Circadian Expression of Adiponectin and Its Receptors in Human Adipose Tissue
Adiponectin is one of the most clinically relevant cytokines associated with obesity. However, circadian rhythmicity of adiponectin in human adipose tissue (AT) has not been analyzed. To assess whether the mRNA levels of adiponectin and its receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) might show daily circadian rhythms in visceral and sc fat explants obtained from morbid obese women, visceral and sc abdominal AT biopsies (n = 6) were obtained from morbidly obese women (body mass index >or=40 kg/m(2)). Anthropometric variables were measured and fasting plasma glucose, lipid, and lipoprotein concentrations were analyzed. To investigate rhythmic expression pattern, AT explants were cultured during 24 h, and gene expression was analyzed at the following times: 0800, 1400, 2000, and 0200 h, using quantitative real-time PCR. All genes investigated showed a circadian rhythmicity and oscillated accurately and independently of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in both AT explants (P < 0.05). Adiponectin gene expression fluctuated in the same phase as its receptors. Correlation analyses between the genetic circadian oscillation and components of the metabolic syndrome revealed that adiposity and abdominal obesity correlated with a decrease in adiponectin and adiponectin receptors ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 amplitude (P < 0.05). Visceral fat showed a trend toward a phase delay and dampening of the mRNA amplitude of adiponectin as compared with sc fat. The mRNA expression of adiponectin and its receptors showed 24-h rhythmicity in human AT from morbidly obese patients.
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