Article

Social Comparison as a Predictor of Body Dissatisfaction: A Meta-Analytic Review

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The relationship between social comparison and body dissatisfaction was examined using meta-analysis. Several demographic and methodological variables were examined as potential moderators. Data from 156 studies (189 effect sizes) showed that social comparison was related to higher levels of body dissatisfaction. The effect for social comparison and body dissatisfaction was stronger for women than men and inversely related to age. This effect was stronger when social comparison was directly measured rather than inferred. No differences emerged for the presence of eating psychopathology, study design, or object of comparison. Results confirm theory and research suggesting that comparing oneself unfavorably to another on the basis of appearance may lead to dissatisfaction with one's own appearance. Moderator variables refine our understanding of the social comparison-body dissatisfaction relationship. These constructs and their relationship should be explored further in future studies.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Given their difficulties in peer relationships (Kingery, Erdley, Marshall, Whitaker, & Reuter, 2010), it is likely that youth high in SA will have fewer opportunities for adaptive comparisons. Their weaker clarity of self-concept, negative self-image, and tendency to perceive themselves as less attractive than others (Ranta et al., 2014;Rapee et al., 2020) suggests that socially anxious adolescents may be more likely to engage in upward appearance comparisons (Myers & Crowther, 2009;Webb et al., 2014). Ultimately, repeatedly comparing against others who are perceived as superior on salient characteristics such as attractiveness will foster and maintain the negative self-representation that lies at the core of models of SAD (Wong & Rapee, 2016). ...
... Empirical evidence has most commonly associated upward social comparison, especially related to appearance, with negative emotional outcomes (Myers & Crowther, 2009). Hence, young people who frequently compare themselves to those they perceive as superior in attractiveness are more likely to report distress, especially poor body image (Myers & Crowther, 2009). ...
... Empirical evidence has most commonly associated upward social comparison, especially related to appearance, with negative emotional outcomes (Myers & Crowther, 2009). Hence, young people who frequently compare themselves to those they perceive as superior in attractiveness are more likely to report distress, especially poor body image (Myers & Crowther, 2009). Far less research has demonstrated associations between social comparisons and SA (Cunha et al., 2008) and we are not aware of any previous research that has evaluated the relationship longitudinally. ...
Article
Objectives The aims of this study were to determine the impact of adolescent-relevant risk factors on changes in social anxiety symptoms from pre-to early-adolescence. Methods From 2016 to 2018, 528 youth (51% boys) were tested in three annual waves across grades 6, 7, and 8 (M ages 11.2, 12.7, 13.7 years). Through online surveys youth reported on peer relationships that were combined into two latent factors: 1) appearance comparisons, comprising youth reports of appearance comparisons relative to others in general and while using social media, along with perceived attractiveness; and 2) positive peer connections, comprising youth reports of group affiliation, school belonging, and peer victimisation. Youth and their parents also reported on the youth's level of pubertal development as well as the youth's level of social anxiety using previously validated questionnaires. Social anxiety was also assessed with structured diagnostic interview. Results Separate cross-lagged panel models were used to model longitudinal associations between all risk factors and youth, parent, and interviewer-reported measures of social anxiety. Of the associations tested, only appearance comparisons directly predicted increases in social anxiety symptoms 12 months later across all models. More advanced pubertal development was associated with increased appearance comparisons the following year. On the other hand, higher levels of social anxiety predicted subsequent reductions in positive peer connections in parent and interviewer models. Conclusions These results highlight the important and interconnected impact of pubertal development and appearance comparisons on both the development of social anxiety symptoms during early adolescence, as well as the social consequences of social anxiety.
... Según el modelo de influencia tripartita , las comparaciones de la apariencia física y la interiorización de los ideales estéticos actúan como variables mediadoras en la relación entre las presiones socioculturales, la insatisfacción corporal y los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria. Diversos estudios han descrito el papel de la comparación de la apariencia como un proceso cognitivo que media la relación entre los factores socioculturales y la insatisfacción corporal (Strahan et al., 2006; van den Berg y Thompson, 2007;Want, 2009), y la tendencia a comparar la propia apariencia física se ha asociado consistentemente con una imagen corporal negativa (Fardouly et al., 2015b;Keery et al., 2004;Myers y Crowther, 2009) y los trastornos alimentarios (Alcaraz-Ibáñez, 2017; . Aunque la etiología de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria es compleja y se han sugerido múltiples modelos explicativos (Moreno-Encinas et al., 2021), las comparaciones de la apariencia podrían jugar un papel clave en el desarrollo de estos trastornos. ...
... Además, la literatura sugiere que las mujeres tienden a focalizarse en el peso cuando se comparan, mientras que las comparaciones realizadas por los hombres a menudo se relacionan con la musculatura (Fisher et al., 2002). Asimismo, los hombres parecen realizar menos comparaciones de la propia apariencia en comparación con las mujeres, y el efecto de estas comparaciones podría estar menos asociado con sentimientos negativos sobre el propio cuerpo (Carlson Jones, 2004;Davison y McCabe, 2005Myers y Crowther, 2009). Se ha sugerido que los hallazgos inconsistentes en los hombres podrían deberse a las medidas utilizadas, ya que la mayoría de las medidas de insatisfacción corporal y trastornos alimentarios más utilizadas se han desarrollado y validado en muestras de mujeres. ...
... De manera similar, la "Medida de orientación comparativa del cuerpo, alimentación y ejercicio" (Body, Eating, and Exercise Comparison Orientation Measure, BEECOM;Fitzsimmons-Craft et al., 2012) mide diferentes dimensiones de la comparación que tienden a asociarse con las alteraciones de la alimentación. Por último, la "Escala de comparación de la apariencia física" (Physical Appearance Comparison Scale; PACS; Thompson et al., 1991), de 5 ítems, ha sido descrita como la medida validada de comparación de la apariencia física más utilizada (Myers y Crowther, 2009). Fue revisada por Schaefer y Thompson (2014), quienes crearon la "Escala de comparación de la apariencia física revisada" (Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised; PACS-R) para abordar las limitaciones de la versión original, y validaron la medición en una muestra de estudiantes universitarias. ...
Article
Full-text available
Los objetivos de este estudio fueron examinar la validez y la fiabilidad de la versión española de la “Escala de comparación de la apariencia física-revisada” (Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised; PACS-R) y evaluar su capacidad predictiva de la insatisfacción corporal y las alteraciones alimentarias en una muestra comunitaria española. 1405 participantes (83,6% mujeres; de entre 14 y 64 años) completaron la PACS-R y también medidas de imagen corporal, alteraciones alimentarias, influencias socioculturales relacionadas con la apariencia física, autoestima y comparación social. Los análisis factoriales exploratorio y confirmatorio apoyaron la estructura unidimensional original para la versión española de 11 ítems de la PACS-R. Las mujeres mostraron puntuaciones significativamente más elevadas que los hombres. Se halló una consistencia interna excelente, buena fiabilidad test-retest y buena validez convergente. Los análisis de regresión demostraron la utilidad de la escala para predecir la insatisfacción corporal y las alteraciones alimentarias tanto en hombres como en mujeres. Las excelentes propiedades psicométricas de la PACS-R la convierten en una herramienta útil para medir las comparaciones de la apariencia física en personas de habla española.
... According to the tripartite influence model (Thompson, Heinberg, et al., 1999), appearance comparisons and internalization of appearance ideals act as mediating variables for the relationship between sociocultural pressures, body dissatisfaction and eating disturbances. Several studies have indicated the role of appearance social comparison as a cognitive process that mediates the relationship between sociocultural factors and body dissatisfaction (Strahan et al., 2006;van den Berg & Thompson, 2007;Want, 2009), and the tendency to engage in appearance comparisons has been consistently associated with a negative body image (Fardouly et al., 2015b;Keery et al., 2004;Myers & Crowther, 2009) and eating disorders (Alcaraz-Ibáñez, 2017; Thompson, Coovert, et al., 1999). Even though the aetiology of eating disorders is complex and multiple models have been suggested (Moreno-Encinas et al., 2021), appearance comparisons might play a key role in the development of eating disturbances. ...
... Furthermore, the literature suggests that females tend to focus on their weight when they compare themselves, while males' comparisons are often related to muscularity (Fisher et al., 2002). Also, men seem to engage in fewer appearance comparisons compared to women, and the effect of these comparisons might be less associated with negative feelings about their body (Carlson Jones, 2004;Davison & McCabe, 2005Myers & Crowther, 2009). It has been suggested that inconsistent findings among men could be due to the measures used, as most of the commonly used body dissatisfaction and disordered eating measures have been developed and validated in female samples. ...
... Similarly, the Body, Eating, and Exercise Comparison Orientation Measure (BEECOM; Fitzsimmons-Craft et al., 2012) measures different comparison dimensions that tend to be associated with eating pathology. Finally, the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (PACS; Thompson et al., 1991) is a 5-item scale that has been reported to be the most commonly used validated measure of appearance comparison (Myers & Crowther, 2009). It was revised by Schaefer & Thompson (2014), who created the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised (PACS-R) to address the limitations of the original version, and validated the measurement in a sample of female college students. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objectives of this study were to examine the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised (PACS-R) and to assess its ability to predict body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in a community sample in Spain. A total of 1405 participants (83.6% women; aged 14-64) completed the Spanish PACS-R along with measures of body image, eating disturbances, appearance-related sociocultural influences, self-esteem and social comparison. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported the original one-dimensional factor structure for the 11-item Spanish version of the PACS-R. Women had significantly higher PACS-R scores than men. Internal consistency of the measure was excellent, and results showed good test-retest reliability and convergent validity in men and women. Regression analyses demonstrated the utility of the scale in predicting body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in both genders. Results suggest that the Spanish PACS-R has excellent psychometric properties, therefore it might be a useful tool to measure appearance comparisons among Spanish speaking populations.
... Given the social functions of social media sites and the detailed information about others, it may be natural for people to engage in social comparisons either consciously or unconsciously [37]. Furthermore, unlike real-life situations, social media sites allow people to present an optimized or idealized version of themselves and their experiences [38,39]. It is therefore possible that further exposure to 'enhanced' profiles can create more discrepancy between their perceived self and others and perhaps amplify feelings of inadequacy. ...
... Research indicates that low self-esteem has been linked to unrealistic standards for self-evaluation [46] and that negative self-evaluations can occur when discrepancy increases between ideal and real self-image [47]. In the context of social media, for example, exposure to 'fitspiration' content, which tends to involve images and messages praising thinness and high fitness levels [48,49], can lead to increased body dissatisfaction if these ideals are internalized and unattained [39] Cognitive reframing mentioned by youths, such as setting realistic body image or achievement expectations, can therefore act as a buffer against the development of negative self-evaluations when comparing with unrealistic and unattainable body images or others' achievements on these platforms. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This study aimed to expand and inform the emerging body of research on the negative experiences of social media use among youths and how youths deal with them, in an Asian setting, using a qualitative approach. Methods Data were collected using 11 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 25 semi-structured interviews (SIs) among youths aged 15 to 24 years residing in Singapore who were recruited via purposive sampling. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results The salient negative effects mentioned by participants include the development of negative reactions and feelings from upward comparisons with others (e.g., others’ achievements and lifestyle), receiving hurtful comments, exposure to controversial content (e.g., political events and social movements), as well as the perpetuation of negative feelings, behaviours, and sentiments (e.g., rumination, unhealthy eating behaviour, and self-harm). Participants also described strategies which they have employed or deemed to be useful in mitigating the negative effects of social media use. These include filtering content and users, taking breaks from social media, cognitive reframing, and self-affirmation, where they identify and change stress-inducing patterns of thinking by setting realistic social, physical, and lifestyle expectations for themselves, and focusing on self-development. Conclusion The current results highlight that while youths experience negative effects of social media use, they have high media literacy and have employed strategies that appear to mitigate the negative effects of social media use. The findings can inform various stakeholders involved in helping youths navigate the harms of social media use or provide directions for intervention studies aimed at reducing the harms of social media use.
... Women tend to be much less satisfied with their bodies, see themselves as overweight, and engage in extreme weight loss practices, although most are actually within a healthy weight range [9][10][11]. In addition, far stronger relationships between body shape dissatisfaction and comparisons with others are found among women than men, which indicates that women's attitudes towards their bodies are more easily influenced by social evaluation and pressure [8,12]. Furthermore, women are more likely to pursue an extremely thin body shape in order to conform to men's perceptions of female attractiveness [8]. ...
... The cultural preference for a slim body shape (e.g., thinness implies attractiveness) [38] and the implicit and explicit discrimination against overweight people (e.g., being mocked for being unable to purchase suitable clothes) [20] also contributed to these women using drugs to manage weight. This finding was consistent with studies that show women are more likely to engage in weight control practices under social pressure and social evaluation [12,39]. For the women in this study, successfully aspiring to the ideal of a slim figure brought them pleasure, as it made them attractive according to this cultural norm. ...
Article
Full-text available
The population of female drug users has been growing in China, and these women have been found to care deeply about their weight. Against this backdrop, this study examines the relationship between Chinese women’s illicit drug use and their intentions to lose weight, keep fit, and maintain a slim body shape. The participants of this study were 29 women who all had experience with illicit drug use for weight control. These women were drawn from a female compulsory drug treatment center located in eastern China. Semi-structured interviews with these 29 participants were conducted between 2013 and 2016. Expectations of losing weight and pursuing their ideal slim body shape were found to be an important reason for the study participants’ initiation of drug use, its maintenance, and failures to achieve abstinence. These Chinese female drug users were generally satisfied with weight loss outcomes subsequent to drug consumption. A fuller appreciation of Chinese women’s weight-loss-related illicit drug use patterns is much needed to help devise strategies and policies to deal with this growing problem. These include changing the dominant aesthetic cultural preference for thinness, paying particular attention to the functional use of illicit drugs in drug treatment programs, and having special interventions for women who interact with drug users within their social networks.
... 73 When viewing images of bodies, young women may compare their body to the body of the image and these social comparisons on appearance have been linked to higher body dissatisfaction. 74 Due to the artificial and highly edited images present on social media, these women likely are engaging in upward appearance comparisons, in which they compare their body to that of an idealized image. Upward social comparisons can be linked to an increase in risk factors such as body dissatisfaction and are particularly harmful for those with preexisting body dissatisfaction or related pathology. ...
... One such mechanism could be downward social comparisons, in which individuals compare themselves to another individual on a specific characteristic. There is a robust amount of literature supporting the role of social comparisons and their role in body dissatisfaction.74 In this study, individuals likely compared their own body size to that of the body in the image. ...
Thesis
The Body Positivity Movement (BP) arose from Fat Liberation and aims to promote body inclusivity and rejection of societal ideals around weight. There is evidence to suggest that BP may be beneficial in reducing risk factors for disordered eating (DE). While this is promising, there is no existing unified and user-generated definition of BP, and little is known about how BP is associated with anti-fat attitudes (AFA). Accordingly, Aim 1 assesses how young adult university students who identify as female define BP and how agreement with BP and fat liberation is associated with risk and protective factors for DE and AFA. Aims 2 and 3 assess how exposure to different types of BP content is associated with changes in risk and protective factors for DE and AFA. For Aim 1, 5000 female identifying undergraduate students between 18-25 years of age were sent recruitment emails via the Registrar’s Office at the University of Michigan to partake in a survey about social media and health. This cross-sectional survey assessed individual definitions and agreement with BP, fat liberation, as well as the following outcomes: eating disorder risk, body dissatisfaction, thin ideal internalization, body appreciation, body functionality appreciation, weight bias internalization, and AFA. For Aims 2 and 3, participants (N=224) were randomly assigned to view 10 condition-specific images and complete a battery of pre- and post-measures. Aim 2 examines if exposure to BP content with or without the presence of bodies compared to control images is associated with positive or negative risk factors for DE and AFA, such as state body satisfaction, state shape satisfaction, state appearance satisfaction, body functionality appreciation and AFA. Aim 3 examines if associations between exposure to BP content and risk and protective factors for DE, and AFA differ by body size of the image, more specifically between exposure to images of fat bodies, mid-size bodies(bodies that might be considered somewhat “overweight” (i.e., would not be categorized as the thin ideal, but are not likely to experience substantial AFA or discrimination)),” or a condition containing both fat and mid-size bodies. Independent repeated measure Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs) are used to examine differences in all outcomes from pre to post stimulus exposure. In Aim 1, it was found that young females (N=379) define BP as being primarily about “body love and confidence,” “appreciation of body diversity,” “not body shaming, “and “body acceptance,” “prioritization of health over beauty,” and the “rejection of societal ideals about weight and shape” (hereafter referred to as mainstream BP). Linear regression models revealed significant associations between agreement with mainstream BP and higher body functionality appreciation and lower AFA. Contrary to the hypothesis, there was a significant association between agreement with mainstream BP and thin ideal internalization. Agreement with fat liberation was associated with higher body functionality appreciation, lower eating disorder risk, and lower AFA. For Aim 2, there were significant increases in all measures of state body satisfaction for all conditions, but no significant effect of condition. In Aim 3, those who viewed images of BP content containing only fat bodies had greater increases in state appearance satisfaction. However, there were increases in all measures of state body satisfaction for all conditions. Findings from this study can be used to help public health professionals utilize mainstream BP and fat liberation to reduce DE risk and AFA.
... Taking into consideration that body image problems are more prevalent among women than men (Myers & Crowther, 2009;O'Dea & Caputi, 2001) and considering that women have been reported to be an especially vulnerable group to the negative psychosocial effects of COVID-19 (Ozamiz-Etxebarria et al., 2020;Sun et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2020), special attention should be paid to this population group. ...
... Second, this study included a community sample and, although there were some women at risk of having an eating disorder, future research should examine samples with eating disorders. Third, although women are more susceptible to appearance comparisons and body dissatisfaction (Myers & Crowther, 2009), future studies should also study men and individuals who do not identify within the gender binary system. Fourth, other SNS should be assessed, such as TikTok, which is growing rapidly and has been associated with eating disorders-related content during the pandemic (Llad o Jordan et al., 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This study aimed to determine the evolution of Instagram use, body dissatisfaction and physical appearance comparisons throughout the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and to explore whether there was a relationship between the changes in Instagram use throughout the pandemic and body dissatisfaction and physical appearance comparisons. Method: A total of 272 Spanish women (16-70 years old) were followed-up across four waves of assessment between November 2019 (before the pandemic started) and July 2021. Body dissatisfaction, social appearance comparisons, and Instagram use were assessed using the Eating Disorders Inventory-3, the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised, and an ad hoc questionnaire for Instagram use, respectively. Results: No statistically significant changes were found in the frequency of Instagram use, nor on the proportion of women following appearance-focused accounts on Instagram, among the data collection periods. Body dissatisfaction significantly increased from T1 to T4, and physical appearance comparisons significantly increased from T1 to T2, T3, and T4. These increases were not found to be significant for those with eating disorder risk. No significant differences were found in body dissatisfaction and physical appearance comparisons depending on whether participants' frequency of Instagram use had changed or remained the same, or whether they had started/stopped/continued following appearance-focused accounts on Instagram during the pandemic. Discussion: Women's body dissatisfaction and physical appearance comparisons seem to have increased throughout the pandemic. The experiences of individuals with eating disorder risk throughout the pandemic, and the relationship between the pandemic and Instagram use, might be complex and need further research. Public significance: This study suggests that women's body dissatisfaction and physical appearance comparisons have increased throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. However, this increase might not be as clear for those who had eating disorder risk before the pandemic. Instagram frequency of use, and the percentage of women following appearance-focused accounts on Instagram, do not seem to have significantly increased. More research is needed to explore the impact of the pandemic.
... Research has further demonstrated that body dissatisfaction in both females and males is associated with low self-esteem, poorer psychological well-being, and depression (Barnes et al., 2020;Quittkat et al., 2019;Stice et al., 2000). Existing research on social comparison has demonstrated its crucial role in appearance, body image disturbance, and eating pathology (e.g., Hill & Nolan, 2021;Myers & Crowther, 2009). For example, patients with eating disorders reported a higher frequency of social comparisons than healthy control participants (Grynberg et al., 2020;Horndasch et al., 2015), as well as higher negative affect following social comparison (Vocks et al., 2010). ...
... Previous assessments of habitual comparison standards have examined unitary aspects of the comparison process and mostly the frequency of specific types of comparison, such as social comparison (Allan & Gilbert, 1995;Schaefer & Thompson, 2018;Thompson et al., 1991) and to a lesser degree counterfactual thinking (Rye et al., 2008). With respect to body (dis-)satisfaction and eating pathology, previous research has revealed significant insights into the role of social comparison therein (Hill & Nolan, 2021;Myers & Crowther, 2009). Our results are in line with findings on social comparison showing that individuals generally tend to feel worse after an upward social comparison and better after a downward social comparison (Gerber et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Humans constantly compare their attributes to different reference frames. According to the theoretical framework of the general comparative-processing model, such comparisons may be perceived as aversive (i.e., appraised as threatening the motives of the comparer) or appetitive (i.e., appraised as consonant with, or positively challenging the motives). However, we lack a measure that adequately captures multi-standard comparisons. Methods Considering appearance-related comparisons as a relevant comparison domain, we introduce the Comparison Standards Scale for Appearance (CSS-A) that assesses appearance-related social, temporal, counterfactual, criteria-based, and dimensional upward and downward comparisons regarding their (a) frequency, (b) perceived discrepancy, and (c) engendered affect. We administered the CSS-A to 1121 participants, along with measures of appearance social comparison, body satisfaction, physical self-concept, self-esteem, well-being, and depression. Results A two-factor model (aversive and appetitive comparisons) fit the data better than a bifactor model with an additional general domain-factor (comparative thinking). The validity of the CSS-A was supported by correlations with external validators beyond appearance, social comparison, and body satisfaction. Aversive comparisons displayed higher associations with most outcomes than appetitive comparisons. Conclusions Overall, the CSS-A offers a psychometrically sound and useful measure of multi-standard comparisons.
... In upward social comparisons, people compare themselves to superior individuals (Festinger, 1954). Among women, making upward appearance comparisons is moderately related to negative body image (Myers & Crowther, 2009). On social media, young adult women most frequently make upward appearance comparisons to peers and rarely compare their appearance to family Fardouly, Diedrichs, Vartanian, & Halliwell, 2015).Cross-sectional research shows negative associations between body image and active social media engagement (ASME), particularly photo-based ASME (Cohen, Newton-John, & Slater, 2017;Holland & Tiggemann, 2016;Kim & Chock, 2015;Meier & Gray,2014). ...
... The body comparison tendency and body esteem displayed a negative association for the young women in a study. Although this study was correlational and does not allow for causal claims to be made, these results lend support to both the theoretical model and previous research which show negative relationships between social comparison processes and body image outcomes Krones et al., 2005;Myers & Crowther, 2009;Ridolfi et al., 2011). Therefore, these results strengthen the argument that engaging in body comparisons has a negative influence on body esteem. ...
... The large number of photos posted on social media platforms provide users with the opportunity to make regular social comparisons related to their appearance. Research by Myers and Crowther (2009) shows that constantly comparing one's physical appearance to others (especially those who are more attractive than oneself) can lead to negative body image. In addition, studies on female undergraduate students have found that a tendency to compare one's appearance to others (particularly to one's peers) mediated the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns . ...
... The social comparison theory is a framework used to explain body image, well-being, jealousy, and appearance anxiety in adolescents and young adults, along with social media use. Festinger's (1954) social comparison theory assumes that individuals want to improve themselves and are motivated to measure how they perform in an area, and it is stated that this behavior peaks during adolescence (Myers & Crowther, 2009). Individuals use others as a comparison target to evaluate how they are doing. ...
Article
Full-text available
The use of social media by adolescents, who spend about 3 hours a day on social media, is dominated by visual communication. Nowadays, appearance ideals are presented through social media platforms. Exposure to these popular ideals of appearance could cause appearance-based anxiety and adolescents to develop binge-eating behavior. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine social appearance anxiety, social media addictions, and emotional eating behaviors of adolescents. 1363 adolescents, living in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey, were included in the study. Data were collected with a Questionnaire form, the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS), Social Media Addiction Scale (SMAS), and Emotional Eating Scale (EES-C). 24.4% of adolescents are social media addicts. No relationship was found between adolescents’ social appearance anxiety, social media addictions, and emotional eating behaviors. However, social appearance anxiety and social media addictions of girls, those who perceive their family income as low and who think that they are influenced by social media influencers have higher anxiety. The value of this study is that it shows that gender, low income perception, time spent on social media, being influenced by influencers, following influencers who share diet and nutrition content, and social media addiction are associated with social appearance anxiety. As a result, it is thought that social media addiction and being affected by social media influencers increase social appearance anxiety in adolescents and pose a risk in terms of adolescents’ mental health.
... Women are more engaged in selfie activities compared to men (Dhir et al. 2016). Women tend to more frequently engage in appearance comparison and feel dissatisfied with their appearance than men (Myers & Crowther 2009). Among all the surgical and non-surgical procedures performed worldwide in 2020, 86.3% were for women (International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Selfies are related to dissatisfaction with appearance, but interestingly, selfies also predict positive evaluation about appearance (e.g., narcissism). In addition, selfie effects on appearance were examined only at the personal level. This paper investigated appearance-related effects of selfies among Asian women both at the personal and societal level while controlling for individuals’ perception of own appearance to see selfie effects regardless of (dis)satisfaction with appearance. At the personal level, acceptance of cosmetic surgery (ACS) was chosen as the outcome because cosmetic surgery is the most drastic means of personal transformation. At the societal level, acceptance of lookism (AL), discrimination based on appearance, was adopted because it shows social orientation toward beauty. Study 1 (N = 501), conducted among Singaporean women, found that selfie taking directly predicts ACS and also indirectly influences ACS through appearance comparison. However, indirect effects were not significant in the high self-esteem group (top 27.65%). Study 2, with longitudinal data (N = 941 at Wave 1 and 653 at Wave 2) collected from South Korean women, found that selfie taking and editing are first associated with appearance orientation, meaning the personal importance of appearance, at Wave 1, and such increased attention positively predicts AL, the societal importance of appearance, at Wave 2. No direct effects were found. The results suggest that selfies are associated with appearance-related beliefs both at the personal and societal level regardless of one’s perception of own appearance, but there are individual differences and underlying mechanisms.
... A study carried out in Spain on 17 boys and 119 girls with an average age of 13.78 showed that social appearance comparison had a positive and statistically significant relation with the presence of disordered eating attitudes in both girls and boys (Alcaraz, 2017). A meta-analysis study examining the relationship between social comparison and body dissatisfaction showed that the effect for social comparison and body dissatisfaction was stronger for women than men and inversely related to age (Myers, & Crowther, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Different psychosocial variables are related to disordered eating attitudes in adolescents, especially in girls. But some studies show that the variables involved in eating disorders may be different in boys and girls. The aim of this study was to analyse the psychosocial profile related to disordered eating attitudes in adolescents of both sexes, separately. Method: a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1630 Spanish adolescents, 890 of whom were girls with an average age of 14 (SD = 1.34) selected from secondary schools in the province of Alicante through random sampling stratified by school year. Results: The cluster analysis showed two profiles in both sexes. One profile presents high disordered eating attitudes, where the highest scores were in body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, pressure to lose weight and social comparison, and the lowest scores were for self-esteem. This contrasts with the other profile that presents low disordered eating attitudes. The logistic regression model showed that girls were 3.8 times more likely to have disordered eating attitudes if they dieted, experienced body dissatisfaction and compared themselves socially with their peers. Disordered eating attitudes in boys was 3.3 times greater when they experienced body dissatisfaction and pressure to lose weight. Conclusion: These results showed that both sexes present similar profiles. Girls and boys present disordered eating attitudes when they have low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism, comparison with peers, pressure to lose weight, or are on a diet. In future studies, it will be necessary to develop further longitudinal studies which could help to shed light on the risks and protective factors of eating disorders.
... Scholars have proposed that having family and peers who express unconditional body acceptance is crucial to developing positive body image (Kroon Van Diest & Tylka, 2010;Tylka & Homan, 2015). Further, media consumption, social comparison, and appearance-ideal internalisation are causal factors in the development of negative body image (Myers & Crowther, 2009); men who minimise these practices might be more likely to develop positive body image as well. In addition, men who do not strive toward muscularity, leanness, and masculine norms may feel freer to engage in practices that promote positive body image, which sometimes conflict with gender expectations for men (Alleva et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Emerging research suggests that positive body image—an overall love and respect for one’s body— may be a protective factor for eating disorder (ED) symptoms. This study aimed to explore the relationships between positive body image, ED symptoms, and related factors among men across time. A community sample of 440 British men completed questionnaires at Time 1 and Time 2 (1 year later). Linear models showed that, unexpectedly, positive body image at Time 1 did not predict change in ED symptoms at Time 2, and ED symptoms at Time 1 did not predict change in positive body image at Time 2. However, positive body image at Time 1 did predict increased appearance satisfaction and decreased appearance-ideal internalisation at Time 2. Increased positive body image at Time 2 was only predicted by appearance satisfaction at Time 1. Although no evidence for a longitudinal relationship between positive body image and ED symptoms was found, positive body image did predict change in established risk factors for disordered eating among men. Future research on positive body image and eating behaviour among men could be improved by including assessments of muscularity-oriented and adaptive eating behaviours.
... However, individual differences may exist in terms of the extent to which one makes a comparison between the self and others. Trait social comparison describes the general tendency to compare oneself to others and has been linked with body dissatisfaction (Myers and Crowther, 2009;Betz et al., 2019). For example, an experimental study finds that state social comparison mediated the body ideal exposure effects on body surveillance and body appreciation, and trait social comparison moderated the association between viewing curvy ideal body and state social comparison (Betz et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have reported that general or photo-specific social media use was associated with women’s body dissatisfaction and body image disturbance. The current study replicated and expanded upon these findings by identifying the positive association between social media influencer viewing and intentions to change appearance. This study surveyed a sample of 7,015 adult female TikTok users in China regarding their social media influencer viewing frequency, self-objectification, social comparison tendencies when watching short videos, intentions to change appearance, and demographics. The results showed that female TikTok users’ self-objectification mediated the association between their influencer viewing frequency and their intentions to change appearance. Furthermore, social comparison tendencies moderated the association between influencer viewing and intentions to change appearance in that the proposed association was stronger for female TikTok users who had lower social comparison tendencies when watching short videos, compared to female TikTok users who had higher social comparison tendencies. The counter-intuitive finding on social comparison tendencies indicated that women who have higher social comparison tendencies may be more aware of the negative influences and adjust their expectations. The observed association between social media influencer viewing and intentions to change appearance was statistically significant but trivial in terms of effect size. Although the result could warn policymakers and practitioners to design media and health literacy campaigns to cultivate body positivity, caution should be exercised when evaluating the practical implications.
... In these analyses, dimensions of SRBEQ were treated as criterion variables. To account for the gender and age differences in effects of media on body image (Myers & Crowther, 2009), we controlled for gender and age of the participant in the first regression model, while physical appearance variables (BMI, body esteem, and fear of negative appearance evaluation) and self-esteem variables (general self-esteem and social self-esteem) were entered as predictors in the next two models. Adding the predictors in the consecutive steps allowed us to determine the unique contribution of every group of predictors to the overall prediction of the criterion variable. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research on online social networks has indicated that it is appropriate to differentiate between active and passive use of these services, especially since they often have reverse effects on well-being. This study focused on Instagram selfies as a specific form of Instagram activity. We adopted the proposed distinction between active and passive use of social networks and applied it to selfies. In two correlational studies, we measured three aspects of selfie-related behaviors: self-presentation through selfies (active form), selfie preoccupation (active form), and upward physical appearance comparison with others' selfies (passive form). We explored their relationships with body image concerns and self-esteem (in Study 1, N = 284, 16.9% men, age ranged from 17 to 53) as well as subjective well-being and mental health (in Study 2, N = 473, 12.5% men, age ranged from 16 to 49) on the samples of Instagram users from Serbia and Balkan region who reported they take selfies. The results indicated that upward comparison with others' selfies is detrimental to both body image and subjective well-being. However, self-presentation and selfie preoccupation were related to stronger fear of negative appearance evaluation and better social self-esteem, but they had negligible relationship with indicators of mental health. This research was the first to study both active and passive selfie-related behaviors within the same framework and it showed that these behaviors have similar relations to body image, but different to self-esteem and well-being.
... The complexity of this comparison and competitiveness is exacerbated by online culture (Bloemen & De Coninck, 2020). Myers and Crowther (2009) report general impacts of social comparison in the context of body dissatisfaction (cf. the beautification of photos): The self-presentation of others on social media will increase the relative dissatisfaction of the individual (Fan, Deng, Dong, Lin, & Wang, 2019). ...
Preprint
COVID-19 may not be a ‘youth disease’ but nevertheless impacts the life of young people dramatically, loneliness and negative mood being an unexpected additional pandemic. Many young people rely on social media for their feeling of connectedness with others. However, social media are suggested to have many negative effects on people’s anxiety. Instead of self-disclosing to others, design may develop alternatives to employ social robots for self-disclosure. In a follow-up on Duan et al. (2021), we report on a lab experiment of self-disclosing negative emotions to a social-media group as compared to writing a conventional diary journal or to talk to an AI-driven social robot after negative mood induction (i.e. viewing shocking earthquake footage). Participants benefitted the most from talking to a robot rather than from writing a journal page or sharing their feelings on social media. Self-disclosure on social media or writing a journal page did not differ significantly. In the design of interventions for mental well-being, human helpers thus far took center stage. Based on our results, we propose design alternatives for an empathic smart-home, featuring social robots and chatbots for alleviating stress and anxiety: a social-media interference chatbot, smart watch plus speaker, and a mirror for self-reflection.
... As the majority of the above studies investigated college-aged samples, there remained the rather slim hope (Paraskeva, Lewis-Smith, & Diedrichs, 2017;Tiggemann et al., 2019) that disclaimer labels might still prove an effective strategy for adolescent girls, who might have lower media experience and/or knowledge and for whom appearance-based comparisons are particularly salient (Myers & Crowther, 2009). However, a recent study of Austrian tweens and teens showed that disclaimer labels (standard or adolescent-inspired) were equally ineffective in a social media context; they did not decrease perceived realism, nor protect body satisfaction (Naderer et al., 2021). ...
Article
Social media have become a major part of contemporary life. They are also a potent source of idealized and unrealistic imagery. Contributing to the lack of realism is the ability to digitally modify photos by applying a filter or editing software. One strategy suggested to counteract the negative consequences of idealized imagery on body image is the addition of a disclaimer label informing the viewer when an image has been digitally altered. The present paper brings together and presents an overview of the existing research on the consequences for body image of digital manipulation and the addition of disclaimers in a variety of types to images on social media. It concludes that disclaimers are an ineffective means of protecting body satisfaction against exposure to idealized social media images. Based on the overview, nine avenues for future research are identified.
... This significantly affects body image, self-esteem, selfconfidence as posting photos on Instagram, then, becomes more than just sharing pictures of oneself (Dumas et. al, 2020;Dion, 2016;Myers and Crowther, 2009). Since less academic attention has been paid to Instagram as a tool of self-expression, this study seeks to explore the role of contemporary representations on beauty and empowerment from the perspective of those who create the visual content. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The advent of Instagram has driven women to desire stereotypical notions of beauty and higher self-esteem. Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) and other members of the South Asian diaspora living outside of their countries are often looked up to for their empowered and 'superior' personas. However, this classed, neoliberal, aesthetic representation of NRIs might have plethora of impacts on the discourse of empowerment, and rather, widen this gap for subaltern groups. While previous studies have focused on the impact of Indian diasporas on lower-classed populations, the beauty representations of NRI women on Instagram and its influence on empowerment is yet to be studied. Therefore, this essay aims to study how the young upper-class NRI diasporas utilise post-feminism on Instagram as a framework to sell empowerment to women as an enhanced version of self-styling, self-confidence, and self-love. This essay critically analyses the South-Asian activist trend on Instagram by delving into the rise of postfeminist beauty, and the role that confidence and privilege play therein. I further study how beauty is integrated into the psyche of life and a state of mind, through twelve in-depth, semi-structured interviews. This essay demonstrates that with the appropriation of postfeminist activism, discursive politics of confidence and its relationship with desi cultural politics of appearance, elitist NRI women actively replicate and reinforce oppressive patriarchal and colonialist mentality under the guise of modern feminism. Although post-feminism constructs a tight-knit community on Instagram for desi women, it provides the subjects with a double-edged sword as they practice new femininities, with a newer set of terms and conditions.
... This model shares many facets of regulation with Zimmerman's model of SRL but brings more emphasis on context and motivational dimensions Puustinen and Pulkkinen (2001) than the latter. Pintrich (2000) Various other models of SRL were formulated giving emphasis to the metacognitive and motivational aspects of the learner Dunlosky and Metcalfe (2008); Verhallen and Bus (2010); Myers and Crowther (2009), yet a comprehensive model incorporating cognitive, metacognitive, affective and social dimensions of SRL was missing. The Efklide's Metacognitive and Affective Model of Self-Regulated Learning Renninger and Hidi (2011) fits into this gap and explains the regulation in two levels of abstraction ie (i) Personal/macro level and (ii) Task x Person level (Figure 2.6). ...
Thesis
Agents in a learning environment can have various roles and social behaviours that can influence the goals and motivation of the learners in distinct ways. Self-regulated learning (SRL) is a comprehensive conceptual framework that encapsulates the cognitive, metacognitive, behavioural, motivational and affective aspects of learning and entails the processes of goal setting, monitoring progress, analyzing feedback, adjustment of goals and actions by the learner. In this thesis, we present a multi-agent learning interaction involving various pedagogical agent roles aiming to improve the self-regulation of the learner while engaging in a socially shared learning activity. We used distinct roles of agents, defined by their social attitudes and competence characteristics, to deliver specific regulation scaffolding strategies for the learner. The methodology followed in this Thesis started with the definition of pedagogical agent roles in a socially shared regulation context and the development of a collaborative learning task to facilitate self-regulation. Based on the learning task framework, we proposed a shared learning interaction consisting of a tutor agent providing external regulation support focusing on the performance of the learner and a peer agent demonstrating co-regulation strategies to promote self-regulation in the learner. A series of user studies have been conducted to understand the learner perceptions about the agent roles, related behaviours and the learning task. Altogether, the work presented in this thesis explores how various roles of agents can be utilised in providing regulation scaffolding to the learners in a socially shared learning context.
... Indeed, prepubescent children report unhappiness with the way their body looks (Tatangelo et al., 2016) and comparisons with classmates on physical appearance dimensions begin during middle childhood (Tatangelo & Ricciardelli, 2017). For many children, the comparisons with others are unfavorable, resulting in a decrease in body image satisfaction (Myers & Crowther, 2009). Moreover, findings indicate that low body satisfaction correlates with depressive symptoms in 7-11-year-olds (Evans et al., 2013) and predicts maladaptive eating attitudes in girls from age 5-9 (Davison et al., 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examines whether low body image satisfaction in school-aged children predicts decreasing academic engagement and the degree to which risk factors such as emotional problems, peer rejection, and low physical activity exacerbate this association. The participants (ages 8–10) were 353 children (177 boys, 176 girls) from a public school required to represent the state of Florida in terms of ethnicity and family income. Children completed self-reports of body image satisfaction, academic engagement, physical activity, and emotional problems at two time points (in the fall and the winter of the same academic year). Peer rejection was assessed through peer nominations. Low levels of body image satisfaction predicted greater subsequent declines in academic engagement, an association that was particularly strong for children with emotional problems and for children rejected by peers. The findings have practical implications, suggesting that low body image satisfaction during childhood should be added to the list of risk factors that predict early declining engagement in school.
... Beauty standards too have long been known to exert great influence on individuals and to propagate and become normalized through the media. In their meta-analytical review of data from 156 studies, Myers and Crowther (2009) found that women tend to compare themselves to media images of women as frequently as they compare themselves to their peers with a more similar appearance. This tendency also appeared stronger in women than in men, echoing the position taken by most of the research published on "fitspiration," which has chosen to focus primarily on the effect it has on women (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article is a philosophical examination of the social media culture of fitness and the behavior which most distinctly characterizes it. Of the numerous and varied digital subcultures emerging with the rise of photo-based social media during the 2010s, the culture surrounding fitness, or “fitspiration,” stands out as one of the more notable. Research has identified the phenomenon as consisting to a large extent of users engaging in behaviors of self-sexualization and self-objectification, following, not unexpectedly, the inherent focus within fitness on the body, its maintenance and ultimately its appearance. Research also demonstrates that, for many, viewing and engaging in this behavior is linked to a deterioration of body-image, general self-perception and mental well-being. In this article, I analyze the phenomenon within a philosophical framework in which I combine the philosophical theory of Jean Baudrillard on media and the consumption of signs and the psychoanalytic perspective of Jacques Lacan on subjectivity, narcissism and desire. Using this framework, I discuss the body assuming the properties of a commodified object deriving its cultural value and meaning from the signs which adorn it, resulting in the “fitspiration” user imperative becoming the identification with an artificial object alien to the self, necessitating a narcissistically oriented, yet pernicious self-objectification. I argue that “fitspiration,” as well as the photo-based social media which both enables and defines it, indulges narcissism, detrimentally exaggerating the narcissistic inclinations lying at the center of subjectivity.
... According to the theory of social comparison, people appear to measure their experiences and abilities in contrast with others (Festinger, 1954). For adolescents, this behavior is typically common (Myers & Crowther, 2009). Social media's effect on mental health can differ between teenagers participating in downward comparison than those using advanced performers as a point of reference. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the role of Instagram causing psychological distress among youth. Instagram is an application through which a person can share photos online and edit them by using different filters that are also available within the application. It is a social networking service that provides a platform to a person to share their images easily with their friends or followers. Understanding the impact of Instagram on youth's well-being has become a priority due to a simultaneous increase in mental health problems. The researcher applied the theory of social comparison. The researcher used the quantitative methodology to obtain results which were further analyzed statistically. Data was collected from 250 respondents using the survey as a tool for data gathering. The general findings of the study show Instagram causes psychological distress among youth. It also highlighted the kind of posts and stories that cause distress among youth.
... In terms of the relationship between appearance comparison and body dissatisfaction, it has been documented that appearance comparison has a positive association with body dissatisfaction among adolescents and young adults (Chen et al., 2007;van den Berg et al., 2007). A meta-analysis also showed that this relationship was confirmed for both genders with the effect size being smaller for men than that for women (Myers & Crowther, 2009). As for the mediating role of appearance comparison, research focusing on gender differences showed inconsistent findings. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated the association between body talk on social networking sites (SNS) and body dissatisfaction as well as the mediating effects of appearance ideals internalization and appearance comparison in this relationship. Participants were 476 Chinese college students who completed questionnaires regarding SNS body talk, thin-ideal internalization, muscular-ideal internalization, general attractiveness internalization, appearance comparison, and body dissatisfaction. Results indicated that SNS body talk was positively linked to body dissatisfaction. The relationship between SNS body talk and body dissatisfaction was mediated by thin-ideal internalization and muscular-ideal internalization while the mediating effects of general attractiveness internalization and appearance comparison in this relationship were nonsignificant. Moderated mediation analysis further revealed that thin-ideal internalization mediated the association for women but not men and that other indirect effects did not differ among genders. The findings of this study provide more insights into the relationship between SNS use and body image.
... Sociocultural pressures to pursue unattainable appearance ideals have been posited to result in the endorsement of these ideals and adoption of them as a personal standard, through their internalization (Cafri, Yamamiya, Brannick & Thompson, 2005;Thompson & Stice, 2001). Internalization of the importance of thinness and muscularity, as well as the internalization of negative attitudes towards higher weight, are then argued to result in poor body image due to unfavorable appearance comparisons with idealized and unrealistic appearances (Myers & Crowther, 2009;Paterna, Alcaraz-ideals, are strong indices of poor body image, and have been shown to be associated with disordered eating, body change behaviors, and higher weight (Bucchianeri & Neumark-Sztainer, 2014;Mitchison et al., 2017;Neumark-Sztainer, Paxton, Hannan, Haines & Story, 2006;Stice, 2002). During the past decade, increasing emphasis has also been placed on dimensions of positive body image, independent of poor body image. ...
Article
Although a range of risk factors have been identified for disordered eating and weight status, the breadth of risk factors have been rarely considered within a single, comprehensive model. The robustness of these findings across countries also remains an open question. The present study sampled 6272 participants aged 18-30 years from eight countries in an attempt to evaluate combined and unique predictors for these two conditions, and to explore possible crosscountry differences in these models. Participants completed a range of demographic, biological, behavioral, psychological, and sociocultural measures to test a comprehensive model of the contributions of these predictors for disordered eating and weight-related constructs (binge eating, body mass index, compensatory behaviors, dietary restraint, drive for muscularity, and drive for leanness). Structural invariance testing within a multigroup path analysis framework revealed that a single model across the eight countries provided poor model fit. Freeing of 22% of parameters across countries provided excellent fit and a satisfactory compromise for country-invariant and country-variant parameters in the model. Overall, predictors accounted for between 15% and 60% of variance in the outcome measures, with lowest explained variance for the disordered eating outcomes. Significant unique contributions to prediction were observed for each of the five risk factor variable types and across the eight (M. Fuller-Tyszkiewicz). Body Image 40 (2022) 322-339 countries. Thus, the findings show strong support for this model as an explanatory framework of both disordered eating and weight status.
... Previous research has found that social media use is positively related to both appearance comparison and body surveillance (for a review, see Holland & Tiggemann, 2016). Research shows that appearance comparison (for a meta-analysis, see Myers & Crowther, 2009) and body surveillance (Fitzsimmons-Craft et al., 2012;Mercurio & Rima, 2011;Szymanski & Mikorski, 2017) are positively associated with body dissatisfaction. Support for indirect effects also exists using samples of college women. ...
Article
In this study, we examined potential direct, indirect, and moderated effects in the relations between the use of TikTok, a video-based appearance-related social networking site, and body dissatisfaction among a sample of 778 United States’ young adult college women. Results showed that TikTok use was indirectly related to body dissatisfaction through more upward appearance comparison and more body surveillance acting in serial. Contrary to our hypotheses, we also found that exposure to body acceptance and critique of appearance expectations, a facet of exposure to body positive media, and commercial media literacy exacerbated the direct relation between TikTok use and upward appearance comparison and the indirect relations between TikTok use and body dissatisfaction through upward appearance comparison and upward appearance comparison and body surveillance in serial. That is, the relations were significant for those at high and average levels of both acceptance and critique exposure and commercial media literacy, but not for those with low levels. Finally, we found that TikTok use was only associated with upward appearance comparison at average and low levels of peer social media literacy but not high levels. Our findings suggest that regular and consistent use of TikTok may be harmful to women’s body image, and women with higher levels of acceptance and critique exposure and commercial media literacy may be the most vulnerable to these negative effects.
... Second, according to social comparison theory, people tend to choose individuals with similar conditions to themselves for comparison, such as the same social class, similar family and educational background. Studies have also shown that social comparison is significantly associated with negative body image, with more social comparison leading to more body dissatisfaction and affecting the formation of positive body image, and that there are significant gender differences, with women being more likely to be influenced by social comparison than men (Myers and Crowther, 2009). Combining these two theories, individuals unconsciously generate social comparisons when engaging in behavioral activities related to selfies on social media platforms, which in turn generate dissatisfaction with their appearance, which in turn triggers negative emotions such as social anxiety (Holland and Tiggemann, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
As modernization continues to advance the development of digital society, social media has become an important part of people’s daily life and an extension and expansion of real social interactions. In this process, social media use and individual social psychology have increasingly become the object of academic attention, among which the relationship between selfie behavior, as an important interaction practice of youth group in social media, and social anxiety needs to be further explored and discussed. The purpose of this study is to investigate the current situation of selfie behavior, body image, and social anxiety among young people in China. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative empirical methods, a questionnaire survey was conducted in Chinese mainland (n = 920) to examine the mediating effects of social comparison and body image on social media selfie behavior and social anxiety, and found that there was a significant negative relationship between youth social media selfie behavior and social anxiety, while the sequence mediating effects of social comparison and body image were significant. The findings of the study provide new ideas and directions for exploring the intervention paths of youth social psychology in the era of image socialization.
... W porównaniu społecznym "w górę" ludzie porównują się do jednostek uznawanych przez siebie za "wyżej postawione" lub "lepsze" w danej dziedzinie (Festinger, 1954). U kobiet znaleziono zależność między porównywaniem swojego wyglądu "w górę" a negatywnym obrazem własnego ciała (Myers, Crowther, 2009). W przypadku mediów społecznościowych młode kobiety najczęściej porównują swój wygląd "w górę" do kobiet w podobnym wieku, bardzo rzadko porównują się do swojej rodziny (Fardouly i wsp., 2015;. ...
Book
Full-text available
W tej monografii Czytelnik znajdzie 12 prac z trzech obszarów zdrowia kobiet. Pierwszym obszarem będzie problematyka zdrowia w kontekście biomedycznym. Autorzy prezentują wybrane choroby i zagrożenia dla zdrowia kobiet w ujęciu epidemiologicznym i klinicznym, wskazując na specyfikę diagnozy i leczenia chorób kobiecych. Drugi nurt naukowych rozważań odbywa się w odniesieniu do społecznych ról kobiet. Przyjmowane przez kobiety role opiekuńcze: matki, córki, pielęgniarki oznaczają duży wysiłek i generują lęki, napięcie i poczucie odpowiedzialności za zdrowie innych. Ten stres społeczny odciska piętno na zdrowiu subiektywnym i obiektywnym. Trzecim obszarem jest budowanie zdrowia w kontekście kultury współczesnej, kształtowanie wizerunku ciała kobiet, influencerów i followersów, uwypuklając przy tym możliwości „naprawcze” nowoczesnych mediów.
... The channels through which exposure to these ideals occurs have changed according to new forms of communication [10]. Before the advent of social networking sites (SNSs), the traditional mass media (e.g., TV commercials and programs, magazines, etc.) consumed in Western societies were the most pervasive and powerful influence [11,12], exerting negative effects on body image [13][14][15][16][17][18]. Currently, SNSs and specially appearance-based SNSs (i.e., those involving appearance-oriented activities such as the posting and viewing of photos) are recognized as problematic in terms of body image and eating behaviors [19][20][21], given the importance assigned to physical appearance [22,23]; SNSs users selectively self-present their-and are presented with-most attractive and idealized body photos [24][25][26]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Previous studies testing for a direct relationship between social networking sites (SNS) addiction and body dissatisfaction (BD) have yielded inconsistent results. Here, we aimed to identify underlying processes that could mediate this relationship. Specifically, we studied the relationship between SNS addiction symptoms and BD through the awareness of appearance pressures and the internalization of beauty ideals, both individually and serially: SNS addiction → Awareness → BD; SNS addiction → Internalization → BD; SNS addiction → Awareness → Internalization → BD. Method A total of 368 female undergraduates with SNS accounts completed scales to assess SNS addiction symptoms (Social Network Addiction Questionnaire), BD (Body Shape Questionnaire), awareness, and internalization (Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4; awareness and internalization scales). A theoretical serial mediation model was constructed to examine the proposed relationships. Body mass index was included as a covariate to control the influence of this important variable. Results The results indicated that both awareness and internalization independently mediated the relationship between SNS addiction symptoms and BD. Also, there was a significant serial mediation effect; women with more SNS addiction symptoms tended to be more aware of appearance pressure, which was associated with the internalization of beauty ideals. In turn, this internalization was positively related to BD symptoms. Conclusions These findings shed light on the indirect relationship between SNS addiction and BD, demonstrating independent and accumulative mediating effects of awareness and internalization.
... bodies because of social comparison [13]. Moreover, women tend to compare their looks adversely to their peers and celebrities rather than family members while browsing Facebook [14]. ...
... The complexity of this comparison and competitiveness is exacerbated by online culture [41]. Further, ref. [42] reports general impacts of social comparison in the context of body dissatisfaction (cf. the beautification of photos): The self-presentation of others on social media will increase the relative dissatisfaction of the individual [43]. ...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 may not be a ‘youth disease’ but it nevertheless impacts the life of young people dramatically, loneliness and a negative mood being an unexpected additional pandemic. Many young people rely on social media for their feeling of connectedness with others. However, social media is suggested to have many negative effects on people’s anxiety. Instead of self-disclosing to others, design may develop alternatives to employ social robots for self-disclosure. In a follow-up on earlier work, we report on a lab experiment of self-disclosing negative emotions to a social media group as compared to writing a conventional diary journal or to talking to an AI-driven social robot after negative mood induction (i.e., viewing shocking earthquake footage). Participants benefitted the most from talking to a robot rather than from writing a journal page or sharing their feelings on social media. Self-disclosure on social media or writing a journal page did not differ significantly. In the design of interventions for mental well-being, human helpers thus far took center stage. Based on our results, we propose design alternatives for an empathic smart home, featuring social robots and chatbots for alleviating stress and anxiety: a social-media interference chatbot, smart watch plus speaker, and a mirror for self-reflection.
... Concisely, fitspiration becomes a boundless source of content that is inherently alluring, and chemically rewarding in its voyeuristic viewing when paired with the following: firstly, with individuals perpetual tendency and need for social comparison (Festinger 1954, often cited in the research on fitspiration), for which endless streams of images of other people is the ultimate enabler; secondly, with their tendency for that social comparison to be especially centered around the body (e.g. Myers and Crowther 2009); and thirdly, with their natural or otherwise developed curiosity towards sexual displays. Hence, to excessively yield to the inevitable impulses of a behavior one has been habitually conditioned to associate with pleasure, i.e. the amusement of social media scrolling, also becomes an expression of hedonism. ...
Article
Full-text available
Though the rise of social media has provided countless advantages and possibilities, both within and without the domain of sports, recent years have also seen some more detrimental aspects of these technologies come to light. In particular, the widespread social media culture surrounding fitness – ‘fitspiration’ – warrants attention for the way it encourages self-sexualization and -objectification, thereby epitomizing a wider issue with photo-based social media in general. Though the negative impact of fitspiration has been well documented, what is less understood are the ways it potentially impacts and molds moral psychology, and how these same aspects may come to influence digital sports subcultures more broadly. In this theoretical paper, I rely on the insights of Friedrich Nietzsche to analyze the moral significance of a culture like fitspiration becoming normalized and influential in structuring and informing self-understanding, notions of value, and how to flourish in life. Using two doctrines central to Nietzsche’s philosophy—The Last Man and his conception of the ’higher self’ – I argue that fitspiration involves a form of hedonism that is potentially harmful to the pursuit and achievement of human flourishing. Through fitspiration, desire is elevated to a central moral principle, underlying the way users both consume and produce its content, catering simultaneously to their desires for external validation and instant gratification. It thereby creates conditions which foster a culture in adherence to the ethos of The Last Man. In doing so, I argue it impedes the cultivation of the virtues and higher values which define the higher individual, regarded by Nietzsche as essential for human flourishing. However, drawing on the ethical framework of the higher individual provides the philosophical and psychological resources with which resisting and overcoming the more harmful temptations of these trends may be possible.
... Furthermore, individuals who exercise regularly can be expected to differ in the impact of NPIs because it tends to be more concerned and dissatisfied with their appearance compared with those who are physically inactive. Body image dissatisfaction is defined as negative thoughts, feelings, and perceptions about one's body (13). Body image is a multidimensional concept of individual perception, affection, and behaviors (e.g., satisfaction or dissatisfaction with body image and evaluation of body size) (14,15). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This study aimed to determine the relationship between body image perception and demographic factors among physically active (men and women) during the COVID-19 lockdown in Saudi Arabia.MethodsA descriptive cross-sectional survey was employed among physically active individuals in Saudi Arabia between June and July 2020. Eligible participants completed a 19-item self-administered questionnaire that covered three areas: demographic questions, reasons for physical activity, and role or perceptions of body image during the COVID-19 pandemic quarantine.ResultsA total of 323 physically active individuals participated in this study. The majority of the participants were female (N=217, 72.7%), were married (66.6%), and living in the Middle region of Saudi Arabia (N= 268, 83%). The analysis shows that majority of the participants were dissatisfied with their current body shape. The analysis also showed a significant association between participants' educational attainment and BMI and body dissatisfaction (p= 0.001). The strongest predictor was BMI level, recording an odds ratio (OR) of 5.99 (CI: 2.15 – 10.54, p=0.001) in obese and an OR of 4.55 (CI: 1.31 – 9.35, p=0.001) in overweight, indicating that compared with normal weight, obese and overweight participants were more likely to be dissatisfied by five and four times, respectively.Conclusion This study indicates that physically active individuals are greatly influenced by the confinement period. Programs that promote physical activity in their house or during lockdown may help to encourage, lessen their anxiety, and maintain their health. This may also decrease the anxiety of individuals, particularly those active ones.
... First, they might enhance their partners' body dissatisfaction and interest in modifying their bodies by promoting upwards comparison based on physical appearance. According to Social Comparison Theory [41], much research has shown that both women and men who engage more frequently in appearance-related comparison are more likely to feel dissatisfied with their bodies [42,43]. Markey and Markey [20] proposed a model called the Partner Comparison Effect, in which they argued that individuals' perceptions of their bodies are influenced by a comparison process relative to their partner. ...
Article
Full-text available
Through a 2 × 2 experimental vignette design, we tested if partner perceived attractiveness in interaction with appearance-related comments from one’s partner might affect women and men’s body dissatisfaction, body shame, acceptance of cosmetic surgery, and perceived relationship quality. Participants were 154 women and 157 men living in Italy (mean age = 30.97; all of them were in a couple relationship), who read a vignette describing the purchase of a swimsuit, through which partner attractiveness (poor versus high) and partner commentary (negative versus positive) were manipulated. Some ANCOVAs were performed on women and men separately. For men, partner commentary affected body dissatisfaction with low body fat. Moreover, the main effect of partner attractiveness was found in their consideration of undergoing cosmetic procedures. Among women, a significant partner attractiveness X partner commentary interaction effect emerged on acceptance of cosmetic surgery for social reasons. As regards relationship quality, for women, there was a main effect of partner attractiveness on relational communication, while a marginally significant interaction effect between partner attractiveness and partner commentary emerged for men’s self-disclosure. Our findings suggest that partner attractiveness is generally beneficial, but when combined with negative feedback concerning the appearance, it might lose its advantages. These findings should be considered for planning interventions aimed at both preventing body dissatisfaction and acceptance of cosmetic surgical procedures for not medical reasons and promoting relationship satisfaction among women and men.
Chapter
For teens today, the time they spend with digital technologies represents more than a 40-h work week. In light of the prominent role that technologies take in their lives, this chapter is a review of research on the role of digital technologies in shaping adolescents’ body image. Grounded in sociocultural and social comparison theories, we review evidence on social media, selfies, image retouching, fitspiration, and body-related online forums. We also highlight an important future direction in this research literature: the examination of how digital technologies shape and sustain positive body image. Also, in this review, we foreground the developmental considerations of the adolescent audience and the affordances of digital technologies, ultimately providing a conceptual map of the research by examining the intersections between developmental considerations and technological affordances.
Article
Background Ample studies have tested how viewing bodies on social media impacts eating disorder symptoms; however, the relationship between viewing food images on social media and disordered eating remains understudied. This study investigated whether viewing images of healthy, palatable food on Instagram impacted disordered eating attitudes across two samples of undergraduate women. Methods This pre-registered online study was conducted at two sites. Participants identifying as female (study 1 n = 222; study 2 n = 214) were randomly assigned to view one of two Instagram feeds – either a feed featuring low calorie, aesthetically pleasing foods or a control condition featuring travel images. Participants completed state measures of disordered eating intentions, self-esteem, and body image before and after viewing the feeds. Results A main effect of condition on disordered eating intentions was found at the Midwestern site, but not the Southeastern site. Conclusions Viewing healthy palatable food images on Instagram could increase risk for disordered eating behaviors among college females. If findings are replicated, individuals vulnerable to disordered eating may benefit from removing these types of feeds from their social media. Further research is needed to determine whether other forms of visual content on Instagram may be associated with disordered eating.
Article
Objective: The pursuit of thinness and fear of gaining weight have been found to play an important role in eating disorder symptomatology. While these dimensions have typically been considered conjointly, emerging evidence suggests they may be distinct dimensions. The aim of this study was to explore the subjective experiences of fear of fatness and drive for thinness in young women with body image concerns. Method: Young women endorsing weight concerns (N = 29, mean age = 20.86, SD = 2.70 years) were interviewed and asked to describe an experience of fear of fat and drive for thinness, respectively. Results: Qualitative analysis was conducted and identified four themes: (1) precipitating events; (2) physiological, emotional, cognitive, and proprioceptive experiences; (3) coping strategies; and (4) sociocultural influences. While similarities emerged, the experiences of fear of fatness, and of drive for thinness also evidenced clear differences situating the former in the context of fear-based avoidance patterns, and the latter in approach-based reward models. Discussion: These findings provide additional support for the usefulness of considering fear of fat and drive for thinness as distinct constructs. Further research examining the contributions of each of these constructs to eating pathology is warranted.
Article
Based on the tripartite influence model, the present study linked investment in others' selfies on social media to facial dissatisfaction and cosmetic surgery consideration. We also tested the mediating role of appearance comparisons and general attractiveness internalization in these relationships. Additionally, potential gender differences in the proposed model were examined. A sample of 884 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 16.80 ± 0.92, ranging from 14 to 19 years old) completed self-reported measures of investment in others' selfies, appearance comparisons, general attractiveness internalization, facial dissatisfaction, and cosmetic surgery consideration. Results showed that investment in others' selfies was positively associated with facial dissatisfaction and cosmetic surgery consideration. Path analysis further revealed that investment in others' selfies was associated with appearance comparisons and general attractiveness internalization, which in turn were associated with facial dissatisfaction, and then facial dissatisfaction was related to cosmetic surgery consideration. Additionally, there were indirect associations between investment in others' selfies and cosmetic surgery consideration via general attractiveness internalization and facial dissatisfaction respectively, but not via appearance comparisons. No gender difference was found in the proposed model. Findings of the present study provide preliminary support for the tripartite influence model in the context of investment in others' selfies on social media and cosmetic surgery consideration and enrich the literature on body image and cosmetic surgery in the Chinese context.
Article
Full-text available
Today's internet-based smartphones and other devices have bought us extremely close to a celebrity's personal life. Their social media handles and their PR companies make sure to serve our brains with a lot more inside information than we need to know, making sure it's served to us in the most unnaturally perfect ways. The strategic depiction of the glamour industry of only the 'best, beautiful and perfect' does not show the vast amount of money that goes behind them. An army of staff to dress them, do the perfect makeup to hide the flaws of each and every visible part, a photographer to click those perfect shots and later edit them to add that extra wow effects. What we don't see is a big team taking care of their so-called perfectly fit and slender body, chefs to make a calory counted meal as prescribed by their high-end celebrity dietician and the most expensive celebrity trainer helping them burn the exact calories. Yes, they do put in a lot of hard work but that comes with a cost and luxury which a normal person can't even dream of. The study is a qualitative analysis of 10 books, 20 website article and 50 journal articles to understand the influence of celebrities on common people and the massive pressure on the human psyche to look perfect and flawless. Also, to find the various attributes of celebrity's fashion influencing the common people. The researcher intends to generate a sense of responsibility in the celebrity and awareness among the mass population to stop idealizing thin frames but to focus on health and quality life.
Article
Introduction: Adolescence is characterized by the onset of a relatively specific set of socioemotional disorders (i.e., depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and eating disorders) as well as body dysmorphia symptoms. Appearance-related concerns are a central feature of these disorders. Emerging evidence in adults suggests that appearance-related safety behaviors may play an instrumental role in the onset and maintenance of a number of disorders. To date, no work has examined appearance-related safety behaviors during adolescence. The present study examined the extent to which appearance-related safety behaviors may be associated with socioemotional and body dysmorphia symptoms during adolescence. Methods: Adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 years old (N = 387, Mage = 14.82 years, 31.3% identified as male, 47.0% identified as female, and 19.1% identified as nonbinary/third gender, 2.6% declined to report gender identity) completed measures assessing negative affect, anxiety-relevant safety behavior use, cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, appearance-related safety behaviors, body dysmorphia symptoms, and socioemotional symptoms. Structural Equation Modeling was used to test hypotheses. Results: The results of this study suggest that appearance-related safety behaviors evidenced associations with latent factors corresponding to affective (i.e., depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety), eating disorders, and body dysmorphia symptoms after controlling for previously established vulnerability factors. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that appearance-related safety behaviors may evidence transdiagnostic associations with socioemotional symptoms and body dysmorphia symptoms during adolescence.
Article
Full-text available
Research indicates that men use social comparisons as a mechanism to evaluate their body image (e.g., Schaefer, 2018). The present study investigated literature utilizing Social Comparison Theory (Festinger, 1954) as a framework for explaining male body image outcomes. To achieve the study's purpose, the authors conducted a scoping systematic review of peer-reviewed literature on body image in men, yielding relevant articles. Tabular analysis and line coding of each article uncovered four emergent themes: 1) sociocultural ideals of body image set by peers, friends, and media-initiated social comparisons; 2) social comparisons led to men's internalization of body ideals, resulting in both positive and negative physical and psychological outcomes; 3) comparison implications depended on target (e.g., friend, peer), and direction of comparison (e.g., upward or downward); and 4) comparison activity was influenced by protective and contributing factors which included age, ethnicity, race, and social involvement. Although it is clear that men experience body image and conduct social comparisons differently than women, sources of body-related influence remain consistent across genders. Findings from this review support the continued application of theoretical frameworks in body image inquiry as they enhance the rigor of research findings.
Article
Full-text available
Social media use is consistently associated with more negative body image, but much of this literature is cross-sectional and/or lacks ecological validity. To overcome these limitations, we examined associations between everyday social media engagement and appearance satisfaction using an experience sampling method. Fifty participants from Central Europe completed a 14-day experience sampling phase in which they reported their appearance satisfaction at two random time-points each day, as well as following active engagement with social media content, using a wrist-worn wearable and a physical analogue scale (PAS; i.e., angle of a participant’s forearm between flat and fully upright as a continuous response scale). Results indicated that engagement with social media content was significantly associated with lower appearance satisfaction. Additionally, we found that engagement with the content of known others was associated with significantly lower appearance satisfaction than engagement with the content of unknown others. These effects were stable even after controlling for participant demographics, active vs. passive daily social media use, and body image-related factors. These results provide evidence that everyday social media engagement is associated with lower appearance satisfaction and additionally provides preliminary support for the use of a PAS in body image research using an experience sampling method.
Article
Full-text available
Body image is an integral aspect of the psychology of the self. Idealized body images are ubiquitous in both traditional media forms (e.g., magazines, television) and social media (e.g., Facebook, Instagram). The classic sociocultural model of body image (i.e., the Tripartite Influence Model) emphasizes pathways between idealized body norms, appearance comparisons, internalization of body ideals, and body dissatisfaction and its outcomes. We summarize the model and identify some issues to be addressed in future work, particularly in light of the immense popularity of social media. We review three topics that are not included in the sociocultural model but that provide a more complete picture of the influence of societal body norms on body image: (1) body shame, (2) positive body image, and (3) self-compassion. Research on the nature, assessment, and relevance of these constructs is reviewed in detail. In terms of clinical applications of these areas of research for individuals at risk of body dissatisfaction, we suggest assessing for and targeting body shame, cultivating facets of positive body image, and teaching strategies for developing self-compassion.
Article
Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic led to a transition to the utilization of video chatting services as the main form of communication for work, family, and friends. However, the repercussions of this change are not fully known, and issues regarding appearance satisfaction are particularly salient. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between video chatting and appearance satisfaction in a sample of men and women. Method: The current study utilizes cross-sectional data from 618 participants (Age: M = 33.2; 54.1% women) to evaluate whether average video chat usage predicts appearance satisfaction, and whether this association is dependent upon appearance comparison or self-objectification. Results: Results indicated that individuals who spent more time video chatting reported higher appearance satisfaction. Additionally, appearance comparison and self-objectification were not significant moderators, and the association between video chat usage and appearance satisfaction did not differ based on gender. Usage of the touch-up feature, gallery view, and amount of time spent looking at oneself were associated with appearance comparisons, while adjusting lighting and camera angles and amount of time spent looking at oneself were associated with self-objectification. Discussion: The results may indicate that while overall time spent video chatting may be associated with lower appearance concerns, examination of the usage of specific features on video chatting platforms may be important to assess in the future. Public significance: This study demonstrates that overall time spent video chatting may be associated with lower appearance concerns. The usage, however, of specific features on video chatting platforms, such as touch-up feature, gallery view, and amount of time spent looking at oneself were associated with appearance comparisons. Additionally, adjusting lighting and camera angles, and amount of time spent looking at oneself are associated with self-objectification.
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Humans constantly compare their attributes to different reference frames. According to the theoretical framework of the general comparative-processing model, such comparisons may be perceived as aversive (i.e., appraised as threatening the motives of the comparer) or appetitive (i.e., appraised as consonant with, or positively challenging the motives). However, we lack a measure that adequately captures multi-standard comparisons. Methods Considering appearance-related comparisons as a relevant comparison domain, we introduce the Comparison Standards Scale for Appearance (CSS-A) that assesses appearance-related social, temporal, counterfactual, criteria-based, and dimensional upward and downward comparisons regarding their a) frequency, b) perceived discrepancy, and c) engendered affect. We administered the CSS-A to 1121 participants, along with measures of appearance social comparison, body satisfaction, physical self-concept, self-esteem, well-being, and depression. Results A two-factor model (aversive and appetitive comparisons) fit the data better than a bifactor model with an additional general domain-factor (comparative thinking). The validity of the CSS-A was supported by correlations with external validators beyond appearance, social comparison, and body satisfaction. Aversive comparisons displayed higher associations with most outcomes than appetitive comparisons. Conclusions Overall, the CSS-A offers a psychometrically sound and useful measure of multi-standard comparisons.
Article
Full-text available
Selective Exposure Theory (Aruguete & Calvo, 2018; Bigné et al., 2020) suggests that on social media, viewers pay most attention to content which aligns with their values and preferences. Individuals engage in self-assessment by comparing themselves to others (Social comparison theory: Festinger, 1954). We predicted that the characteristics of Instagram arrays and participants' own body satisfaction would combine to influence their visual processing of computer-based images. A 3 (Body Shape: Underweight, Average, Overweight) × 2 (Body Part: Face-only; Body-only) repeated measures design was used. We recruited 60 (young) women to view arrays of images as displayed on Instagram [Mage = 20.75 years, SDage = 2.74 years]. A separate, naïve group of 37 participants rated 165 stimulus images on a scale of under-to-over-weight. These normed images were used to create artificial, ecologically-valid 3 × 4 Instagram image arrays containing two of each type of stimulus image. We recorded participants' eye movements with a high degree of spatial and temporal resolution while participants freely engaged with these arrays. We then collected participants' body satisfaction data (Slade et al., 1990). Results demonstrated inter-relationships between eye movement behaviour and Body Shape, Body Part, and body satisfaction. In short, both bottom-up stimulus characteristics and top-down satisfaction impacted measures of processing. Image content was particularly relevant to ‘when’ measures of processing time, whereas body satisfaction was more-influential upon ‘where’ measurements (fixations counts, number of visits per stimulus image). Our study is the first of its kind to show such effects. Future research is needed to understand such effects in clinical and/or non-female users of Instagram and other platforms.
Article
Full-text available
O mundo ocidental tem vivido uma verdadeira sobrevalorização da aparência física em detrimento das qualidades psicológicas e cognitivas de um indivíduo. Diariamente corpos jovens, sarados e livre de imperfeições são expostos pela mídia ganham uma enorme importância e se opõem a ideia de velhice. Desta maneira, as mudanças corporais, previstas no processo de envelhecimento, impactam principalmente a imagem corporal feminina, e potencializa um sofrer psíquico segundo a visão de cada sociedade em relação à mulher, em especial as de meia-idade e as idosas. Objetivo: Este estudo objetivou avaliar a insatisfação corporal de mulheres fisicamente ativas em diferentes faixas etárias. Materiais e Métodos: Este estudo caracteriza-se como transversal, correlacional e comparativo. Foram avaliadas 87 mulheres, divididas em três grupos etários: Grupo 1(18-30 anos), Grupo 2(31-45 anos) e Grupo 3(46-60 anos). Foram coletados dados de massa corporal e estatura para posterior cálculo do IMC, e utilizada à escala de silhuetas e o questionário BSQ para avaliar a insatisfação com a imagem corporal. Resultado: 75,9% (n=66) das mulheres estavam insatisfeitas com seu corpo (desejavam reduzir sua silhueta corporal). A ocorrência de insatisfação corporal foi bastante expressiva, com diferença significativa para o grupo de 31 a 45 anos, sugerindo que o processo de envelhecimento pode interferir na forma com que as mulheres lidam com seu corpo, alterando assim, sua satisfação corporal. Fato este que tende a se agravar com passar dos anos.
Article
In two studies (N = 488), we examined whether negative effects of sibling comparisons are exaggerated among individuals whose self-worth is contingent on parental approval. In Study 1, participants who made spontaneous references to parents (35%) when describing a time they were outperformed by a sibling (i.e., made an upward comparion) also recalled more negative effects of these comparisons on their self-evaluations. In Study 2, participants with higher parental-contingent self-worth reported lower self-evaluations after recalling an upward comparison to a sibling, but not after recalling a downward comparison. These results suggest preoccupation with parental regard plays an important role in social comparison processes between siblings and can exacerbate the negative outcomes of threatening upward sibling comparisons on the self.
Article
Full-text available
Telework became a necessary work arrangement during the global COVID-19 pandemic. However, practical evidence even before the pandemic also suggests that telework can adversely affect teleworkers’ colleagues working in the office. Those regular office workers may experience negative emotions such as envy which, in turn, can impact work performance and turnover intention. In order to assess the adverse effects of telework on regular office workers, the study applies social comparison theory and suggests telework disparity as a new theoretical concept. From the perspective of regular office workers, perceived telework disparity is the extent to which they compare their office working situation with their colleagues’ teleworking situation and conclude that their teleworking colleagues are slightly better off than themselves. Based on social comparison theory, a model of how perceived disparity associated with telework causes negative emotions and adverse behaviors among regular office workers was developed. The data were collected in one organization with telework arrangements (N = 269). The results show that perceived telework disparity from the perspective of regular office workers increases their feelings of envy toward teleworkers and their job dissatisfaction, which is associated with higher turnover intentions and worse job performance. This study contributes to telework research by revealing a dark side of telework by conceptualizing telework disparity and its negative consequences for employees and organizations. For practice, the paper recommends making telework practices and policies as transparent as possible to realize the maximum benefits of telework.
Article
Full-text available
Both body dissatisfaction and internalized weight stigma have been identified as risk factors for many negative health outcomes for women, including depression and eating disorders. In addition to these contributions, these concepts have been found to overlap to various degrees in existing literature. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on articles published prior to February 2022 to demonstrate the conceptual and measurement overlap between body dissatisfaction and internalized weight stigma as currently quantified. We identified 48 studies examining the interrelation between body dissatisfaction and internalized weight stigma in predominantly female samples. Stronger correlations between these two constructs, some bordering on multicollinearity, were prevalent in community samples compared to clinical samples and with some but not all the commonly used measures in the body image and weight stigma fields. Body mass index (BMI) moderated these relations such that individuals with higher self-reported BMI were more likely to report lower correlations between the constructs. This concept proliferation, stronger for individuals with lower BMIs and community samples, necessitates the need change how we conceptualize and measure body dissatisfaction and internalized weight stigma. To this end, we conducted study two to refine existing measures and lessen the degree of measurement overlap between internalized weight stigma and body dissatisfaction, particularly in community samples of women. We aimed to clarify the boundaries between these two concepts, ensuring measurement error is better accounted for. Female university students completed existing measures of body satisfaction and internalized weight stigma, which were analyzed using an exploratory followed by a confirmatory factor analysis. In our attempts to modify two existing measures of internalized weight stigma and body dissatisfaction, the majority of the internalized weight stigma items were retained. In contrast, most of the body dissatisfaction items either cross-loaded onto both factors or loaded on to the internalized weight stigma factor despite being intended for the body dissatisfaction factor, suggesting that the measurement issues identified in recent prior research may be due not only to the way we conceptualize and quantify weight stigma, but also the ways in which we quantify body dissatisfaction, across the existing corpus of body dissatisfaction scales.
Article
Full-text available
Recent research has shown that exposure to the ideal thin standard of female beauty commonly presented in advertising and the broader media contributes to body image disturbance among women. Researchers have proposed that social comparison processes underlie this phenomenon; women may routinely compare their bodies with images of feminine beauty contained in the media and consequently become less satisfied with their own bodies. This study reports the evaluation of three interventions that were designed to prevent women from experiencing body image disturbance when exposed to media images by interrupting the social comparison process. Experimental data suggest that all three interventions (a) decreased the likelihood of female participants comparing their bodies with media images, and (b) prevented media-induced body image disturbance. The content of the interventions, and implications for the treatment and prevention of body image disturbance and eating disorders are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
This article offers objectification theory as a framework for understanding the experiential consequences of being female in a culture that sexually objectifies the female body. Objectification theory posits that girls and women are typically acculturated to internalize an observer's perspective as a primary view of their physical selves. This perspective on self can lead to habitual body monitoring, which, in turn, can increase women's opportunities for shame and anxiety, reduce opportunities for peak motivational states, and diminish awareness of internal bodily states. Accumulations of such experiences may help account for an array of mental health risks that disproportionately affect women: unipolar depression, sexual dysfunction, and eating disorders. Objectification theory also illuminates why changes in these mental health risks appear to occur in step with life-course changes in the female body.
Article
Full-text available
This study explored college women's cognitive processing of print advertisements featuring images of highly attractive female models. The relationship of counterarguing (critical processing) and social comparison in response to these images with a number of body image-related variables was examined. Participants were 202 undergraduate females. Research was conducted in two phases. In one phase, participants wrote their thoughts in response to three advertisements taken from recent women's magazines. In the second phase, women completed a number of self-report measures focusing on body image, along with a number of distracter measures. Results suggest that making negative outcome, upward social comparisons in response to such images is significantly associated with greater internalization of the thin ideal and decreased satisfaction with one's own appearance. Despite predictions that counterarguing might act as a protective factor, the tendency to generate counterarguments in response to these images was not related to appearance-related dissatisfaction, internalization of the media ideal, or importance of appearance.
Article
Full-text available
Despite the popular belief that the thinstandard of female attractiveness currently presented inthe media is a primary contributor to the high level ofconcern with body weight among women, experimental studies have not shown that exposure to mediaimages increases women's weight concern. Threeexperiments are reported demonstrating that exposure tomedia images does often result in increased weightconcern among women, but that body dissatisfaction, astable personality characteristic, is a moderator ofvulnerability to this effect. Although most womenreported higher weight concern when exposed to media vs. neutral images, women with low initial bodydissatisfaction did not. In addition, this researchsuggests that negative effects on weight concern mayresult from even passive exposure to media images, but that exposure to realistic attractivenessis less likely to cause increased weight concern. Theethnicity of the participants in these studies reflectedthat of the local population, with over 90% white. The nonwhite participants primarily belonged toone of the following groups; Asian, Pacific Islander,Latino.
Article
Full-text available
Using the theory of social comparison, this study examines the impact of exposure to advertisements of thin, physically attractive, Caucasian and African American models on the self-evaluations of African American women exhibiting varying levels of self-reported body esteem. As expected, exposure to idealized images of Caucasian models was not related to lowered self-evaluations regardless of the level of body esteem. However, women with low levels of body esteem did report lowered self-satisfaction with body esteem when exposed to physically attractive images of African American models. Results suggest that similarity or ethnicity of the idealized image may have an impact on African Americanwomen’s self-evaluations. Theoretical implications are discussed with respect to future research in the area of racial issues and mass media effects.
Article
Full-text available
Mass media are believed to be a pervasive force in shaping physical appearance ideals and have been shown, to negatively impact females' body image. Little research has attended to the effects of media exposure on males' body image. The current experiment exposed 158 males to television advertisements containing either ideal male images or neutral images that were inserted between segments of a television program. Participants were blocked on dispositional body image and attitudes toward appearance variables to assess for moderating effects. Results indicated that participants exposed to ideal image advertisements became significantly more depressed and had higher levels of muscle dissatisfaction than those exposed to neutral ads. Inconsistent with past research, no dispositional effects were noted that would suggest the influence of schematicity on mood and body image changes.
Article
Full-text available
An increasing number of studies shows that exposure to thin ideal bodies in the me- dia has negative effects on young women's body images, at least in the short-term. However, this research has (a) consistently confounded the effects of thinness and attractiveness, and (b) not investigated the potential use of alternative images in ad- vertising that do not decrease women's body esteem. This study examines the im- pact of three types of advertisements—featuring thin models, average-size models, or no models—on adult women's body-focused anxiety, and on advertising effec- tiveness. As expected, exposure to thin models resulted in greater body-focused anxiety among women who internalize the thin ideal than exposure to average-size models or no models. Yet, advertisements were equally effective, regardless of the model's size. This implies that advertisers can successfully use larger, but attrac- tive, models and perhaps avoid increasing body-focused anxiety in a large proportion of women. Levels of concern and public debate about whether the use of very thin models in the media has a detrimental effect on women are increasing. For example, the government in the UK held a body image summit in June 2000 to discuss the need for policies regarding such media images, and the Medical Association concluded "the media play a significant role in the aetiology of eating disorders" (BMA, 2000). Psychological research has an important role in addressing two ques- tions that are crucial to this debate. Is it true that displaying very thin
Article
Full-text available
The moderating effects of self-esteem on women's reactions to social comparisons of attractiveness were investigated. After viewing a photograph of an attractive or unattractive peer, female college students completed measures of affect, body esteem, internalization of socio-cultural norms of appearance, and contingencies of self-worth. Self-esteem significantly moderated the effects of social comparison on body esteem. Whereas the low self-esteem group displayed a contrast effect, the high self-esteem group displayed an assimilation effect. The Self-Esteem × Social Comparison interaction was significant even when controlling for differences in affect, internalization of norms, and contingencies of self-worth. Possible mediators of this interaction are discussed in the article.
Article
Full-text available
The development and validation of a new measure, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) is described. The EDI is a 64 item, self-report, multiscale measure designed for the assessment of psychological and behavioral traits common in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia. The EDI consists of eight sub-scales measuring: 1) Drive for Thinness, 2) Bulimia, 3) Body Dissatisfaction, 4) Ineffectiveness, 5) Perfectionism, 6) Interpersonal Distrust, 7) Interoceptive Awareness and 8) Maturity Fears. Reliability (internal consistency) is established for all subscales and several indices of validity are presented. First, AN patients (N = 113) are differentiated from female comparison (FC) subjects (N = 577) using a cross-validation procedure. Secondly, patient self-report subscale scores agree with clinician ratings of subscale traits. Thirdly, clinically recovered AN patients score similarly to FCs on all subscales. Finally, convergent and discriminate validity are established for subscales. The EDI was also administered to groups of normal weight bulimic women, obese, and normal weight but formerly obese women, as well as a male comparison group. Group differences are reported and the potential utility of the EDI is discussed.
Article
This meta-analytic review of prospective and experimental studies reveals that several accepted risk factors for eating pathology have not received empirical support (e.g., sexual abuse) or have received contradictory support (e.g., dieting). There was consistent support for less-accepted risk factors(e.g., thin-ideal internalization) as well as emerging evidence for variables that potentiate and mitigate the effects of risk factors(e.g., social support) and factors that predict eating pathology maintenance(e.g., negative affect). In addition, certain multivariate etiologic and maintenance models received preliminary support. However, the predictive power of individual risk and maintenance factors was limited, suggesting it will be important to search for additional risk and maintenance factors, develop more comprehensive multivariate models, and address methodological limitations that attenuate effects.
Article
One of advertising's “unintended effects” is the impact highly attractive models may have on female pre-adolescents and adolescents. Using social comparison theory as a framework, the authors propose that young girls compare their physical attractiveness with that of advertising models and, subsequently, their self-perceptions and self-esteem may be affected, depending on the motive for social comparison. They report a study with a mixed-model design in which motive was manipulated. Girls in grades four, six, and eight participated. The results suggest that motive is important, as support was found for all hypotheses. However, the support was not consistent across all grades or for all dependent variables. The authors consider possible reasons for the inconsistency and discuss the implications of the findings for advertisers and educators.
Article
This study is an examination of the influence of sociocultural and developmental factors on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in two Asian populations: 298 Taiwanese-American (TA) women undergoing acculturating changes and 347 Taiwanese (T) women undergoing modernizing changes. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, body dissatisfaction rates and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors were found to be significantly higher in the T group. Subjects in the T group had higher Taiwanese ethnic identity scores but also lower perceptions of maternal control. Body dissatisfaction was found to be a moderating variable between ethnic identity and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors for the TA group only. The "girl next door" hypothesis, based on the social comparison theory, was set forth to help explain why this result was found only in the TA group. In the T group, ethnic identity and body dissatisfaction were independently associated with disordered eating. Results failed to support a link between parental control and the development of an eating disorder, and implications from a cross-cultural perspective are addressed.
Article
The development and validation of a new measure, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) is described. The EDI is a 64 item, self-report, multiscale measure designed for the assessment of psychological and behavioral traits common in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia. The EDI consists of eight subscales measuring: Drive for Thinness, Bilimia, Body Dissatisfaction, Ineffectiveness, Perfectionism, Interpersonal Distrust, Interoceptive Awareness and Maturity Fears. Reliability (internal consistency) is established for all subscales and several indices of validity are presented. First, AN patients (N=113) are differentiated from femal comparison (FC) subjects (N=577) using a cross-validation procedure. Secondly, patient self-report subscale scores agree with clinician ratings of subscale traits. Thirdly, clinically recovered AN patients score similarly to FCs on all subscales. Finally, convergent and discriminant validity are established for subscales. The EDI was also administered to groups of normal weight bulimic women, obese, and normal weight but formerly obese women, as well as a male comparison group. Group differences are reported and the potential utility of the EDI is discussed.
Article
This study examines the perceived effect of idealized media images on self and classmates for three levels of outcome undesirability: perception of ideal body weight, effect on self-esteem, and likelihood of developing an eating disorder. A significant third-person effect was observed, which widened as the outcome increased in social undesirability. Those with high self-esteem exhibited stronger third-person effect than those with low self-esteem. The overall pattern of findings suggests that two related but distinct processes might be involved in the third-person effect: (a) a general process associated with self-esteem, which explains perceived effect of media both on self and others; and (b) a specific process tied to situational personal vulnerability, which explains perceived effect on self, but does not explain perceived effect on others.
Article
This study was designed to examine the effect of exposure to male models in advertisements on men's body satisfaction. Participants were 173 college males that were recruited from introductory psychology courses. Participants were assessed using the Body Assessment (BA), Magazine Advertisement Questionnaire (MAQ), and one of two sets of magazine advertisements that consisted of either clothing or cologne products, or those same products featured with a male model. Participants who viewed advertisements with male models showed an increase in body dissatisfaction, while those who viewed only products demonstrated no change in body dissatisfaction. The importance of this finding is that the body dissatisfaction experienced through exposure to idealized images of men in the media is only the beginning of possible outcomes such as anabolic steroid use, eating disorders, and muscle dysmorphia. Limitations and suggestions for continued research are discussed.
Article
There are 2 families of statistical procedures in meta-analysis: fixed- and random-effects procedures. They were developed for somewhat different inference goals: making inferences about the effect parameters in the studies that have been observed versus making inferences about the distribution of effect parameters in a population of studies from a random sample of studies. The authors evaluate the performance of confidence intervals and hypothesis tests when each type of statistical procedure is used for each type of inference and confirm that each procedure is best for making the kind of inference for which it was designed. Conditionally random-effects procedures (a hybrid type) are shown to have properties in between those of fixed- and random-effects procedures.
Article
One hundred and thirty-nine women viewed television commercials that contained either Appearance-related commercials (demonstrating societally-endorsed images of thinness and attractiveness) or Non-Appearance-related advertisements. Pre-post measures of depression, anger, anxiety, and body dissatisfaction were examined. Participants were blocked by a median split on dispositional levels of body image disturbance and sociocultural attitudes regarding appearance. Individuals high on these measures became significantly more depressed following exposure to the Appearance videotape and significantly less depressed following a viewing of the Non-Appearance advertisements. In addition, individuals high on the level of sociocultural awareness/internalization became more angry and participants high on body image disturbance became more dissatisfied with their appearance following exposure to commercials illustrating thinness/attractiveness. Participants who scored below the median on dispositional levels of disturbance either improved or showed no change on dependent measures in both Appearance and Non-Appearance video conditions. The findings are discussed in light of factors that might moderate media-influenced perturbations in body image.
Article
Recent research has demonstrated that media images of “ideal” female models have an impact upon women's body image, leading to dissatisfaction and perceptual distortion. The evidence for this link between media presentation and body image distortion is reviewed, and theoretical models are advanced to explain the link. In particular, women's use of social comparison in establishing their self-concept seems to be an important psychological construct in understanding the impact of the media upon body image. Based on empirical evidence and proposed psychological mediators, a number of measures are suggested that might prevent media effects or that might be used to treat those effects. In particular, psychoeducational preventative measures and group-based treatments seem to offer the greatest promise.
Article
Heinberg and Thompson (1995) demonstrated that females exposed to a compilation of media images (commercials) reflecting the current societally sanctioned standards of thinness and attractiveness experienced greater mood and body image disturbance than females who viewed a neutral, nonappearance-related control video. Social comparison has been offered as one mechanism for the negative outcomes of such media-based exposures. In the current study, social comparison was manipulated by creating three instructional conditions: comparison, distraction, and neutral. Instructional set did not differentially affect recall of appearance or nonappearance aspects of either an appearance-related collection of commercials or a nonappearance video (e.g., Heinberg & Thompson, 1995). However, participants in the comparison condition self-reported a greater degree of self-to-model comparison than participants in the distraction of neutral conditions. A marginally significant three-way interaction between condition, tape, and time emerged for a measure of appearance dissatisfaction, suggesting that comparison participants' body images were more negatively affected than the other groups. Tape by Time interactions also emerged for measures of anger, anxiety, and depression, revealing that greater distress was associated with the viewing of media images reflecting the current societal bias towards thinness and attractiveness. Dispositional level of internalization of societal values regarding attractiveness moderated women's reactions to the two video presentations. The findings are discussed with regard to sociocultural models of body image and possible implications for interventions for appearance-related distress.
Article
Although researchers have postulated that the thin-ideal body image portrayed in the media contributes to eating pathology among females, little research has directly examined the effects of these images on women. The central aim of the present study was to experimentally assess the effects of exposure to the thin-ideal on women's affect, body satisfaction, and endorsement of the thin-ideal stereotype. The secondary aim was to link these putative mediators to bulimic symptomatology. Female undergraduates (N = 157) were randomly exposed to pictures from magazines containing either ultra-thin models, average-sized models, or no models. Results indicated that exposure to the thin-ideal produced depression, stress, guilt, shame, insecurity, and body dissatisfaction. Further, multiple regression analyses indicated that negative affect, body dissatisfaction, and subscription to the thin-ideal predicted bulimic symptoms.
Article
Authors in the field of eating disorders suggest that increasing preferences for thin body shapes in women may be related to recent increases in the prevalence of eating-related problems. Using a social comparison theory paradigm, this study looked at the impact of exposure to slides of thin, average, and oversize models on the self-evaluations of 162 women exhibiting varying levels of self-reported bulimic symptoms. Contrary to the author's expectations, exposure to thin models was related to lower self-evaluations regardless of level of bulimic symptoms. Women reporting high levels of bulimic symptoms did, however, report a greater amount of pressure to be thin coming from media, peers, and family than did women reporting lower levels of symptoms. Results suggest that media have an impact on women's self-evaluations regardless of their level of bulimic symptoms. Implications are discussed.
Article
The current research examines the effects of exposure to ideal images on women’s self-evaluations, taking into account the moderating influence of social contextual and individual difference factors. In Study 1, women were exposed to either ideal images of women or neutral images. Participants viewed these images in a context in which (a) men were not present, (b) men were present, or (c) men were present and made comments about some of the images. Results indicated that participants’ weight-esteem was negatively affected in the ideal image/men present condition but that those in the ideal image/men comment condition actually exhibited higher levels of weight-esteem. A second study replicated the results of Study 1 and also showed that the importance participants placed on physical attractiveness influenced the effects of viewing ideal images.
Article
Exposure to pictures of thin-ideal female members of the media has been shown to reduce body satisfaction in women, which in turn has been implicated in various eating disorders. This exper- iment was designed principally to determine how social comparisons with peers affect general self-esteem, body satisfaction, confidence, and anxiety. In a "dating game" scenario, female un- dergraduates (N = 67) were randomly assigned to a thin-peer, oversize-peer, or control (no-photo) condition. Through computer manipulation, photos depicted the same woman's face with either a thin or oversize body shape. Results indicated comparison condition did not affect general self-esteem. However, exposure to the thin peer did reduce body satisfaction and confi- dence and, for those without a boyfriend, raised anxiety. Exposure to an oversize peer produced no compensatory, elevating effects on body satisfaction and confidence. Such an asymmetric comparison effect may contribute to the high prevalence of body dissatisfaction reported among women.