Excess heart-disease-related mortality in a national study of patients with mental disorders: Identifying modifiable risk factors

VA Ann Arbor HSR&D Center of Excellence and National Serious Mental Illness Treatment Research and Evaluation Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA.
General hospital psychiatry (Impact Factor: 2.61). 11/2009; 31(6):555-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2009.07.008
Source: PubMed


People with mental disorders are estimated to die 25 years younger than the general population, and heart disease (HD) is a major contributor to their mortality. We assessed whether Veterans Affairs (VA) health system patients with mental disorders were more likely to die from HD than patients without these disorders, and whether modifiable factors may explain differential mortality risks.
Subjects included VA patients who completed the 1999 Large Health Survey of Veteran Enrollees (LHSV) and were either diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, other psychotic disorders, major depressive disorder or other depression diagnosis or diagnosed with none of these disorders. LHSV data on patient sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral factors (e.g., physical activity, smoking) were linked to mortality data from the National Death Index of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hierarchical multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess 8-year HD-related mortality risk by diagnosis, adding patient sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral factors.
Of 147,193 respondents, 11,809 (8%) died from HD. After controlling for sociodemographic and clinical factors, we found that those with schizophrenia [hazard ratio (HR)=1.25; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.15-1.36; P<.001] or other psychotic disorders (HR=1.41; 95% CI: 1.27-1.55; P<.001) were more likely to die from HD than those without mental disorders. Controlling for behavioral factors diminished, but did not eliminate, the impact of psychosis on mortality. Smoking (HR=1.32; 95% CI: 1.26-1.39; P<.001) and inadequate physical activity (HR=1.66; 95% CI: 1.59-1.74; P<.001) were also associated with HD-related mortality.
Patients with psychosis were more likely to die from HD. For reduction of HD-related mortality, early interventions that promote smoking cessation and physical activity among veterans with psychotic disorders are warranted.

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    • "times that of the general population, and higher rates of mortality for those with psychoses when compared with depressive and anxiety disorders (Walker et al. 2015). Cardiometabolic risk factors are common in psychosis (McEvoy et al. 2005; Leucht et al. 2007; Osborn et al. 2007; De Hert et al. 2009; Kilbourne et al. 2009). A recent meta-analysis of international studies reported prevalence rates of 44% for central obesity, 19.5% for hyperglycaemia, 10.9% for diabetes, 39% for hypertension and 39% for dyslipidaemias, with rates increasing with age (Mitchell et al. 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and establish the proportion of people with psychosis meeting criteria for the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The study also aimed to identify the key lifestyle behaviours associated with increased risk of the MetS and to investigate whether the MetS is associated with illness severity and degree of functional impairment. Method Baseline data were collected as part of a large randomized controlled trial (IMPaCT RCT). The study took place within community mental health teams in five Mental Health NHS Trusts in urban and rural locations across England. A total of 450 randomly selected out-patients, aged 18���65 years, with an established psychotic illness were recruited. We ascertained the prevalence rates of cardiometabolic risk factors, illness severity and functional impairment and calculated rates of the MetS, using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria. High rates of cardiometabolic risk factors were found. Nearly all women and most men had waist circumference exceeding the IDF threshold for central obesity. Half the sample was obese (body mass index ��� 30 kg/m2) and a fifth met the criteria for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Females were more likely to be obese than males (61% v. 42%, p < 0.001). Of the 308 patients with complete laboratory measures, 57% (n = 175) met the IDF criteria for the MetS. In the UK, the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with psychotic illnesses is much higher than that observed in national general population studies as well as in most international studies of patients with psychosis.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Psychological Medicine
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    • "In a previous study, Correll et al. reported a 10-year coronary heart disease risk of 4.7% for patients with bipolar disorder and 19% of these had high risk (≥ 10%) for coronary heart disease [5]. Therefore, individuals with BD die younger than the general population and cardiovascular disorders play an important role [1] [6] [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic mental illness that is associated with substantial functional impairment, morbidity and mortality. Lithium is still considered as a first-line therapy in BD. In this study, systolic and diastolic function parameters were measured with echocardiography in BD during lithium therapy and compared to those of a control group. Thirty BD under lithium therapy and controls were included in our study. Blood samples were taken 12 hours after receiving the last dose of lithium treatment, in the meantime echocardiography were performed. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function was assessed by conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. Serum lithium level correlation between diastolic function parameters was measured. Baseline demographic and laboratory results did not differ significantly between the groups. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (66.7 ± 7.1% vs 66.7 ± 4.9%), E/A ratio (1.14 ± 0.41 vs 1.28 ± 0.29), and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT) (77.8 ± 14.5 cm/sec vs 75.9 ± 17.7cm/sec) measured with conventional echocardiography showed no significant difference between the two groups. Em (14.8 ± 5.2 cm/sec vs 15 ± 4.6 cm/sec), Am (12.7 ± 4.0 cm/sec vs 11.1.0 ± 2.4 cm/sec) and E/Em (5.5 ± 1.8 vs 5.9 ± 2.4) measured with tissue Doppler echocardiography showed no significant difference between the two groups. Serum lithium levels were not correlated with LVEF, mitral inflow E velocity, mitral inflow A velocity, E/A ratio, deceleration time (DT), IVRT, or E/Em ratio. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions were preserved in BD during lithium therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
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    • "Individuals were classified into one of three MHD categories based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes consistent with previous studies [28] [29]: "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective was to determine whether obesity screening and weight management program participation and outcomes are equitable for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) and depressive disorder (DD) compared to those without SMI/DD in Veterans Health Administration (VHA), the largest integrated US health system, which requires obesity screening and offers weight management to all in need. We used chart-reviewed, clinical and administrative VHA data from fiscal years 2010-2012 to estimate obesity screening and participation in the VHA's weight management program (MOVE!) across groups. Six- and 12-month weight changes in MOVE! participants were estimated using linear mixed models adjusted for confounders. Compared to individuals without SMI/DD, individuals with SMI or DD were less frequently screened for obesity (94%-94.7% vs. 95.7%) but had greater participation in MOVE! (10.1%-10.4% vs. 7.4%). MOVE! participants with SMI or DD lost approximately 1 lb less at 6 months. At 12 months, average weight loss for individuals with SMI or neither SMI/DD was comparable (-3.5 and -3.3 lb, respectively), but individuals with DD lost less weight (mean=-2.7 lb). Disparities in obesity screening and treatment outcomes across mental health diagnosis groups were modest. However, participation in MOVE! was low for every group, which limits population impact. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · General Hospital Psychiatry
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