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Aloe vera: A short review

Authors:
  • Bhojani Clinic

Abstract

Aloe vera is a natural product that is now a day frequently used in the field of cosmetology. Though there are various indications for its use, controlled trials are needed to determine its real efficacy. The aloe vera plant, its properties, mechanism of action and clinical uses are briefly reviewed in this article.
7/20/2015 ALOEVERA:ASHORTREVIEW
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2763764/?report=printable 1/7
IndianJDermatol.2008;53(4):163–166.
doi:10.4103/00195154.44785
PMCID:PMC2763764
ALOEVERA:ASHORTREVIEW
AmarSurjushe,ReshamVasani,andDGSaple
FromtheDepartmentofDermatology,VenereologyandLeprosy,GrantMedicalCollegeandSirJJGroupofHospitals,Mumbai400008
Maharashtra,India
Addressforcorrespondence:Dr.AmarSurjushe,DepartmentofDermatology,VenereologyandLeprosy,GrantMedicalCollege,Gokuldas
TejpalHospital,Mumbai400008,Maharashtra,India.Email:dramarsurjushe@rediffmail.com
Received2007Jul;Accepted2008Mar.
Copyright©IndianJournalofDermatology
ThisisanopenaccessarticledistributedunderthetermsoftheCreativeCommonsAttributionLicense,whichpermitsunrestricteduse,
distribution,andreproductioninanymedium,providedtheoriginalworkisproperlycited.
Abstract
Aloeveraisanaturalproductthatisnowadayfrequentlyusedinthefieldofcosmetology.Thoughthereare
variousindicationsforitsuse,controlledtrialsareneededtodetermineitsrealefficacy.Thealoeveraplant,
itsproperties,mechanismofactionandclinicalusesarebrieflyreviewedinthisarticle.
Keywords:Aloevera,healthandbeauty,skin
Introduction
TheAloeveraplanthasbeenknownandusedforcenturiesforitshealth,beauty,medicinalandskincare
properties.ThenameAloeveraderivesfromtheArabicword“Alloeh”meaning“shiningbittersubstance,”
while“vera”inLatinmeans“true.”2000yearsago,theGreekscientistsregardedAloeveraastheuniversal
panacea.TheEgyptianscalledAloe“theplantofimmortality.”Today,theAloeveraplanthasbeenusedfor
variouspurposesindermatology.
History
Aloeverahasbeenusedformedicinalpurposesinseveralculturesformillennia:Greece,Egypt,India,
Mexico,JapanandChina. EgyptianqueensNefertitiandCleopatrauseditaspartoftheirregularbeauty
regimes.AlexandertheGreat,andChristopherColumbususedittotreatsoldiers’wounds.Thefirst
referencetoAloeverainEnglishwasatranslationbyJohnGoodyewinA.D.1655ofDioscorides’Medical
treatiseDeMateriaMedica. Bytheearly1800s,AloeverawasinuseasalaxativeintheUnitedStates,but
inthemid1930s,aturningpointoccurredwhenitwassuccessfullyusedtotreatchronicandsevereradiation
dermatitis.
Plant
ThebotanicalnameofAloeveraisAloebarbadensismiller.ItbelongstoAsphodelaceae(Liliaceae)family,
andisashrubbyorarborescent,perennial,xerophytic,succulent,peagreencolorplant.Itgrowsmainlyin
thedryregionsofAfrica,Asia,EuropeandAmerica.InIndia,itisfoundinRajasthan,AndhraPradesh,
Gujarat,MaharashtraandTamilNadu.
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Anatomy
Theplanthastriangular,fleshyleaveswithserratededges,yellowtubularflowersandfruitsthatcontain
numerousseeds.Eachleafiscomposedofthreelayers:1)Aninnercleargelthatcontains99%waterand
restismadeofglucomannans,aminoacids,lipids,sterolsandvitamins.2)Themiddlelayeroflatexwhichis
thebitteryellowsapandcontainsanthraquinonesandglycosides.3)Theouterthicklayerof15–20cells
calledasrindwhichhasprotectivefunctionandsynthesizescarbohydratesandproteins.Insidetherindare
vascularbundlesresponsiblefortransportationofsubstancessuchaswater(xylem)andstarch(phloem).
Activecomponentswithitsproperties:Aloeveracontains75potentiallyactiveconstituents:vitamins,
enzymes,minerals,sugars,lignin,saponins,salicylicacidsandaminoacids.
1. Vitamins:ItcontainsvitaminsA(betacarotene),CandE,whichareantioxidants.Italsocontains
vitaminB12,folicacid,andcholine.Antioxidantneutralizesfreeradicals.
2. Enzymes:Itcontains8enzymes:aliiase,alkalinephosphatase,amylase,bradykinase,
carboxypeptidase,catalase,cellulase,lipase,andperoxidase.Bradykinasehelpstoreduceexcessive
inflammationwhenappliedtotheskintopically,whileothershelpinthebreakdownofsugarsand
fats.
3. Minerals:Itprovidescalcium,chromium,copper,selenium,magnesium,manganese,potassium,
sodiumandzinc.Theyareessentialfortheproperfunctioningofvariousenzymesystemsin
differentmetabolicpathwaysandfewareantioxidants.
4. Sugars:Itprovidesmonosaccharides(glucoseandfructose)andpolysaccharides:
(glucomannans/polymannose).Thesearederivedfromthemucilagelayeroftheplantandare
knownasmucopolysaccharides.Themostprominentmonosaccharideismannose6phosphate,and
themostcommonpolysaccharidesarecalledglucomannans[beta(1,4)acetylatedmannan].
Acemannan,aprominentglucomannanhasalsobeenfound.Recently,aglycoproteinwith
antiallergicproperties,calledalprogenandnovelantiinflammatorycompound,Cglucosyl
chromone,hasbeenisolatedfromAloeveragel.
5. Anthraquinones:Itprovides12anthraquinones,whicharephenoliccompoundstraditionally
knownaslaxatives.Aloinandemodinactasanalgesics,antibacterialsandantivirals.
6. Fattyacids:Itprovides4plantsteroids;cholesterol,campesterol,βsisosterolandlupeol.Allthese
haveantiinflammatoryactionandlupeolalsopossessesantisepticandanalgesicproperties.
7. Hormones:Auxinsandgibberellinsthathelpinwoundhealingandhaveantiinflammatoryaction.
8. Others:Itprovides20ofthe22humanrequiredaminoacidsand7ofthe8essentialaminoacids.It
alsocontainssalicylicacidthatpossessesantiinflammatoryandantibacterialproperties.Lignin,an
inertsubstance,whenincludedintopicalpreparations,enhancespenetrativeeffectoftheother
ingredientsintotheskin.Saponinsthatarethesoapysubstancesformabout3%ofthegelandhave
cleansingandantisepticproperties.
Mechanismofactions
1. Healingproperties:Glucomannan,amannoserichpolysaccharide,andgibberellin,agrowth
hormone,interactswithgrowthfactorreceptorsonthefibroblast,therebystimulatingitsactivityand
proliferation,whichinturnsignificantlyincreasescollagensynthesisaftertopicalandoralAloe
vera. Aloegelnotonlyincreasedcollagencontentofthewoundbutalsochangedcollagen
composition(moretypeIII)andincreasedthedegreeofcollagencrosslinking.Duetothis,it
acceleratedwoundcontractionandincreasedthebreakingstrengthofresultingscartissue. An
increasedsynthesisofhyaluronicacidanddermatansulfateinthegranulationtissueofahealing
woundfollowingoralortopicaltreatmenthasbeenreported.
2. EffectsonskinexposuretoUVandgammaradiation:Aloeveragelhasbeenreportedtohavea
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protectiveeffectagainstradiationdamagetotheskin. Exactroleisnotknown,butfollowing
theadministrationofaloeveragel,anantioxidantprotein,metallothionein,isgeneratedintheskin,
whichscavengeshydroxylradicalsandpreventssuppressionofsuperoxidedismutaseand
glutathioneperoxidaseintheskin.Itreducestheproductionandreleaseofskinkeratinocytederived
immunosuppressivecytokinessuchasinterleukin10(IL10)andhencepreventsUVinduced
suppressionofdelayedtypehypersensitivity.
3. Antiinflammatoryaction:Aloeverainhibitsthecyclooxygenasepathwayandreduces
prostaglandinE2productionfromarachidonicacid.Recently,thenovelantiinflammatory
compoundcalledCglucosylchromonewasisolatedfromgelextracts.
4. Effectsontheimmunesystem:Alprogeninhibitcalciuminfluxintomastcells,therebyinhibiting
theantigenantibodymediatedreleaseofhistamineandleukotrienefrommastcells. Inastudyon
micethathadpreviouslybeenimplantedwithmurinesarcomacells,acemannanstimulatesthe
synthesisandreleaseofinterleukin1(IL1)andtumornecrosisfactorfrommacrophagesinmice,
whichinturninitiatedanimmuneattackthatresultedinnecrosisandregressionofthecancerous
cells. Severallowmolecularweightcompoundsarealsocapableofinhibitingthereleaseof
reactiveoxygenfreeradicalsfromactivatedhumanneutrophils.
5. Laxativeeffects:Anthraquinonespresentinlatexareapotentlaxative.Itincreasesintestinalwater
content,stimulatesmucussecretionandincreasesintestinalperistalsis.
6. Antiviralandantitumoractivity:Theseactionsmaybeduetoindirectordirecteffects.Indirect
effectisduetostimulationoftheimmunesystemanddirecteffectisduetoanthraquinones.The
anthraquinonealoininactivatesvariousenvelopedvirusessuchasherpessimplex,varicellazoster
andinfluenza. Inrecentstudies,apolysaccharidefractionhasshowntoinhibitthebindingof
benzopyrenetoprimaryrathepatocytes,therebypreventingtheformationofpotentiallycancer
initiatingbenzopyreneDNAadducts.AninductionofglutathioneStransferaseandaninhibitionof
thetumorpromotingeffectsofphorbolmyristicacetatehasalsobeenreportedwhichsuggesta
possiblebenefitofusingaloegelincancerchemoprevention.
7. Moisturizingandantiagingeffect:Mucopolysaccharideshelpinbindingmoistureintotheskin.
Aloestimulatesfibroblastwhichproducesthecollagenandelastinfibersmakingtheskinmore
elasticandlesswrinkled.Italsohascohesiveeffectsonthesuperficialflakingepidermalcellsby
stickingthemtogether,whichsoftenstheskin.Theaminoacidsalsosoftenhardenedskincellsand
zincactsasanastringenttotightenpores.Itsmoisturizingeffectshasalsobeenstudiedintreatment
ofdryskinassociatedwithoccupationalexposurewherealoeveragelglovesimprovedtheskin
integrity,decreasesappearanceoffinewrinkleanddecreaseserythema. Italsohasantiacne
effect.
8. Antisepticeffect:Aloeveracontains6antisepticagents:Lupeol,salicylicacid,ureanitrogen,
cinnamonicacid,phenolsandsulfur.Theyallhaveinhibitoryactiononfungi,bacteriaandviruses.
Clinicaluses:Theclinicaluseofaloeveraissupportedmostlybyanecdotaldata.Thoughmostoftheseuses
areinteresting,controlledtrialsareessentialtodetermineitseffectivenessinallthefollowingdiseases.
A.Usesbasedonscientificevidence:Theseuseshavebeentestedinhumansoranimals.Safetyand
effectivenesshavenotalwaysbeenproven.
Conditions:Seborrheicdermatitis, psoriasisvulgaris, genitalherpes, skinburns, diabetes
(type2), HIVinfection, cancerprevention, ulcerativecolitis woundhealing(resultsofaloeon
woundhealingaremixedwithsomestudiesreportingpositiveresults andothersshowingnobenefit or
potentialworsening ),pressureulcers, mucositis, radiationdermatitis, acnevulgaris, lichen
planus, frostbite, aphthousstomatitis, andconstipation.
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B.Usesbasedontraditionortheory:Thebelowusesarebasedontraditionorscientifictheories.They
oftenhavenotbeenthoroughlytestedinhumans,andsafetyandeffectivenesshavenotalwaysbeenproven.
Conditions:Alopecia,bacterialandfungalskininfections,chroniclegwounds,parasiticinfections,systemic
lupuserythematosus,arthritisandticdouloureux.
Sideeffects
Topical:Itmaycauseredness,burning,stingingsensationandrarelygeneralizeddermatitisinsensitive
individuals.Allergicreactionsaremostlyduetoanthraquinones,suchasaloinandbarbaloin.Itisbestto
applyittoasmallareafirsttotestforpossibleallergicreaction.
Oral:Abdominalcramps,diarrhea,redurine,hepatitis,dependencyorworseningofconstipation.Prolonged
usehasbeenreportedtoincreasetheriskofcolorectalcancer.Laxativeeffectmaycauseelectrolyte
imbalances(lowpotassiumlevels).
Contraindication:ContraindicatedincasesofknownallergytoplantsintheLiliaceaefamily.
Pregnancyandbreastfeeding:Oralaloeisnotrecommendedduringpregnancyduetotheoretical
stimulationofuterinecontractions,andinbreastfeedingmothers,itmaysometimecausesgastrointestinal
distressinthenursinginfant.
Interactions:Applicationofaloetoskinmayincreasetheabsorptionofsteroidcreamssuchas
hydrocortisone.Itreducestheeffectivenessandmayincreasestheadverseeffectsofdigoxinanddigitoxin,
duetoitspotassiumloweringeffect.CombineduseofAloeveraandfurosemidemayincreasetheriskof
potassiumdepletion.Itdecreasesthebloodsugarlevelsandthusmayinteractwithoralhypoglycemicdrugs
andinsulin.
Thus,thoughAloeverahaswidespectrumofthepropertiesanduses,someofthemcouldbemythsand
someofthemcouldberealmagic.Infuture,controlledstudiesarerequiredtoprovetheeffectivenessof
Aloeveraundervariousconditions.
Footnotes
SourceofSupport:Nil
ConflictofInterest:Nil.
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ArticlesfromIndianJournalofDermatologyareprovidedherecourtesyofMedknowPublications
... In addition, Aloe vera stimulates macrophages to release interleukin-6, nitric oxide, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha ( Figure 2a) [45,46]. The best phytotherapeutic properties observed in Aloe vera are attributable to the presence of compounds such as acemannan, proteins, glycoproteins, aloin, aloe-emodin, anthraquinones, alloins, barbaloin, isobarbaloin, polysaccharides, vitamins A, B, C, and E, amino acids, enzymes, carbohydrates and elements such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, and zinc ( Figure 1) [38,41]. Table 2 presents some components of Aloe vera that are of major scientific interest and their characteristics. ...
... Additionally, the IC50 of Aloe vera extract in the early stages of postfixation viral replication was 536 µg/mL, and the SI value for inhibition of the postfixation stages of HSV-2 replication was 6.04. Therefore, natural Aloe vera compounds represent good candidates for the development of antiviral herbal drugs [41,55,56]. ...
... Another issue to be considered is that herbal medicines based on Aloe vera are volatile and degrade easily. In this context, Aloe vera in natura has higher biological activity than the same compounds refrigerated and/or stored for a long period [41,141,142]. Thus, new studies aiming to understand how these compounds behave and why changes occur in their biological or biochemical activity over time are fundamental for antineoplastic applications. ...
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Melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer that affects approximately 140,000 people worldwide each year, with a high fatality rate. Available treatment modalities show limited efficacy in more severe cases. Hence, the search for new treatment modalities, including immunotherapies, for curing, mitigating, and/or preventing cancer is important and urgently needed. Carbon nanoparticles associated with some plant materials, such as Aloe vera, have shown appealing antineoplastic activity, derived mainly from the compounds aloin, aloe-emodin, barbaloin acemannan, and octapeptide, thus representing new possibilities as antitumor agents. This systematic review aims to arouse interest and present the possibilities of using Aloe vera combined with carbon-based nanomaterials as an antineoplastic agent in the treatment and prevention of melanoma. Limitations and advances in melanoma treatment using functionalized carbon nanomaterials are discussed here. Moreover, this review provides the basis for further studies designed to fully explore the potential of carbon nanomaterials associated with Aloe vera in the treatment of various cancers, with a focus on melanoma.
... Laxatives include chemicals that help in relieving temporary constipation. These chemicals can be naturally occurring or man-made (Surjushe et al., 2008). Anthraquinones present in latex are a potent laxative. ...
... Aloe is not an exemption. Scientific studies suggest that A. vera gel is safe for external use, but it may also cause redness, burning, stinging sensation, and rarely generalized dermatitis in sensitive individuals (Surjushe et al., 2008;BAVP, 2009). Some allergic reactions are also reported which are mostly due to anthraquinones, such as aloin and barbaloin. ...
... The results support potential use of aloesin which is contradictory to the presumed toxicity profile of Aloe anthraquinones, as a functional food ingredient. Excessive oral intake causes abdominal cramps, diarrhea, red urine, hepatitis, dependency, or worsening of constipation (Surjushe et al., 2008;Rodriguez et al., 2010;Yang et al., 2010). Laxative effect may cause electrolyte imbalances (low potassium levels). ...
Book
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This book is an effort to throw light on the importance of biologically active molecules which are isolated from different plants, their biological activity, extraction from natural sources and their in vivo production to preserve the biodiversity of medicinal plants.
... As reported, aloe vera is found to contain over 70 potentially active constituents, e.g., vitamins, enzymes, salicylic acids, and amino acids (Surjushe et al., 2008). In 1995, the RTOG institutes showed that aloe vera could be applied as one of the prophylactic treatments for RID (Haddad et al., 2013). ...
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Background: Aloe vera were frequently reported to reduce the risk of radiation-induced dermatitis (RID), but the quantitative results from all the relevant studies were not presently available. This study sought to conduct a cumulative analysis to better clarify the preventive effects of aloe vera in RID. Methods: MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wan Fang Database were utilized for identifying the eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) without language restrictions, up to March 2022. The pooled incidence of RID was conducted by the Relative risk (RR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) through the STATA software under a random-effects model. This systematic review and cumulative analysis were registered on PROSPERO (ID: CRD42022335188). Results: Fourteen RCTs met our predefined inclusion criteria, enrolling 1,572 participants (mean age: 46.5–56 years). The cumulative results revealed that patients pretreated with aloe vera were associated with a significantly lower risk of RID compared to those without aloe vera usage (RR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.67–0.88, p < 0.001; heterogeneity: I 2 = 79.8%, p < 0.001). In the subgroup analysis, the pooled incidence of Grade 2–4, Grade 2, and Grade 3 RID was also dramatically lower in the group of aloe vera as compared to the placebo group [RR = 0.44 (0.27, 0.74), 0.58 (0.36, 0.94), and 0.27 (0.12, 0.59) in Grade 2–4, Grade 2, and Grade 3, respectively]. However, in regard to Grade 4 RID, the combined RR indicated that the incidence of RID was comparable between aloe vera and the control group (RR = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.02–1.01, p = 0.051; heterogeneity: I 2 = 0.0%, p = 0.741). The sensitivity analyses showed that there was no substantial change in the new pooled RR after eliminating anyone of the included study. Conclusion: The current cumulative analysis revealed that patients pretreated with aloe vera were less likely to suffer from RID than the controls without using aloe vera. Based on this finding, the prophylactic application of aloe vera might significantly reduce the incidence of RID, especially in Grade 2 and Grade 3 RID. Further large-sample multicenter RCTs are still warranted to confirm these findings and for better clinical application.
... 17 Particularly, for centuries aloe vera (AV) is widely used for its health benefits, medicinal effects and skin care properties. 18 AV seems to be a promising treatment for burn wounds in various countries 19,20 and in chronic wound care treatments like diabetic food ulcer. 21,22 It possess antiinflammatory, 23 angiogenic, antibacterial, and antiseptic properties, and have ability to stimulate wound healing process. ...
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Burns are potentially fatal and physically debilitating injuries, causing psychological and physical scars and result in chronic disabilities. A well vascularized wound bed is required to achieve complete and scar free wound closure. For many centuries, a variety of herbal plants have been used for wound healing, among these aloe vera (AV) has been found to be very effective in wound healing. Secondly, the main reason for delayed wound healing is bacterial infections. Ofloxacin (OX) has been reported as an active antibacterial drug for topical infections and it is effective against both positive and negative bacterial strains. In current research three different concentrations of OX (0.5, 2.5, and 5 mg) were loaded into chitosan (CS)/AV based hydrogels prepared by freeze gelation. The surface morphology of prepared CS/AV based OX loaded hydrogels were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In drug release analysis, 0.5 mg OX loaded hydrogel showed a sustained drug release behavior over 3 days period. An effective dose dependent antibacterial activity was exhibited by OX loaded hydrogels. Alamar Blue cells viability assay revealed that 0.5 mg OX hydrogel (CA 0.5 OX) showed comparatively better 3 T3 fibroblast cells proliferation as compared to CA 2.5 OX (2.5 mg OX) and CA 5 OX hydrogel (5 mg OX). Moreover, all OX loaded hydrogels showed good angiogenic activity in CAM bioassay while higher angiogenic potential was observed from CA 0.5 OX containing comparatively lower concentration of OX. These OX incorporated CS/AV based hydrogels are promising wound dressings for future clinical use. Aloe vera and ofloxacin incorporated chitosan hydrogels and their biological evaluations.
... It includes 75 active substances (saponins, enzymes, salicylic acids, vitamins, sugars, minerals, lignin, and amino acids, etc.) with a variety of medicinal effects, including antioxidant, antibacterial, moisturizing and anti-ageing, antiviral and anticancer, laxative, and anti-inflammatory. It protects against UV and gamma radiation and also plays a critical role in immune system regulation [197]. Aloe vera is capable of combating COVID-19's main protease. ...
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SARS-CoV-2 was first discovered in Wuhan in late 2019 and has since spread over the world, resulting in the present epidemic. Because targeted therapeutics are unavailable, scientists have the opportunity to discover new drugs or vaccines to counter COVID-19, and a number of synthetic bioactive compounds are now being tested in clinical studies. Due to its broad therapeutic spectrum and low adverse effects, medicinal herbs have been used as traditional healing medication in that countries for ages. Due to a lack of synthetic bioactive antiviral medications, pharmaceutical and alternative therapies have been developed using a variety of herbal compositions. Due of the widespread availability of herbal and dietary products worldwide, people frequently use them. Notably, the majority of the Bangladeshi people continue to use a variety of natural plants and herbs to treat various types of disease. This review discusses about how previous research has shown that some herbs in Bangladesh have immunomodulatory and antiviral effects, and how their active ingredients have been gathered. Even though FDA-approved medications and vaccines are available for the treatment of Covid-19, the purpose is to encourage the use of herbal medicine as immuno-modulators and vaccine adjuvants for the treatments of COVID-19 prevention.
... It is found that it has noticeable pharmacological activities such as antioxidant [25][26][27], antibacterial [28,29], anti-aging and anti-inflammatory [30,31]. Since long time it is used as an herbal drug containing more than 75 bioactive components [32]. A. vera holds health supporting effect and is a major source of several phytochemicals like amino acids, salicylic acids, minerals, polysaccharides, anthraquinones, saponins, vitamins and may more [33,34]. ...
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Recently, an interest has surged in utilizing indigenous medicinal plants to treat infectious illnesses and extract bioactive substances, highlighting the need to analyze medicinal plants for phytochemicals and bioactivities. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of different solvent systems (aqueous, ethanol, and methanol) used for extraction on total phenolics, total flavonoids, antioxidant, and antibacterial activity of three medicinal plants of Azad Kashmir ( Achillea millefolium , Bergenia ciliata, and Aloe vera ). High phenolic content was found in methanol extracts of B. ciliata (27.48 ± 0.58 mg GAE/g dry weight), A. vera (25.61 ± 0.33 mg GAE/g dry weight), and A. millefolium (24.25 ± 0.67 mg GAE/g dry weight). High flavonoid content was obtained in the ethanol extract of A. millefolium (27.13 ± 0.64 mg QE/g dry weight), methanol extract of B. ciliata (17.44 ± 0.44 ± 0.44 mg QE/g dry weight), and the methanol extract of A. vera (14.68 ± 0.67 mg QE/g dry weight). Strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (DPPH) was obtained with a methanol extract of B. ciliata (IC 50 = 60.27 ± 0.20 µg/mL). With a zone of inhibition and a minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 10.00 ± 0.66 to 24.67 ± 1.21 mm and 78 to 625 µg/mL, respectively, all of the studied plants demonstrated notable antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli . A. vera showed greater antibacterial activity as compared to other plants under study while methanolic extract showed greater antibacterial activity than ethanolic and aqueous extract. The findings of this research support the use of these medicinal plants to treat a variety of diseases.
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The generation of E‐waste is escalating both in developed and developing countries. The impact on the environment and human health is huge due to the toxic chemical components. E‐waste management needs more sophisticated technologies, where it could be carried out only by developed countries and due to the various associated challenges, developing countries could not. The usage of biodegradable material could act as a better replacement to address this issue. The possibilities of using the biodegradable material in the field of electronic industry and the advantages, challenges, limitations associated with it are discussed in this chapter.
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of Aloe vera extract on follicular growth, viability, ultrastructure, and mRNA levels for superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) in bovine secondary follicles cultured in vitro. To this end, secondary follicles were mechanically isolated from the ovarian cortex and cultured at 38.5°C, with 5% CO2 in air, for 18 days in TCM-199⁺ alone or supplemented with 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0% Aloe vera extract. Follicular growth, morphology and antrum formation were evaluated every 6 days, while ultrastructure was evaluated at the end of culture. Analysis of viability was performed by calcein-AM and ethidium homodimer-1, while mRNA levels for SOD, CAT, GPX1 and PRDX6 were evaluated by real-time PCR at the end of culture. The results show that follicles cultured with 2.5% Aloe vera had increased the rate of antrum formation, while 2.5 and 5.0% Aloe vera improved follicular viability rate. Follicles cultured with 2.5% and 10.0% Aloe vera increased the levels of mRNA for SOD and GPX1 respectively, but the levels of CAT were reduced in follicles cultured with 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0%. Additionally, follicles cultured with 2.5% of Aloe vera had their ultrastructure well preserved, while those cultured with 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0% exhibited increased oocyte vacuolization and damaged organelles. In conclusion, 2.5% Aloe vera increases antrum formation, viability and expression of mRNA for SOD in cultured secondary, but higher concentrations of Aloe vera have negative effects follicular ultrastructure.
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Soaps are used widely by humans in many aspects. Exclusively, the emergence of the SARS-Cov-2 virus made people wash their hands frequently to disinfect the virus to prevent virus infection. Soaps made of herbals possess constituents that goodness the skin as well to rejuvenate the mind and body factors. Dried leaves of Basil, Neem and Acalypha Indica, Aloe vera, and Hibiscus flower are used here to prepare homemade soap. The steam distillation process is an imperative process by which the oils are used from raw materials like dried leaves for the preparation of soaps. Extracts obtained from the herbal plants are used as additives in the preparation of soap that would be added besides the lye and other constituents. Lye preferred here is Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) and the cast shapes utilized here in determining the soap shape are Elliptic and Rectangle. pH value, the total fatty matter is determined using respective methodologies, and the materials used in the preparation of soap are estimated using the accessible software called SoapCalc Recipe Calculator. Soaps made using the mentioned ingredients are safe and robust for cleaning the skin and hands.
Chapter
This chapter presents a synopsis of African medicinal plants and their derived products with antimycobacterial properties. Several secondary plant metabolites are reported to have anti-tuberculosis activity comparable to existing anti-tuberculosis drugs. Using the data obtained from 77 active plant extracts and 75 active derived molecules towards Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, the rationale cut-off points for the classification of antimycobacterial agents from natural sources were established. (i) For botanicals: outstanding activity when MIC ≤ 6 µg/mL; excellent activity when 6 < MIC ≤ 16 µg/mL; very good activity when 16 < MIC ≤ 25 µg/mL; good activity when 25 < MIC ≤ 39 µg/mL, average activity when 39 < MIC ≤ 156 µg/mL, weak activity when 156 < MIC ≤ 2048 µg/mL, and not active MIC> 2048 µg/mL. (ii) For phytochemicals: outstanding activity when MIC ≤ 2.5 µg/mL, excellent activity when 2.5 < MIC ≤ 5R01;µg/mL, very good activity when 5<MIC≤8 µg/mL, good activity when 8<MIC≤10 µg/mL, average activity when 10<MIC≤20 µg/mL, weak activity when 20<MIC≤512 µg/mL, and not active when MIC>512 µg/mL. Importantly, we have identified Artemisia abyssinica Schultz Bip. (Lamiaceae), Diospyros canaliculata De Wildeman (Ebenaceae), Diospyros crassiflora Hien (Ebenaceae), Croton macrostachyus Hochst. ex Del. (Lamiaceae), and Echinops giganteus A. Rich (Asteraceae) as the most active plants, and isobachalcone (1), diospyrone (2), laburnetin (3), 3,4′-di-O-methylellagic acid 3′-O-β-D- xylopyranoside (4), O¹-demethyl-3′,4′-deoxy-psorospermi-3′,4′ diol (5), plumbagin (6), crassiflorone (7), and bafoudiosbulbins C (8), as the most promising antimycobacterial phytochemicals.
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BACKGROUND Genital herpes simplex virus infection is unique to humans, and is one of the commonest sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this double-blind placebo-controlled study was to determine the clinical efficacy and tolerability of Aloe vera extract 0.5% in a hydrophilic cream to cure patients afflicted with the first episodes of genital herpes. METHODS Preselected patients (n=60), aged 18–40 years (mean 23.6), with culture-confirmed diagnosis of herpes simplex genitalis, harboring 738 lesions (mean 12.3), were randomized to active or placebo treatment. Patients entered the study within 7 days (mean 4.1) of the onset of the lesions. Each patient was provided with a precoded 40-g tube, containing placebo/active preparation with instructions on self-application of the trial medication to their lesions three times daily for 5 consecutive days (maximum 15 topical applications per week). To assess the clinical efficacy and other beneficial effects patients were examined twice weekly and reepithelialized lesions with some residual erythema were considered as healed. Patients whose lesions resolved during the active treatment period (1 or 2 weeks) were spared further medication, and were requested to report to the clinic as scheduled for review and recurrence control. Empty tubes were collected from the remaining patients, and similarly coded replacement tubes were given to continue the treatment (in total 102 tubes were used). RESULTS The group treated with Aloe vera extract cream had both significantly shorter mean time to healing than the placebo group (4.9 days vs 12 days; P CONCLUSION The clinical results suggest that Aloe vera extract (0.5%) in a hydrophilic cream is more efficacious than placebo, thus supporting the benefits of Aloe vera therapy as an alternative, reliable and effective treatment to cure the first episodes of genital herpes in men.
Article
Various Aloe vera extracts are widely used in a variety of over-the-counter skin products, but only a few studies have been conducted to provide support for the use of Aloe vera (A. barbadensis), one of the most commonly used species of Aloe vera, in the treatment of inflammatory skin conditions. Seborrheic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disorder for which available topical treatment may be helpful but not curative. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an emulsion formulated from a crude extract of Aloe vera (A. barbadensis) on seborrheic dermatitis. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled prospective clinical trial was performed in 44 adult patients with seborrheic dermatitis. A comparison of symptom scores in the Aloe vera (A. barbadensis) and placebo groups, before and after treatment revealed a significant decrease in scaliness, pruritus and the number of sites involved in seborrheic dermatitis, but not in erythema. Global improvement rates in patients treated with Aloe vera (A. barbadensis) were significantly higher than in placebo-treated patients, as assessed by both dermatologists (58% and 15%, respectively; P=0.009) and patients (62% and 25%, respectively; P=0.03). The results of the present study indicate that Aloe vera (A. barbadensis) crude extract emulsion is effective in the therapy of patients with seborrheic dermatitis.
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The influence of Aloe vera (L.) Burman f. on the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) components of the matrix in a healing wound was studied. Wound healing is a dynamic and complex sequence of events of which the major one is the synthesis of extracellular matrix components. The early stage of wound healing is characterized by the laying down of a provisional matrix, which is then followed by the formation of granulation tissue and synthesis of collagen and elastin. The provisional matrix or the ground substance consists of GAGs and proteoglycans (PGs), which are protein GAG conjugates. In the present work, we have studied the influence of Aloe vera on the content of GAG and its types in the granulation tissue of healing wounds. We have also reported the levels of a few enzymes involved in matrix metabolism. The amount of ground substance synthesized was found to be higher in the treated wounds, and in particular, hyaluronic acid and dermatan sulphate levels were increased. The levels of the reported glycohydrolases were elevated on treatment with Aloe vera, indicating increased turnover of the matrix. Both topical and oral treatments with Aloe vera were found to have a positive influence on the synthesis of GAGs and thereby beneficially modulate wound healing.