Survey of Toxic Heavy Metals and Arsenic in Existing Food Additives (Natural Colors)
Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health, Tokyo, Japan.Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan (Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi) (Impact Factor: 0.25). 10/2009; 50(5):256-60. DOI: 10.3358/shokueishi.50.256
Pollution levels of toxic heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg) and arsenic in existing food additives used as food colors (40 samples of 15 kinds) were investigated. Heavy metals were detected in 8 samples; Pb in 1 sample (2.8 microg/g), Hg in 8 samples (0.1-3.4 microg/g) and arsenic in 2 samples (1.7, 2.6 microg/g). The Pb level in 1 sample of lac color (2.8 microg/g) exceeded the limit of 2 microg/g proposed by JECFA and Hg levels in 3 samples of cacao color (1.2-3.4 microg/g) exceeded the limit of 1 microg/g in the EU specification.
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ABSTRACT: Extractions of anthocyanins from peels of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) using GRAS solvents and supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) were investigated. Conditions of solvent extraction that provided maximum yield of anthocyanin were water–ethanol (1:1, v/v) in 10% citric acid at 60 °C. The highest yield of the same by SC-CO2 was a sample size of 10 g of peels at 60 °C, 10 MPa, 1.5 h extracting time and 2 L min−1 of CO2. Delphinidin-3-glucoside and delphinidin-3-rutinoside were tentatively identified as the major anthocyanins in the extracts. The total phenolics, proanthocyanidin content and antioxidant activity of the solvent-extracted color were significantly higher than those in the SC-CO2 extracted color. Stability studies concluded that the former was more stable at high temperature regimes. Trace metal content in the SC-CO2 extracted color was significantly lower. Usage of the SC-CO2 extracted color in non-thermal food applications is recommended owing to its higher stability and low metal contamination.
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