Biofilm on Dental Implants: A Review of the Literature

Department of Fixed and Removable Prosthodontics and Dental Material Science, Center for Dental and Oral Medicine and Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants (Impact Factor: 1.45). 11/2008; 24(4):616-26. DOI: 10.5167/uzh-26110
Source: PubMed


The aim of this article was to review the current literature with regard to biofilm formation on dental implants and the influence of surface characteristics (chemistry, surface free energy, and roughness) of dental implant and abutment materials and their design features on biofilm formation and its sequelae.
An electronic MEDLINE literature search was conducted of studies published between 1966 and June 2007. The following search terms were used: biofilm and dental implants, biofilm formation/plaque bacterial adhesion and implants, plaque/biofilm and surface characteristics/roughness/surface free energy of titanium dental implants, implant-abutment interface and plaque/biofilm, biofilm and supragingival/subgingival plaque microbiology, biofilm/plaque and implant infection, antibacterial/bacteriostatic titanium, titanium nanocoating/nanopatterning, antimicrobial drug/titanium implant. Both in vitro and in vivo studies were included in this review.
Fifty-three articles were identified in this review process. The articles were categorized with respect to their context on biofilm formation on teeth and dental implant surfaces and with regard to the influence of surface characteristics of implant biomaterials (especially titanium) and design features of implant and abutment components on biofilm formation. The current state of literature is more descriptive, rather than providing strong data that could be analyzed through meta-analysis. Basic research articles on surface modification of titanium were also included in the review to analyze the applications of such studies on the fabrication of implant surfaces that could possibly decrease early bacterial colonization and biofilm formation.
Increase in surface roughness and surface free energy facilitates biofilm formation on dental implant and abutment surfaces, although this conclusion is derived from largely descriptive literature. Surface chemistry and the design features of the implant-abutment configuration also play a significant role in biofilm formation.

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    • "In spite of the high success rates of long-term implantsupported restorations, recent studies have reported the presence of relevant microbial adhesion on the implant components [1] [2]. Microbial colonization of dental implant assemblies is a consequence of the exposure of the components to the oral cavity [3] [4] and one of the most important causes of early and late implant failure is related to the inflammatory process of the surrounding host bone and soft tissues that occurs in response to microbial contamination [5] [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study employed culture-independent molecular techniques to extend the characterization of the microbial diversity of biofilm associated with either titanium or zirconia implant-abutments, including not-yet-cultivated bacteria species, and to identify and quantify species recovered from peri-implantar/periodontal sulci, supragingival biofilm and the internal parts of implants. Probing depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, and marginal bone level were also evaluated over time and correlated with biofilm formation.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
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    • "Bacterial adhesion remains the focus of numerous research groups as it is considered one of the most important factors for bacterial colonization, pathogenesis and biofilm formation [1]. Bacteria have the ability of binding to both natural and artificial substrates such as industrial equipment, tubing, medical devices, prosthetic elements, mucosa and teeth [2] [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The use of the atomic force microscope (AFM) in microbiology has progressed significantly throughout the years since its first application as a high-resolution imaging instrument. Modern AFM setups are capable of characterizing the nanomechanical behaviour of bacterial cells at both the cellular and molecular levels, where elastic properties and adhesion forces of single bacterium cells can be examined under different experimental conditions. Considering that bacterial and biofilm-mediated infections continue to challenge the biomedical field, it is important to understand the biophysical events leading towards bacterial adhesion and colonization on both biological and non-biological substrates. The purpose of this review is to present the latest findings concerning the field of single-bacterium nanomechanics, and discuss future trends and applications of nanoindentation and single-cell force spectroscopy techniques in biomedicine.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Nanotechnology
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    • "As the biofilm matures, members of the red, orange, and green complexes colonize [2,5–9] and in clinical situations associated with failing implants or peri-implant diseases, there is a net predominance of orange and red complex species [6,10–12]. Even though changes in the composition of the periimplant microbiota have been associated with the pathogenesis of peri-implant diseases [13], there is controversy on how the implant surface characteristics may affect bacterial colonization and biofilm formation, thus potentially influencing the initiation and progression of peri-implant diseases [14] [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The impact of implant surfaces in dental biofilm development is presently unknown. The aim of this investigation was to assess in vitro the development of a complex biofilm model on titanium and zirconium implant surfaces, and to compare it with the same biofilm formed on hydroxyapatite surface. Methods Six standard reference strains were used to develop an in vitro biofilm over sterile titanium, zirconium and hydroxyapatite discs, coated with saliva within the wells of pre-sterilized polystyrene tissue culture plates. The selected species used represent initial (Streptococcus oralis and Actinomyces naeslundii), early (Veillonella parvula), secondary (Fusobacterium nucleatum) and late colonizers (Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans). The developed biofilms (growth time 1 to 120 h) were studied with confocal laser scanning microscopy using a vital fluorescence technique and with low-temperature scanning electron microscopy. The number (colony forming units/biofilm) and kinetics of the bacteria within the biofilm were studied with quantitative PCR (qPCR). As outcome variables, the biofilm thickness, the percentage of cell vitality and the number of bacteria were compared using the analysis of variance. Results The bacteria adhered and matured within the biofilm over the three surfaces with similar dynamics. Different surfaces, however, demonstrated differences both in the thickness, deposition of the extracellular polysaccharide matrix as well as in the organization of the bacterial cells. Significance While the formation and dynamics of an in vitro biofilm model was similar irrespective of the surface of inoculation (hydroxyapatite, titanium or zirconium), there were significant differences in regards to the biofilm thickness and three-dimensional structure.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Dental Materials
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