Whole-body vibration as potential intervention for people with low bone mineral density and osteoporosis: A review

Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
The Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development (Impact Factor: 1.43). 01/2009; 46(4):529-42. DOI: 10.1682/JRRD.2008.09.0136
Source: PubMed


Low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis are health concerns among older adults and individuals with physical, neurological, and/or mobility impairments. Detrimental changes in bone density and bone architecture occurring in these individuals may be due in part to the reduction/cessation of physical activity and the accompanying reduction of mechanical strain on bone. Changes in bone architecture predispose these individuals to fragility fractures during low-trauma events. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been examined as an intervention for maintaining or improving bone mass among people with low BMD, because it may emulate the mechanical strains observed during normal daily activities. This article provides an overview of WBV including terminology, safety considerations, and a summary of the current literature; it is intended for rehabilitation healthcare providers considering WBV as a potential therapy for individuals with osteoporosis.

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    • "We included settings aligned with those found to be effective in previous studies (0.1 g-10 g at 20–90 Hz) [25-30]. In 2009, Totosy de Zepetnek presented a review of whole body vibration which concluded the optimal vibration parameters for humans have yet to be determined [33]. To test the transmissibility of the vibration signal, the software was programmed for 0.6 g at 30 Hz for 1 minute. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Mechanical loads induced through muscle contraction, vibration, or compressive forces are thought to modulate tissue plasticity. With the emergence of regenerative medicine, there is a need to understand the optimal mechanical environment (vibration, load, or muscle force) that promotes cellular health. To our knowledge no mechanical system has been proposed to deliver these isolated mechanical stimuli in human tissue. We present the design, performance, and utilization of a new technology that may be used to study localized mechanical stimuli on human tissues. A servo-controlled vibration and limb loading system were developed and integrated into a single instrument to deliver vibration, compression, or muscle contractile loads to a single limb (tibia) in humans. The accuracy, repeatability, transmissibility, and safety of the mechanical delivery system were evaluated on eight individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Findings The limb loading system was linear, repeatable, and accurate to less than 5, 1, and 1 percent of full scale, respectively, and transmissibility was excellent. The between session tests on individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) showed high intra-class correlations (>0.9). Conclusions All tests supported that therapeutic loads can be delivered to a lower limb (tibia) in a safe, accurate, and measureable manner. Future collaborations between engineers and cellular physiologists will be important as research programs strive to determine the optimal mechanical environment for developing cells and tissues in humans.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BMC Research Notes
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    • "However, WBV is also the concept that was already applied in many studies to confirm benefits for astronauts, athletes, wellness of healthy population, but also patients with various diseases [4] [5] [6]. Recent clinical works suggest that low amplitude and low frequency of mechanical stimulation of the human body is a safe and effective way to exercise musculoskeletal structures [7] [8]. Vibration increases muscular strength and power through specially designed exercise equipment. "
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    ABSTRACT: The main goal of our pilot study was to use whole body vibration in a group of randomly selected patients with various neurological disorders and to investigate its influence on the quality of patients’ locomotion. Short-time effect was analyzed comparing individual changes in gait kinematics. 17 subjects participated in the study including children and elderly patients. The gait parameters were measured before and after 10 minutes whole body vibration exposure. Amplitude of applied vertical vibrations was 2mm with frequency of 30Hz and the training was realized in standing position. Anatomical joint angles and spatiotemporal parameters obtained before and after training were analyzed and the changes indicated positive effects of whole body vibration. Considering right and left side the gait parameters were more symmetric and depending on the severity of patient’s disease these changes were more or less significant. The improvements in gait kinematics after whole body vibration convinced us that this technique can be carefully used in patients’ therapy and it may be used together with individually planed rehabilitation processes to bring more satisfying results.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jan 2013
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    • "In the United States, approximately 1.5 million fractures are attributed to osteoporosis annually, and the expenditure for osteoporotic fractures is calculated to be 13.8 billion dollars [1]. Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disorder that is characterized by reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and disrupted bone microarchitecture, which can cause bone fragility and increase the risk of bone fracture [2]. The risk factors for osteoporosis include aging, nutrition (vitamin D deficiency and excess alcohol), medication (steroid use), and life style factors (physical activities that decrease bone-loading) [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) has been found to induce various biological effects and cellular processes. Also, LPLI has been shown to promote fracture repair. Until now, it has been unclear how LPLI promotes bone formation and fracture healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential mechanism of LPLI-mediated enhancement of bone formation using mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (D1 cells). D1 cells were irradiated daily with a gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) laser at dose of 0, 1, 2, or 4 J/cm(2). The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay showed no cytotoxic effects of LPLI on D1 cells, and instead, LPLI at 4 J/cm(2) significantly promoted D1 cell proliferation. LPLI also enhanced osteogenic differentiation in a dose-dependent manner and moderately increased expression of osteogenic markers. The neutralization experiments indicated that LPLI regulated insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) signaling to promote cell proliferation and/or osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, our study suggests that LPLI may induce IGF1 expression to promote both the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of D1 cells, whereas it may induce BMP2 expression primarily to enhance osteogenic differentiation.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · PLoS ONE
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