The Efficacy of Self-Help Group Treatment and Therapist-Led Group Treatment for Binge Eating Disorder

University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota, United States
American Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 12.3). 11/2009; 166(12):1347-54. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.09030345
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this investigation was to compare three types of treatment for binge eating disorder to determine the relative efficacy of self-help group treatment compared to therapist-led and therapist-assisted group cognitive-behavioral therapy.
A total of 259 adults diagnosed with binge eating disorder were randomly assigned to 20 weeks of therapist-led, therapist-assisted, or self-help group treatment or a waiting list condition. Binge eating as measured by the Eating Disorder Examination was assessed at baseline, at end of treatment, and at 6 and 12 months, and outcome was assessed using logistic regression and analysis of covariance (intent-to-treat).
At end of treatment, the therapist-led (51.7%) and the therapist-assisted (33.3%) conditions had higher binge eating abstinence rates than the self-help (17.9%) and waiting list (10.1%) conditions. However, no between-group differences in abstinence rates were observed at either of the follow-up assessments. The therapist-led condition also showed more reductions in binge eating at end of treatment and follow-up assessments compared to the self-help condition, and treatment or waiting period completion rates were higher in the therapist-led (88.3%) and waiting list (81.2%) conditions than in the therapist-assisted (68.3%) and self-help (59.7%) conditions.
Therapist-led group cognitive-behavioral treatment for binge eating disorder led to higher binge eating abstinence rates, greater reductions in binge eating frequency, and lower attrition compared to group self-help treatment. Although these findings indicate that therapist delivery of group treatment is associated with better short-term outcome and less attrition than self-help treatment, the lack of group differences at follow-up suggests that self-help group treatment may be a viable alternative to therapist-led interventions.

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    • "There were no significant differences between treatment groups or treatment sites for age, race, marital status, or primary role. Further details about the study population can be found in the main outcome paper (Peterson et al., 2009). GAS and GCQ-E were significantly correlated at session 2 (r ¼ 0.34, p < 0.01) and session 6 (r ¼ 0.34, p < 0.01) with small effect sizes. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined whether perceptions of group dynamics early in treatment predicted eating disorder outcomes in a sample of adults (N = 190) with binge eating disorder (BED) who participated in a 15-session group cognitive behavior therapy (gCBT) treatment with differing levels of therapist involvement (therapist led, therapist assisted, and self-help). The group dynamic variables included the Engaged subscale of the Group Climate Questionnaire - Short Form and the Group Attitude Scale, measured at session 2 and session 6. Treatment outcome was assessed in terms of global eating disorder severity and frequency of binge eating at end of treatment, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Session 2 engagement and group attitudes were associated with improved outcome at 12-month follow-up. No other group dynamic variables were significantly associated with treatment outcome. Group dynamic variables did not differ by levels of therapist involvement. Results indicate that early engagement and attitudes may be predictive of improved eating disorder psychopathology at 12 month follow-up. However, the pattern of mostly insignificant findings indicates that in gCBT, group process variables may be less influential on outcomes relative to other treatment components. Additionally, participants were able to engage in group treatment regardless of level of therapist involvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Behaviour Research and Therapy
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    • "Rapid response predicts favorable outcome. Clinical trial Peterson et al., 2009 2 [63] 259 BED (69 wait-list; 67 self-help; 63 therapist-assisted; 60 therapist-led) 5 treatment; 12 follow-up 26% mean Therapist-led vs self-help CBT-based intervention. Binge abstinence in 51.7% of therapist-led, 33.3% of therapist-assisted, 17.9% of self-help group and 10.1% of wait-list. "
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    ABSTRACT: Binge Eating Disorders is a clinical syndrome recently coded as an autonomous diagnosis in DSM-5. Individuals affected by Binge Eating Disorder (BED) show significantly lower quality of life and perceived health and higher psychological distress compared to the non-BED obese population. BED treatment is complex due to clinical and psychological reasons but also to high drop-out and poor stability of achieved goals. The purpose of this review is to explore the available data on this topic, outlining the state-of-the-art on both diagnostic issues and most effective treatment strategies. We identified studies published in the last 6 years searching the MeSH Term “binge eating disorder”, with specific regard to classification, diagnosis and treatment, in major computerized literature databases including: Medline, PubMed, PsychINFO and Science Direct. A total of 233 studies were found and, among them, 71 were selected and included in the review. Although Binge Eating Disorder diagnostic criteria showed empirical consistency, core psychopathology traits should be taken into account to address treatment strategies. The available body of evidence shows psychological treatments as first line interventions, even if their efficacy on weight loss needs further exploration. Behavioral and self-help interventions evidenced some efficacy in patients with lower psychopathological features. Pharmacological treatment plays an important role, but data are still limited by small samples and short follow-up times. The role of bariatric surgery, a recommended treatment for obesity that is often required also by patients with Binge Eating Disorder, deserves more specific studies. Combining different interventions at the same time does not add significant advantages, planning sequential treatments, with more specific interventions for non-responders, seems to be a more promising strategy. Despite its recent inclusion in DSM-5 as an autonomous disease, BED diagnosis and treatment strategies deserve further deepening. A multidisciplinary and stepped-care treatment appears as a promising management strategy. Longer and more structured follow-up studies are required, in order to enlighten long term outcomes and to overcome the high dropout rates affecting current studies.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · BMC Psychiatry
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    • " treated with Counter Attitudinal Therapy for 1 / 5th the therapist time necessary for guided bibliotherapy . The retention rate ( 78% after adjusting for initial no - shows ) is comparable to average attendance rates for the individual treat - ments for eating disorders ( 77% ; Dare et al . , 2001 ; Grilo et al . , 2005 ; Kirkley et al . , 1985 ; Peterson et al . , 2009 ) . Our 78% retention rate was higher than the 67% retention rate from the Fairburn et al . ( 2009 ) trial and the 50% retention rate from an uncontrolled study of enhanced CBT ( Byrne , Fursland , Allen , & Watson , 2011 ) . Although these data imply that the acceptability of this new group treatment might be superior to enhanced CBT ,"
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    ABSTRACT: The authors conducted a pilot trial of a new dissonance-based group eating disorder treatment designed to be a cost-effective front-line transdiagnostic treatment that could be more widely disseminated than extant individual or family treatments that are more expensive and difficult to deliver. Young women with a DSM-5 eating disorder (N = 72) were randomized to an 8-week dissonance-based Counter Attitudinal Therapy group treatment or a usual care control condition, completing diagnostic interviews and questionnaires at pre, post, and 2-month follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed that intervention participants showed greater reductions in outcomes than usual care controls in a multivariate multilevel model (χ2[6] = 34.1, p < .001), producing large effects for thin-ideal internalization (d = .79), body dissatisfaction (d = 1.14), and blinded interview-assessed eating disorder symptoms (d = .95), and medium effects for dissonance regarding perpetuating the thin ideal (d = .65) and negative affect (d = .55). Midway through this pilot we refined engagement procedures, which was associated with increased effect sizes (e.g., the d for eating disorder symptoms increased from .51 to 2.30). This new group treatment produced large reductions in eating disorder symptoms, which is encouraging because it requires about 1/20th the therapist time necessary for extant individual and family treatments, and has the potential to provide a cost-effective and efficacious approach to reaching the majority of individuals with eating disorders who do not presently received treatment.
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