Prevalence of Psychotic Disorders in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam.
CNS spectrums (Impact Factor: 2.71). 08/2009; 14(8):415-7.
Source: PubMed


The co-occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in patients with schizophrenia and related disorders has been increasingly recognized. However, the rate of psychosis comorbidity in OCD patients has yet to be systematically evaluated.
The prevalence of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition psychotic disorders was evaluated in 757 subjects consecutively referred to a specialised diagnostic and treatment facility for OCD. Demographic and clinical characteristics were assessed.
Thirteen OCD patients (1.7%) also met the DSM-IV criteria for a psychotic disorder. We found no significant differences in clinical characteristic between OCD patients with and without a psychotic disorder, although patients with OCD and a psychotic disorder more likely used illicit substances and more likely were male.
Relatively few patients referred to a specialized treatment OCD center suffer from a psychotic disorder.

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    • "In contrast, in the general population the prevalence rates for OCD are only 1 to 2% [64]. Patients suffering from primary OCD carry a relatively low risk (1.7%) to develop comorbid psychotic symptoms [65]. Schizophrenia patients, who suffer from comorbid OCS, often display pronounced psychotic and sometimes treatment resistant symptoms [66] [67]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Insight into the biological pathomechanism of a clinical syndrome facilitates the development of effective interventions. This paper applies this perspective to the important clinical problem of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) occurring during the lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia. Up to 25% of schizophrenia patients suffer from OCS and about 12% fulfil the diagnostic criteria of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This is accompanied by marked subjective burden of disease, high levels of anxiety, depression and suicidality, increased neurocognitive impairment, less favourable levels of social and vocational functioning, and greater service utilization. Comorbid patients can be assigned to heterogeneous subgroups. It is assumed that second generation antipsychotics (SGAs), most importantly clozapine, might aggravate or even induce second-onset OCS. Several epidemiological and pharmacological arguments support this assumption. Specific genetic risk factors seem to dispose patients with schizophrenia to develop OCS and risk-conferring polymorphisms has been defined in SLC1A1, BDNF, DLGAP3, and GRIN2B and in interactions between these individual genes. Further research is needed with detailed characterization of large samples. In particular interactions between genetic risk constellations, pharmacological and psychosocial factors should be analysed. Results will further define homogeneous subgroups, which are in need for differential causative interventions. In clinical practise, schizophrenia patients should be carefully monitored for OCS, starting with at-risk mental states of psychosis and longitudinal follow-ups, hopefully leading to the development of multimodal therapeutic interventions.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014
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    • "A large proportion of schizophrenics with OCS fulfil current diagnostic criteria of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In contrast, primary OCD-patients most frequently present comorbid affective or anxiety disorders and only 1.7% suffer from comorbid psychotic symptoms [6]. Comorbid OCS in schizophrenia is associated with pronounced positive and negative symptoms [7], lower levels of social functioning, higher treatment costs, worse social and vocational rehabilitation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is rarely associated with schizophrenia, whereas 20 to 30% of schizophrenic patients, suffer from comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS). So far no single pathogenetic theory convincingly explained this fact suggesting heterogeneous subgroups. Based on long-term case observations, one hypothesis assumes that second-onset OCS in the course of schizophrenia might be a side effect of second generation antipsychotics (SGA), most importantly clozapine (CLZ). This review summarizes the supporting epidemiological and pharmacological evidence: Estimations on prevalence of OCS increase in more recent cross-sectional studies and in later disease stages. Longitudinal observations report the de novo-onset of OCS under clozapine treatment. This association has not been reported with first generation antipsychotics (FGA) or SGAs with mainly dopaminergic mode of action. Finally, significant correlations of OCS-severity with duration of treatment, dose and serum levels suggest clozapine-induced OCS. However, supposed causal interactions need further verifications. It is also unclear, which neurobiological mechanisms might underlie the pathogenetic process. Detailed genotypic and phenotypic characterizations of schizophrenics with comorbid OCS regarding neurocognitive functioning and activation in sensitive tasks of functional magnetic imaging are needed. Multimodal large-scaled prospective studies are necessary to define patients at risk for second-onset OCS and to improve early detection and therapeutic interventions.
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    ABSTRACT: Although subthreshold conditions are associated with impairment in numerous disorders, research on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) below the diagnostic threshold of DSM-IV in the general population is limited. To estimate the DSM-IV 12-month prevalence, comorbidity and impairment of OCD, subthreshold OCD (i.e., fulfilling some but not all core DSM-IV criteria), and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) (i.e., endorsement of OCS without fulfilling any core DSM-IV criteria) in a general population sample. Data from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey-Mental Health Supplement (N = 4181, age 18-65 years), based on the standardized diagnostic Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The 12-month prevalence of OCD was 0.7%, subthreshold OCD was 4.5%, and OCS was 8.3%. Subjects in all three groups showed higher comorbidity (odds ratios [ORs] ≥ 3.3), compared to those without OCS. The OCD, subthreshold OCD and OCS were all associated with increased odds of substance abuse/dependence-, mood-, anxiety- and somatoform disorders, with especially strong associations with possible psychotic disorder (ORs ≥ 4.1) and bipolar disorders (ORs ≥ 4.7). Participants in all three groups showed higher impairment (ORs ≥ 3.1) and health-care utilization (ORs ≥ 2.4), compared to those without OCS, even after controlling for covariates. Individuals with subthreshold OCD and OCS, not currently captured by DSM-IV OCD criteria, nevertheless show substantial comorbidity, impairment and health-care utilization. This should be taken into account in future conceptualization and classification of OCD and clinical care.
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