Molecular Complex of Three Testis-Specific Isozymes Associated with the Mouse Sperm Fibrous Sheath: Hexokinase 1, Phosphofructokinase M, and Glutathione S-Transferase mu class 5

Gamete Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.
Biology of Reproduction (Impact Factor: 3.32). 11/2009; 82(3):504-15. DOI: 10.1095/biolreprod.109.080580
Source: PubMed


Mammalian sperm require ATP for motility, and most of it is generated by glycolysis. The glycolytic enzymes segregate to the principal piece region of the flagellum, where some are bound tightly to a novel cytoskeletal structure defining this region, the fibrous sheath (FS), and others are easily extracted with detergents. One of the latter is the spermatogenic cell-specific variant isozyme of hexokinase type 1 (HK1S), characterized by an N-terminal 24-amino acid spermatogenic cell-specific region (SSR). Yeast two-hybrid screens carried out using the SSR as bait determined that HK1S is tethered to muscle-type phosphofructokinase (PFKM) in the principal piece region. This led to the identification of four testis-specific Pfkm splice variants, one that overlapped a variant reported previously (Pfkm_v1) and three that were novel (Pfkm_v2, Pfkm_v3, and Pfkm_v4). They differ from Pfkm transcripts found in somatic cells by encoding a novel 67-amino acid N-terminal extension, the testis-specific region (TSR), producing a spermatogenic cell-specific PFKM variant isozyme (PFKMS). An antiserum generated to the TSR demonstrated that PFKMS is present in the principal piece and is insoluble in 1% Triton X-100 detergent. In subsequent yeast two-hybrid screens, the TSR was found to interact with glutathione S-transferase mu class 5 (GSTM5), identified previously as a spermatogenic cell-specific component of the FS. These results demonstrated that HK1S is tethered in the principal piece region by PFKMS, which in turn is bound tightly to GSTM5 in the FS.

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    • "The sequence difference clustered within the PBD and GCS of HK1N and HK1S, respectively, is highlighted in Fig. 1C. The HEK293 cells are of embryonic kidney tissue origin and lack the PFKMS components of the sperm cell-specific glycolytic enzymes (Nakamura et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: The hexokinase 1 variant in mammalian spermatozoa (HK1S) has a unique N-terminus and this isoform atypically localizes to the plasma membrane. However, the mechanism of this process currently remains ambiguous. In this report, we show that fatty acylation underlies the specific sorting of HK1S. Employing chimeric reporter constructs, we first established that compartmentalization of HK1S does not function exclusively in sperm cells and that this feature is swappable to somatic HEK293 cells. Although the N-terminus lacks the classical consensus signature for myristoylation and the sequence-based predictions fail to predict myristoylation of HK1S, complementary experimental approaches confirmed that HK1S is myristoylated. Using live-cell confocal microscopy, we show that the mutation of a single amino acid, the myristoyl recipient Gly(2), impedes the prominent feature of plasma membrane association and relocates the enzyme to the cytosol but not the nucleus. Additionally, substitutions of the putatively palmitoylated Cys(5) is also reflected in a similar loss of compartmentalization of the protein. Taken together, our findings conclusively demonstrate that the N-terminal 'MGQICQ' motif in the unique GCS domain of HK1S acquires hydrophobicity by dual lipidic modifications, N-myristoylation and palmitoylation, to serve the requirements for membranous associations and thus its compartmentalization.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Biology Open
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    • "Further validation through the pathway and process network analysis using IPA and Metacore™, suggested that the topmost function of the differentially expressed proteins was carbohydrate metabolism and included pathways of gluconeogenesis, glycolysis, fermentation of pyruvate to lactate and sucrose degradation. There is a great controversy pertaining to the major pathway of energy metabolism during sperm motility [36-39]. In this context, our findings showed that while oxidative phosphorylation is important for sperm function, the major pathway for energy production for sperm motility was via the glycolytic pathway. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Oxidative stress plays a key role in the etiology of male infertility. Significant alterations in the sperm proteome are associated with poor semen quality. The aim of the present study was to examine if elevated levels of reactive oxygen species cause an alteration in the proteomic profile of spermatozoa. Methods This prospective study consisted of 52 subjects: 32 infertile men and 20 normal donors. Seminal ejaculates were classified as ROS+ or ROS- and evaluated for their proteomic profile. Samples were pooled and subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis through in-solution digestion of proteins for peptide characterization. The expression profile of proteins present in human spermatozoa was examined using proteomic and bioinformatic analysis to elucidate the regulatory pathways of oxidative stress. Results Of the 74 proteins identified, 10 proteins with a 2-fold difference were overexpressed and 5 were underexpressed in the ROS+ group; energy metabolism and regulation, carbohydrate metabolic processes such as gluconeogenesis and glycolysis, protein modifications and oxidative stress regulation were some of the metabolic processes affected in ROS+ group. Conclusions We have identified proteins involved in a variety of functions associated with response and management of oxidative stress. In the present study we focused on proteins that showed a high degree of differential expression and thus, have a greater impact on the fertilizing potential of the spermatozoa. While proteomic analyses identified the potential biomarkers, further studies through Western Blot are necessary to validate the biomarker status of the proteins in pathological conditions.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology
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    • "We next used an in vivo assay to measure PGAM enzymatic activity in ejaculated spermatozoa. To evaluate this activity and the solubility of the PGAM protein, crude protein extracts from fresh semen obtained from a fertile man were separated into two fractions based on hydrophilicity [20], [21]. Only the hydrophilic sperm protein fraction exhibited PGAM enzymatic activity (0.62 U/mg protein) (Fig. 3C). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The development of novel fertilization treatments, including in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic injection, has made pregnancy possible regardless of the level of activity of the spermatozoa; however, the etiology of male-factor infertility is poorly understood. Multiple studies, primarily through the use of transgenic animals, have contributed to a list of candidate genes that may affect male infertility in humans. We examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as a cause of male infertility in an analysis of spermatogenesis-specific genes. Methods and Finding We carried out the prevalence of SNPs in the coding region of phosphoglycerate mutase 4 (PGAM4) on the X chromosome by the direct sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA from male patients. Using RT-PCR and western blot analyses, we identified that PGAM4 is a functional retrogene that is expressed predominantly in the testes and is associated with male infertility. PGAM4 is expressed in post-meiotic stages, including spermatids and spermatozoa in the testes, and the principal piece of the flagellum and acrosome in ejaculated spermatozoa. A case-control study revealed that 4.5% of infertile patients carry the G75C polymorphism, which causes an amino acid substitution in the encoded protein. Furthermore, an assay for enzymatic activity demonstrated that this polymorphism decreases the enzyme’s activity both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion These results suggest that PGAM4, an X-linked retrogene, is a fundamental gene in human male reproduction and may escape meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. These findings provide fresh insight into elucidating the mechanisms of male infertility.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · PLoS ONE
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