly increased cell survival, that was inhibited by lead treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. Administration of LA was not effective in decreasing blood or tissue lead levels compared to a well-known chelator, succimer, that was able to reduce them to control levels. Hence, LA seems to be a good candidate for therapeutic intervention of lead poisoning, in combination with a chelator, rather than as a sole agent. © 1999 Elsevier Science Inc.
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Coriander essential oil is used as a flavor ingredient, but it also has a long history as a traditional medicine. It is obtained by steam distillation of the dried fully ripe fruits (seeds) of Coriandrum sativum L. The oil is a colorless or pale yellow liquid with a characteristic odor and mild, sweet, warm and aromatic flavor; linalool is the major constituent (∼70%). Based on the results of a 28 day oral gavage study in rats, a NOEL for coriander oil is approximately 160 mg/kg/day. In a developmental toxicity study, the maternal NOAEL of coriander oil was 250 mg/kg/day and the developmental NOAEL was 500 mg/kg/day. Coriander oil is not clastogenic, but results of mutagenicity studies for the spice and some extracts are mixed; linalool is non-mutagenic. Coriander oil has broad-spectrum, antimicrobial activity. Coriander oil is irritating to rabbits, but not humans; it is not a sensitizer, although the whole spice may be. Based on the history of consumption of coriander oil without reported adverse effects, lack of its toxicity in limited studies and lack of toxicity of its major constituent, linalool, the use of coriander oil as an added food ingredient is considered safe at present levels of use.
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The conversion of oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin has been shown via spectrophotometric, circular dichroism and polarographic studies to be accelerated by delta-aminolevulinic acid, a major heme-precursor accumulated in a number of heme-linked pathologies. Concomitantly, delta-aminolevulinic acid undergoes aerobic oxidation. The intermediacy of oxygen radicals in these processes was evidenced by the inhibitory effect of catalase, superoxide dismutase and mannitol. These results are relevant to the exacerbated production of active oxygen species in intermittent acute porphyria and saturnism carriers.
Article
There is evidence that lead can exert a toxic action upon the male reproductive system. Likewise, there is evidence that some of the effects that lead exerts upon other biological systems might also affect male reproductive capacity. Differences in response to the toxic actions of lead can, in part, be attributed to differences in dose, duration, and method of exposure, species, and lack of comparable experimental designs. Nevertheless, a spermatotaxic and gonadotoxic effect of lead has been seen in a variety of species including man. Furthermore, lead exposure has been linked to chromosomal aberrations in workers.
Article
Because of the reduced effectiveness of antibiotics against bacteria (e.g. Chlamydia trachomatis, oc-Streptococcus, Borrelia burgdorferi, etc.) and viruses (e.g. Herpes Family Viruses) in the presence of mercury, as well as the fact that the 1st author has found that mercury exists in cancer and pre-cancer cell nuclei, the presence of dental amalgam (which contains about 50% mercury) in the human mouth is considered to be a potential hazard for the individual’s health. In order to solve this problem, 3 amalgam fillings were removed from the teeth of the subject of this case study. In order to fill the newly created empty spaces in the teeth where the amalgams had formerly existed, a synthetic dental-filling substance was introduced and to solidify the synthetic substance, curing light (wavelength range reportedly between 400-520 nm) was radiated onto the substance in order to accelerate the solidifying process by photo-polymerization reaction. In spite of considerable care not to inhale mercury vapor or swallow minute particles of dental amalgam during the process of removing it by drilling, mercury entered the body of the subject. Precautions such as the use of a rubber dam and strong air suction, as well as frequent water suctioning and washing of the mouth were insufficient. Significant deposits of mercury, previously non-existent, were found in the lungs, kidneys, endocrine organs, liver, and heart with abnormal low-voltage ECGs (similar to those recorded 1-3 weeks after I.V. injection of radioisotope Thallium-201 for Cardiac SPECT) in all the limb leads and VI (but almost normal ECGs in the precordial leads V2-V6) the day after the procedures were performed. Enhanced mercury evaporation by increased temperature and microscopic amalgam panicles created by drilling may have contributed to mercury entering the lungs and G.I. system and then the blood circulation, creating abnormal deposits of mercury in the organs named above. Such mercury contamination may then contribute to intractable infections or pre-cancer. However, these mercury deposits, which commonly occur in such cases, were successfully eliminated by the oral intake of 100 mg tablet of Chinese parsley (Cilantro) 4 times a day (for average weight adults) with a number of drug-uptake enhancement methods developed by the 1st author, including different stimulation methods on the accurate organ representation areas of the hands (which have been mapped using the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test), without injections of chelating agents. Ingestion of Chinese parsley, accompanied by drug-uptake enhancement methods, was initiated before the amalgam removal procedure and continued for about 2 to 3 weeks afterwards, and ECGs became almost normal. During the use of strong bluish curing light to create a photo-polymerization reaction to solidify the synthetic filling material, the adjacent gingiva and the side of the tongue were inadvertently exposed. This exposure to the strong bluish light was found to produce pre-cancerous conditions in the gingiva, the exposed areas of the tongue, as well as in the corresponding organs represented on those areas of the tongue, and abnormally increased enzyme levels in the liver. These abnormalities were also successfully reversed by the oral intake of a mixture of EPA with DHA and Chinese parsley, augmented by one of the non-invasive drug-uptake enhancement methods previously described by the 1st author, repeated 4 times each day for 2 weeks.
Article
The effects of ingesting antioxidant vitamins E and C for 4 weeks on serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels at rest and after exercise was studied in humans. Twenty-four young healthy males aged 15 30 years participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either an antioxidant vitamin supplemented group (daily doses of 1000IU of α tocopherol and 1000mg of ascorbic acid) or a control group. Exercise consisted of 40 min of treadmill running at 60% of maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max) followed by 10min of running at 90% of VO2 max. Blood samples were collected at rest and immediately after two exercise bouts. The mean values of serum MDA concentrations (marker of lipid peroxidation) in antioxidant vitamins E and C supplemented group increased from 4.0 ± 0.04 nmol MDA /ml at rest to 4.95 ± 0.06 nmol MDA /ml at moderate exercise and then to 5.88 ± 0.4 nmol MDA /ml at high intensity exercise. It was concluded that taking 1000mg vitamin C and 1000IU of vitamin E daily lowered the makers of lipid peroxidation at rest and after exercise but does not prevent the exercise induced increase in oxidative stress.
Article
This review has focused on several parameters related to the delivery of carcinogenic metal compounds to the cell nucleus as a basis for understanding the intermediates formed between metals and cellular components and the effect of these intermediates on DNA structure and function. Emphasis has been placed on metal interactions at the cellular membrane, including lipid peroxidation, metal interactions with glutathione and their relation to membrane injury, and metal effects on the membrane bound enzyme, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase. Metal binding to metallothionein is also considered, particularly as related to transport and utilization of metal ions and to genetic defects in these processes exemplified in Menkes disease. The ability of cadmium to induce the synthesis of metallothionein more strongly than zinc is also discussed in relation to other toxic and carcinogenic metals. The effects of metal ions on purified DNA and RNA polymerase systems are presented with some of the recent studies using biological ligand-metal complexes. This review points out the importance of considering how metals affect in vitro systems when presented as ionic forms or complexed to relevant biological ligands.
Article
The effects of dietary and injected lead (Pb) on organ nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in the chick were studied. Lead acetate·3H2O was administered either in the diet for 3 wk at 2000 ppm Pb or by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of 3-wkold chicks with 52 mg Pb/100 g body wt. In Exp. 1, NPSH concentrations in liver and kidney were increased by both dietary and injected Pb in comparison to chicks not receiving Pb. Thigh muscle NPSH was decreased by injected Pb, whereas dietary Pb had no effect. In Expt. 2, whole blood and plasma NPSH were measured at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 h following ip Pb injection. Both whole blood and plasma NPSH were increased by 30 min. Whole blood NPSH concentrations plateaued at 30 min, and plasma NPSH continued to rise for 2 h. In Expt. 3, injected Pb increased hepatic NPSH, but not GSH concentrations. The ratio of GSH/NPSH was therefore lowered. The incorporation of [1-(14)C]glycine into hepatic GSH was stimulated by injected Pb. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, reduced hepatic NPSH and [(14)C]glycine incorporation in Pb-treated chicks to below control (non-Pb injected) values. In Expt. 4, dietary Pb fed for 3 wk increased the hepatic concentrations of both NPSH and GSH such that the ratio of GSH/NPSH was unchanged in comparison to chicks not fed Pb. The data suggest that the initial response to acute Pb intoxication may involve a mobilization of nonprotein thiols via the interorgan translocation system for GSH. Such a response would help to maintain adequate levels of GSH in organs crucial to detoxification.
Article
Three new isocoumarins, coriandrones C-E, were isolated from whole plants of Coriandrum sativum and their structures established from spectral and chemical evidence.
Article
Lead is a male reproductive toxicant. Lead exposure results in a general suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis in male rats. The mechanism(s) for this disruption by lead is unknown. Toxic lead levels seem to disrupt central nervous system (CNS) control of the HPT system, resulting in a decrease in serum testosterone levels and sperm concentrations. A study designed to elucidate the mechanisms accounting for the disruption of the normal function of the male axis by toxic lead levels at the molecular level demonstrated a 2-3-fold enhancement of mRNA levels of GnRH and the tropic hormone LH. A 3-fold increase of intracellular stores of LH was also found
Article
Lead is a well-documented testicular toxicant. The present work was planned to study the occurrence of germ cell death after lead administration. Young growing rats were treated with 5, 10 and 20 mg kg−1 body weight of lead for 2 weeks. Cell death was assessed by employing in situ TUNEL staining, DNA electrophoresis and morphological examination of the tubules. The results showed that Pb induced significant numbers of germ cells to undergo apoptosis in the seminiferous tubules of rats treated with 20 mg kg−1 body weight. However, DNA fragmentation was not detected at any of the doses. The level of lead accumulation in the testis increased in a dose-dependent manner. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The autoxidation of pyrogallol was investigated in the presence of EDTA in the pH range 7.9–10.6. The rate of autoxidation increases with increasing pH. At pH 7.9 the reaction is inhibited to 99% by superoxide dismutase, indicating an almost total dependence on the participation of the superoxide anion radical, O2·−, in the reaction. Up to pH 9.1 the reaction is still inhibited to over 90% by superoxide dismutase, but at higher alkalinity, O2·− -independent mechanisms rapidly become dominant. Catalase has no effect on the autoxidation but decreases the oxygen consumption by half, showing that H2O2 is the stable product of oxygen and that H2O2 is not involved in the autoxidation mechanism. A simple and rapid method for the assay of superoxide dismutase is described, based on the ability of the enzyme to inhibit the autoxidation of pyrogallol. A plausible explanation is given for the non-competitive part of the inhibition of catechol O-methyltransferase brought about by pyrogallol.
Article
Extracts of different polarity from leaves and seeds of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and coriander oil were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Three different bioassays were used, namely scavenging of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method, inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) and inhibition of Fe2+ induced porcine brain phospholipid peroxidation. Total phenolic content was quantified as well. Positive correlations were found between total phenolic content in the extracts and antioxidant activity. Coriander leaves showed stronger antioxidant activity than the seeds, and in both parts of coriander, the ethyl acetate extract contributed to the strongest activity. In conclusion, addition of coriander to food will increase the antioxidant content and may have potential as a natural antioxidant and thus inhibit unwanted oxidation processes.
Article
A water-soluble (at pH 8) aromatic disulfide [5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)] has been synthesized and shown to be useful for determination of sulfhydryl groups. Several applications have been made to show its usefulness for biological materials. A study of the reaction of this disulfide with blood has produced some evidence for the splitting of disulfide bonds by reduced heme.
Article
The effect of the administration of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) on the metabolism of lipids was studied in rats fed a high fat diet with added cholesterol. The spice had a significant hypolipidemic action. The levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides decreased significantly in the tissues of the animals of the experimental group which received coriander seeds. Significant increases in beta-hydroxy, beta-methyl glutaryl CoA reductase and plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase activity were noted in the experimental group. The level of LDL + VLDL cholesterol decreased while that of HDL cholesterol increased in the experimental group compared to the control group. The increased activity of plasma LCAT, enhanced hepatic bile acid synthesis and the increased degradation of cholesterol to fecal bile acids and neutral sterols appeared to account for its hypocholesterolemic effect.
Article
Reduction of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity in the red blood cells has proved to be the most sensitive test for lead poisoning.
Article
Purpose: Oxidative stress in diabetes coexists with a reduction in the antioxidant status, which can increase the deleterious effects of free radicals. Many plant extracts and plant products have been shown to have significant antioxidant activity. The role of antioxidant plants in diabetes has not been studied. Food additives like spices, which have free radical scavenging activity, may also be useful in maintaining normal glucose levels in diabetic patients. The objective of the study is to evaluate the aqueous extracts of selected umbelliferous fruits for hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic activities in normal and diabetic rats respectively. Methods: All the aqueous extracts of (Caraway) CA, (Coriander) CO, (Cumin) CU, (Dill) DI and (Fennel) FE were administered at dose levels of 300 mg/kg body weight orally to different groups each containing 5 animals. A control group was also maintained simultaneously and received distilled water orally.Blood samples were collected from retro-orbital plexus of each rat before and at 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after extract administration and were analyzed for glucose content by using glucose oxidase peroxidase (GOD-POD) method using a visible spectrophotometer at 505 nm. Results: In normal rats only caraway extract produced significant hypoglycaemic action. The rest of the extracts produced hypoglycaemia, which was not significant different from that of control animals. In diabetic rats also the caraway was found to be the best among the extracts. Conclusion: The study indicates that since the umbelliferous fruits are used in the preparation of foods, they may be useful in the control of postprandial rise of blood glucose particularly in diabetic condition. Additionally, their daily use may help in reducing complications associated with chronic diabetes.
Article
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is grown as a spice crop all over the world. The seeds have been used to treat indigestion, diabetes, rheumatism and pain in the joints. In the present study, an ethanol extract of the seeds was investigated for effects on insulin release from the pancreatic beta cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Blood samples were drawn from the retro-orbital sinus before and 1.5, 3 and 5 h after administration of the seed extract. Serum glucose levels were determined by the glucose oxidase method. To determine the insulin releasing activity, after extract treatment the animals were anaesthetized by diethyl ether, the pancreas was excised, fixed in 10% formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin for sectioning. Pancreatic sections of 5 microm were processed for examination of insulin-releasing activity using an immunocytochemistry kit. The results showed that administration of the ethanol extract (200 and 250 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited a significant reduction in serum glucose. Administration of streptozotocin decreased the number of beta cells with insulin secretory activity in comparison with intact rats, but treatment with the coriander seed extract (200 mg/kg) increased significantly the activity of the beta cells in comparison with the diabetic control rats. The extract decreased serum glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and increased insulin release from the beta cells of the pancreas.
Article
term exposure to lead from polluted environments. In order to extend our knowledge of the chronic effects of lead intoxication, we have investigated the long-term administration of dietary lead acetate in laboratory mice. In this paper, some preliminary observations on long-term survival, weight, and seminal cytology are presented. Balb/c + male mice, 3 months old at the start of lead acetate exposure, were used throughout. They were permitted food and water ad libitum, caged in twos, and maintained at a constant ambient temperature of 23 ~ . Treated animals received lead acetate at levels of 0.1% to 4.0% in identical food to that of controls. In the study of seminal cytology, spermatozoa from the cauda epididymidis in each of 5 mice were examined per experimental point, except where this was precluded by lack of survival (as in one case - 1.O% at ii weeks). Animals were sacrificed at monthly intervals after the start of treatment, by cervical dislocation. The cauda was removed into 30-35 ~ phosphate-buffered saline and minced with fine scissors to release the sperms. The resulting suspension was mixed with an equal volume of 1.5% glutaraldehyde in O.IM pH 7.2 cacodylate buffer. In each animal iOOO spermatozoa were observed for abnormality in wet films by phase contrast optics in a Zeiss photomicroscope. Th~ criteria of abnormality used conform to those described by EYDEN and MAISIN (1977, in press) for this animal.
Article
The reproductive ability of 150 men occupationally exposed to lead were studied by clinical and toxicological analysis. Subjects were divided into four groups: lead-poisoned workmen (23) and those showing a moderate (42), slight (35), or physiologic absorption (50). Findings show that (1) Lead poisoning as well as moderate increased absorption of lead decrease the fertile ability of men. An increased frequency of asthenospermia, hypospermia, and teratospermia have objectified the decrease. (2) Slight increased or physiologic absorption of lead do not significantly influence the fertile ability of workmen. (3) Hypofertility induced by lead is due, perhaps, to its direct toxic effect on the gonads, as no interference with the hypothalamopituitary axis were evidenced.
Article
delta-Aminolevulinic acid is a heme precursor accumulated in acute intermittent porphyria and lead-poisoning, which supposedly triggers the typical clinical expression associated with these diseases. Considering that: (i) erythrocyte anti-oxidant enzymes are abnormally high in patients with both disorders and (ii) delta-aminolevulinic acid autoxidation generates reactive oxygen species, a possible contribution of reactive oxygen species in the pathophysiology of these disorders is explored here. Evidence is provided that delta-aminolevulinic acid (2-15 mM) induces damage to isolated rat liver mitochondria. Addition of delta-aminolevulinic acid disrupts the mitochondrial membrane potential, promotes Ca2+ release from the intramitochondrial matrix and releases the state-4 respiration, thus enhancing the permeability of the membrane to H+. The lesion was abolished by catalase, superoxide dismutase (both enzymes inhibit delta-aminolevulinic acid autoxidation) and ortho-phenanthroline, but not by mannitol; added H2O2 induces damage poorly. These results suggest the involvement of deleterious reactive oxygen species formed at particular mitochondrial sites from transition metal ions and delta-aminolevulinic acid-generated peroxide and/or superoxide species. These observations might be compatible with previous work showing hepatic mitochondrial damage in liver biopsy samples of acute intermittent porphyria patients.
Article
Lipoperoxide concentration in erythrocytes from workers occupationally exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 57.1 (SD 17.6) micrograms/dl) was significantly higher than that in controls. It was not different in plasma from the two groups. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in erythrocytes from workers exposed to lead was significantly lower than that of control subjects. The effect of lead was also seen in the glutathione concentration of erythrocytes from lead exposed workers, which was reduced to 69% of that found in erythrocytes from control workers. The increase in methaemoglobin content of erythrocytes from workers exposed to lead was less than expected and not significantly different from that of controls. A positive correlation between lipoperoxide concentration in erythrocytes and lead concentration in blood and a negative correlation between glutathione concentration in erythrocytes and blood lead concentration were found. Incubation of erythrocytes for 24 hours at 37 degrees C in the presence of lead (100 micrograms/dl) produced no changes in glutathione and lipoperoxide concentrations, although there was inhibition of activity of SOD (14.3%), catalase (10.1%), and glutathione peroxidase (35.1%). A similar experiment with heparinised whole blood showed increased haemolysis with no changes in membrane lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes. It is postulated that the lowered concentration of glutathione and decreased activity of SOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in erythrocytes from workers exposed to lead may play a part in the increased membrane lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, the results suggest the possibility that leucocytes, or platelets, or both, may induce haemolysis in the presence of lead.
Article
The protective action of aspirin in experimental myocardial infraction induced by isoproterenol was studied in rats. Aspirin treated rats showed lower mortality rate and smaller changes in the myocardium on histopathological examination when compared to corresponding animals given isoproterenol alone. Changes were also observed in the different lipid fractions studied. The ratio of cholesterol to phospholipids decreased in the heart in aspirin treated animals when compared to control rats given isoproterenol alone. The levels of lipid peroxide also showed a decrease while the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase registered an increase in the aspirin treated animals given isoproterenol when compared to corresponding animals given isoproterenol alone.
Article
delta-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a heme precursor accumulated in acute intermittent porphyria and saturnism, undergoes autoxidation leading to ammonium ion and probably the corresponding alpha-ketoaldehyde. This reaction is accelerated by addition of oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) and other iron complexes. OxyHb is concomitantly oxidized to metHb; the apparent second-order rate constant of oxyHb/ALA coupled oxidation is ca. 10 M-1 min-1.1H NMR and uv spectral studies suggest that ALA undergoes enolization before consuming the dissolved oxygen. Spin-trapping experiments demonstrate formation of both the hydroxyl radical and a substrate-derived carbon-centered radical during ALA oxidation. Generation of active oxygen species by ALA might be related to the neuropathy associated to some acquired and inherited porphyrinpathies.
Article
The experiments were performed on mature male rats divided in five groups, one control and four experimental in which the animals received 1 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg and 6 mg/kg body weight lead acetate intraperitoneally respectively, over a period of 30 days. ALA-D and lead was estimated in the blood by the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometer and ATP-ase, AMP-ase, Alk-ase were histochemically localized. Significant increase in blood and testis of lead levels along with decrease of ALA-D levels were observed. Changes in the testicular tissue were encountered. Other details concerned with the damage of the testicular tissue are discussed.
Article
Male Sprague-Dawley rats received 60 micrograms/ml of lead (as acetate) in drinking water for 18 months. Their blood pressure and cardiac inotropism were increased. Lead was augmented in blood, kidney and brain, but not in testis. Examination by light microscopy of the organs did not reveal alterations. Ultrastructural examination of the testis with both transmission and scanning electron microscopy (EM) did not evidence modifications in the external part of the seminiferous tubules, in the spermatogenetic cells and in the connective tissue including the Leydig cells; only Sertoli cells presented increased size of lysosomes.
Article
Daily intraperitoneal administration of lead (8 mg/kg) as lead acetate in male rats from 21 till 120 days of age triggered histopathological and biochemical alterations in the testis. Histopathological examination revealed disturbance in spermatogenesis besides Leydig cells degeneration. There was an increase in cholesterol, decrease in ascorbic acid contents and reduction in the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in the testis of lead-treated rats. These alterations suggest that the disturbed steroidogenesis during growing stage may be responsible for altering the germinal function of the testis at maturity.
Article
Environmental exposure to toxic levels of lead occurs in a number of industries with potential adverse effects on the reproductive capacity of exposed men. Clinical and animal studies indicate that abnormalities of spermatogenesis result from toxic lead exposure, but the pathogenetic mechanisms involved have not been identified. In order to ascertain what reproductive abnormalities occur in experimental animals when exposed to low levels of lead, 52-day-old animals were treated with water containing 0.0% (control), 0.1%, or 0.3% lead acetate for 30 days prior to killing. Whole blood serum lead levels were below detection (less than 7 micrograms/dl) in the control animals, 34 +/- 3 micrograms/dl in the 0.1% group, and 60 +/- 4 micrograms/dl in the 0.3% group (P less than 0.001). Significant negative correlations between whole blood lead levels and serum and intratesticular testosterone values were found (r = 0.64, P less than 0.001 and r = 0.6, P less than 0.001, respectively). As the level of lead exposure increased, intratesticular sperm counts significantly decreased (r = 0.81, P less than 0.001). No significant changes in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) values were found, but sperm follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values were significantly suppressed (P less than 0.05) after lead treatment. There was a significant decrease in ventral prostate weight (P less than 0.05), but no differences in testicular or seminal vesicle weights. Our data indicate that dietary exposure to lead resulting in whole blood serum lead values considered acceptable in the workplace (less than or equal to 40 micrograms/dl) causes inhibition of testicular function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
The effects of lead ingestion on parameters indicative of copper status, and particularly on the activity of the copper-dependent metalloenzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) in erythrocytes, were investigated in weanling and neonatal rats. In a series of experiments, Sprague-Dawley or Long-Evans rats were fed a nutritionally adequate purified diet (AIN-'76). Lead acetate was given orally in the drinking water (0, 100, 250, or 500 ppm Pb) to groups of 23 to 26-day-old rats for 5 weeks or intragastrically (0, 5, 11, 22, or 45 mg Pb/kg body wt/day) to pups from postnatal Days 2 through 20. Lead ingestion (250 and 500 ppm Pb) by weanling rats resulted in decreased concentrations of copper in blood (erythrocytes and serum), liver, and spleen, in increased concentrations of iron in liver and spleen, in increased spleen weight, and in a small decrease in hemoglobin and hematocrit values. There was a significant decrease in the activities of the copper metalloproteins erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and serum ceruloplasmin (Cp). In contrast, in the neonate we found no significant effects of lead on copper concentrations in blood or tissue or on other measures indicative of copper status. Despite high blood lead concentrations (1-3 micrograms/ml), SOD activity was not decreased in the neonatal rat. In addition, lead had no direct effect in vitro on the activity of bovine blood superoxide dismutase. On the basis of both the in vitro and in vivo studies, it appears likely that the observed decrease in SOD in young rats is caused indirectly by a lead-induced copper deficiency rather than by a direct inhibitory effect of lead.
Article
The reaction of human 5-aminolaevulinate dehydratase with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (Nbs2) results in the release of 4 molar equivalents of 5-mercapto-2-nitrobenzoic acid (Nbs) per subunit. Two of the thiol groups reacted very rapidly (groups I and II), and their rate constants were determined by stopped-flow spectrophotometry; the other two thiol groups (groups III and IV) were observed by conventional spectroscopy. Titration of the enzyme with a 1 molar equivalent concentration of Nbs2 resulted in the release of 2 molar equivalents of Nbs and the concomitant formation of an intramolecular disulphide bond between groups I and II. Removal of zinc from the holoenzyme increased the reactivity of groups I and II without significantly affecting the rate of reaction of the other groups. The reactions of the thiol groups in both the holoenzyme and apoenzyme were little affected by the presence of Pb2+ ions at concentrations that strongly inhibit the enzyme, suggesting that Zn2+ and Pb2+ ions may have independent binding sites. Protein fluorescence studies with Pb2+ and Zn2+ have shown that the binding of both metal ions results in perturbation of the protein fluorescence.
Article
Studies were carried out in rats, dogs and rabbits to determine if lead is excreted into bile in a manner similar to most inorganic ions or against a large bile/plasma concentration gradient. The results are presented and discussed; they suggest that the liver may have an active transport mechanism for the excretion of metals. The observations that the excretion of lead is highly temperature-dependent and that marked species variation in the biliary excretion of lead occurs also suggest that lead is actively transported into bile rather than passively transferred. (CIS Abstract Vol 2)
Article
One hundred and twenty sexually mature male and female rats were divided into three groups (control and treated with 5 mcg. or 100 mcg. for 30 days). Results indicate a significant increase (P < 0.001) in prostate weights of twofold over those of the controls. Seminal vesicle and testes weights of the treated animals experienced no significant changes. The prostate increase is due to hyperplasia, as documented by histologic study. The lead concentration in the blood was 14.1 mcg. per 100 ml. for the control group and 19 and 30 mcg. per 100 ml. in the treated groups. The females treated with 5 mcg. of lead acetate experienced irregularity of the estrus cycle, while the group treated with 100 mcg. had persistent vaginal estrus after a period of normal estrus, and the development of ovarian follicular cysts with a reduction in the number of corpora lutea was noted. Both male and female treated animals showed an inhibition of hepatic microsomal activity (drug detoxification mechanism). These results indicate the possibility of hazardous effects of lead acetate (depending on the dosage and period of exposure) on sexuality and reproductive function.
Article
The binding of cadmium, zinc, lead, and mercury ions by the tripeptide glutathione has been investigated by carbon-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Binding to the potential coordination sites was monitored as a function of solution conditions by observing the chemical shifts of the carbon atoms of glutathione. The results indicate that each of these metal ions binds to the potential coordination sites of glutathione with a high degree of specificity, with the actual sites involved in metal binding being dependent on the metal ion and the solution pD, with the exception of mercury which binds only to the sulfhydryl group at a mercury to glutathione ratio up to 0.5. At a metal to glutathione ratio of 0.5, Cd2+ and Zn2- bind to both the sulfhydryl group and the amino group, the extent of binding to the two different sites being a function of pD, while Pb2+ binds only to the sulfhydryl group. Some binding of the glutamyl and glycyl carboxylic acid groups to cadmium, zinc, and lead was detected in certain pH regions. The chemical shift data for the carbonyl carbons of the two peptide linkages suggest zinc-promoted ionization of the peptide protons with subsequent binding of zinc to the ionized peptide nitrogen at pD greater than 10.5, while no evidence for this metal-promoted reaction was observed in the cadmium, lead, and mercury complexes. The results are discussed in terms of the possible structures of the complexes.
Article
There is evidence that lead can exert a toxic action upon the male reproductive system. Likewise, there is evidence that some of the effects that lead exerts upon other biological systems might also affect male reproductive capacity. Differences in response to the toxic actions of lead can, in part, be attributed to differences in dose, duration, and method of exposure, species, and lack of comparable experimental designs. Nevertheless, a spermatotoxic and gonadotoxic effect of lead has been seen in a variety of species including man. Furthermore, lead exposure has been linked to chromosomal aberrations in workers.