Studies on fowl paralysis (neurolymphomatosis gallinarum). I. Clinical features and pathology. J Exp Med

Storrs Agricultural Experiment Station, Storrs, and the Department of Pathology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York.
Journal of Experimental Medicine (Impact Factor: 12.52). 01/1929; 49(1):63-86. DOI: 10.1084/jem.49.1.63
Source: PubMed


1. Fowl paralysis (neurolymphomatosis gallinarum) is a disease entity, with characteristic clinical and pathological features. 2. The disease occurs in all parts of the United States, Holland, Austria and probably South America. 3. The disease appears to be endemic in certain foci. Having once appeared, the disease tends to persist through successive years. 4. It occurs with about equal frequency in both sexes; all common breeds may be affected. 5. Symptoms appear between the 3rd and 18th months. Typical clinical cases have not been observed outside of these limits. 6. The conspicuous symptoms are (a) asymmetrical, partial and progressive paralysis of the wings and both legs, and rarely of neck muscles; (b) occasional grey discoloration of iris, with blindness. Nutrition is usually preserved. 7. The duration is variable; the outcome is usually fatal, but spontaneous recovery may rarely occur. 8. The principal pathological changes are found in the nervous system. In the peripheral nerves, the essential feature is an intense infiltration of lymphoid, plasma cells, and large mononuclears. This is accompanied by a myelin degeneration in the more advanced lesions, but the cellular infiltrations appear to precede the degenerative changes. In brain, cord and meninges, there are similar infiltrations predominantly perivascular. Infiltrations of the iris with lymphoid and plasma cells are found in the cases showing gross discoloration of the iris. Visceral lymphomata, originating usually in the ovary, are associated in a certain percentage of the cases. Evidence is presented in favor of the view that this association is not accidental, and that the lymphomata are a manifestation of the disease. 9. Infiltrations of the spinal cord and brain, rarely of the peripheral nerves, are frequently present in birds showing no clinical symptoms. These are interpreted as mild cases of the same disease. 10. No microorganisms of etiological significance have been demonstrated in the tissues or by cultural methods.

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    • "Lymphoma incidences were reduced by ∼60% in the case of the double deletion viruses, but the number of birds with MD symptoms was only reduced by ∼40% compared with groups infected with viruses that still expressed one intact copy of vTR. MD in chickens can develop without formation of lymphoma, which was in fact associated with the disease syndrome only >20 yr after the first description of the disease (40, 41). Impaired lymphoma formation in animals infected with vTR− viruses in the presence of unabated lytic and latent infection strongly suggests a direct role for vTR in MDV-induced lymphomagenesis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex consisting of two essential core components: a reverse transcriptase and an RNA subunit (telomerase RNA [TR]). Dysregulation of telomerase has been associated with cell immortalization and oncogenesis. Marek's disease herpesvirus (MDV) induces a malignant T cell lymphoma in chickens and harbors in its genome two identical copies of a viral TR (vTR) with 88% sequence identity to chicken TR. MDV mutants lacking both copies of vTR were significantly impaired in their ability to induce T cell lymphomas, although lytic replication in vivo was unaffected. Tumor incidences were reduced by >60% in chickens infected with vTR- viruses compared with animals inoculated with MDV harboring at least one intact copy of vTR. Lymphomas in animals infected with the vTR- viruses were also significantly smaller in size and less disseminated. Constitutive expression of vTR in the chicken fibroblast cell line DF-1 resulted in a phenotype consistent with transformation as indicated by morphological alteration, enhanced anchorage-independent cell growth, cell growth beyond saturation density, and increased expression levels of integrin alpha v. We concluded that vTR plays a critical role in MDV-induced T cell lymphomagenesis. Furthermore, our results provide the first description of tumor-promoting effects of TR in a natural virus-host infection model.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2006 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
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