Neurotrophic Actions of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells on Primary Culture of Dorsal Root Ganglion Tissues and Neurons

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, 19 Qixiu Road, Nantong, Jiangsu, 226001, People's Republic of China.
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 2.34). 11/2009; 40(3):332-41. DOI: 10.1007/s12031-009-9304-6
Source: PubMed


Application of adult bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) provides therapeutic benefits to the treatment of neurological insults. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of nonhematopoietic BMSCs to produce soluble factors and stimulate signaling pathways in neurons that mediate trophic effects. A combination of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry showed that the BMSCs released into the culture medium an array of soluble factors such as nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and ciliary neurotrophic factor, which have been shown to exhibit potent neurotrophic effects on neural cells. Immunochemistry, cell viability assay, and quantitative real-time RT-PCR collectively showed that neurite outgrowth and neurogenesis in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants and neurons were enhanced after they were cocultured with rat BMSCs. Western blot analysis revealed that BMSC-conditioned medium activated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and/or phosphoinositide 3-kinase/serine/threonine kinase (PI3K/Akt) in primary culture of rat DRG neurons, which suggested that BMSCs trigger endogenous survival signaling pathways in neurons through their secreted soluble factors. Our data help to elucidate the mechanisms by which BMSCs function as a cell therapy agent in peripheral nerve regeneration.

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    • "Here, we demonstrated that activation of the MAPK/Erk1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways is involved in the protective effects of MSC CM in motor neurons and astrocytes as CM-mediated protection against STS - induced apoptosis was attenuated by the MEK-1 inhibitor PD98059 and the inhibitor of PI3-K LY294002 in NSC-34 cells and astrocytes. This observation is in line with previous studies which showed that MSC CM activated phosphorylation of MAPK/Erk and/or PI3K/Akt in primary rat DRG neurons [7], [8], [48]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) improves functional outcome in the SOD1G93A mouse model of the degenerative motor neuron disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as well as in models of other neurological disorders. We have now investigated the effect of the interaction between MSC and motor neurons (derived from both non-transgenic and mutant SOD1G93A transgenic mice), NSC-34 cells and glial cells (astrocytes, microglia) (derived again from both non-transgenic and mutant SOD1G93A ALS transgenic mice) in vitro. In primary motor neurons, NSC-34 cells and astrocytes, MSC conditioned medium (MSC CM) attenuated staurosporine (STS) - induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Studying MSC CM-induced expression of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes and NSC-34 cells, we found that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) gene expression in astrocytes were significantly enhanced by MSC CM, with differential responses of non-transgenic and mutant astrocytes. Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in NSC-34 cells was significantly upregulated upon MSC CM-treatment. MSC CM significantly reduced the expression of the cytokines TNFα and IL-6 and iNOS both in transgenic and non-transgenic astrocytes. Gene expression of the neuroprotective chemokine Fractalkine (CX3CL1) was also upregulated in mutant SOD1G93A transgenic astrocytes by MSC CM treatment. Correspondingly, MSC CM increased the respective receptor, CX3CR1, in mutant SOD1G93A transgenic microglia. Our data demonstrate that MSC modulate motor neuronal and glial response to apoptosis and inflammation. MSC therefore represent an interesting candidate for further preclinical and clinical evaluation in ALS.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "In fact, there are many reports that BMSCs secrete various kinds of trophic factors including VEGF, IGF, HGF, bFGF, and GDNF [15,19,22,43,44,45], and certain extracellular matrix molecules such as laminin and type IV collagen [46]. BMSCs also regulate the caspase-3 mediated apoptosis pathway, indicating that axons are protected from degenerative changes following SCI [47]. "
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    ABSTRACT: It has been demonstrated that the infusion of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has beneficial effects on acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. The present study examined whether BMSC infusion into the CSF is effective for subacute (1- and 2-week post-injury), and/or chronic (4-week post-injury) SCI in rats. The spinal cord was contused by dropping a weight at the thoracic 8-9 levels. BMSCs cultured from GFP-transgenic rats of the same strain were injected three times (once weekly) into the CSF through the fourth ventricle, beginning at 1, 2 and 4 weeks post-injury. At 4 weeks after initial injection, the average BBB score for locomotor assessment increased from 1.0-3.5 points before injection to 9.0-10.9 points in the BMSC-injection subgroups, while, in the PBS (vehicle)-injection subgroups, it increased only from 0.5-4.0 points before injection to 3.0-5.1 points. Numerous axons associated with Schwann cells extended longitudinally through the connective tissue matrices in the astrocyte-devoid lesion without being blocked at either the rostral or the caudal borders in the BMSC-injection subgroups. A small number of BMSCs were found to survive within the spinal cord lesion in SCI of the 1-week post-injury at 2 days of injection, but none at 7 days. No BMSCs were found in the spinal cord lesion at 2 days or at 7 days in the SCI of the 2-week and the 4-week post-injury groups. In an in vitro experiment, BMSC-injected CSF promoted the survival and the neurite extension of cultured neurons more effectively than did the PBS-injected CSF. These results indicate that BMSCs had beneficial effects on locomotor improvement as well as on axonal regeneration in both subacute and chronic SCI rats, and the results also suggest that BMSCs might function as neurotrophic sources via the CSF.
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    • "The transplantation of BMSCs into SCI rats to promote axonal regeneration, reduce lesion size and improve functional outcome has been reported (14,15). At present, the beneficial effects of BMSCs in several models of CNS injury are considered to be due to the release of trophic factors and the activation of endogenous survival signaling pathways via secreted soluble factors in neurons and oligodendrocytes, as opposed to a result of neuronal or glial differentiation (16). However, the exact mechanisms underlying the protective effects of BMSCs in SCI remain unknown. "
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms underlying the potentially beneficial effect of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) on spinal cord injury (SCI) are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the protective effect of BMSCs in rats with SCI. A total of 45 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups; the SCI group (n=15), the BMSC group (n=15) and the sham-operation group (n=15). In the SCI and BMSC treatment groups, a modified Allen's weight-drop technique was used to induce SCI. The BMSC treatment group received an injection of BMSCs using a microneedle into the epicenter of the spinal cord 24 h after injury. Rats in the sham-operation group were not subjected to SCI; however, the corresponding vertebral laminae were removed. Seven days after transplantation, a rapid recovery was observed in the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scores of the BMSC treatment group, whereas the BBB scores in the SCI group remained low (P<0.05). Caspase-12 expression in the SCI group was increased compared with that in the sham-operation group, whereas caspase-12 expression was attenuated 24 h after transplantation in the BMSC treatment group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the transplantation of BMSCs may improve locomotor function and attenuate caspase-12 expression following SCI. Therefore, it is likely to be an effective strategy for preventing severe injury of the spinal cord.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Experimental and therapeutic medicine
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