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Some differential counts of the cells in the lymph of the dog; their bearing on the problems of hematology

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... 4), more especially where granules are to be seen in the nuclear 'Hof', but these cells are few and far between. It is generally agreed that very few if any monocytes are normally present in thoracic duct lymph (Rous, 1908; Simpson 1922; Kindwall, 1927; Bloom, 1928). The large lymphocytes possess a varied morphology. ...
... An increased lymph flow may, by mechanically flushing out the lymph nodes, result in a temporary increase in the number of lymphocytes in the efferent lymph (cf. Ehrlich & Lazarus, 1905; Rous, 1908). If only mechanical factors were at work, the initial increase in lymphocyte output would be followed later by a decrease, but in a short-term experiment only the increase would be noted. ...
Chapter
Die Behauptung Rickers (1924), daß man die Entzündung nicht definieren kann, ist sicher ebenso unhaltbar wie seine Angabe, daß jede teleologische Deutung als unwissenschaftlich abgelehnt werden muß. Wenn es bisher nicht gelungen ist, die Entzündung allgemein befriedigend zu definieren, wenn auch bei der letzten großen Aussprache über diesen Vorgang auf der 19. Tagung der Deutschen Pathologischen Gesellschaft im Jahre 1923 „fast jeder einzelne eine Neigung gezeigt hat, den Ausdruck ,entzündlich in seinem eigenen Sinne zu gebrauchen“, so besagt das doch nur, daß das Wissen um die Entzündung zu jener Zeit noch zu unvollständig war, um eine befriedigende Begriffsbestimmung zuzulassen. Wie wohl bekannt ist, war Ricker, ähnlich wie Bier (1933), mit den durch Metschnikoff (1880–1913) entdeckten cellulären Abbauvorgängen wenig vertraut. Auch wußte er noch nichts von den Anpassungsvorgängen, welche die durch Antigene verursachten Entzündungen begleiten. Wären ihm diese Kardinalvorgänge der Entzündung bekannt gewesen, hätte es ihm kaum entgehen können, daß dieser Vorgang einen defensiven Charakter hat.
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Typhoid vaccine and sheep erythrocytes were injected subcutaneously into the feet of rabbits, and the subsequent formation of agglutinins and hemolysins in the popliteal lymph node was compared with the output of lymphocytes through the efferent lymph and with changes in the lymph node. Antibodies began to appear in the efferent lymph 2 to 4 days after the injection of the antigen and reached their highest titer after 6 days. This was preceded by a sharp rise in the output of lymphocytes through the efferent lymph, while in the lymph node there was lymphatic hyperplasia after preliminary infiltration of granulocytes and monocytes. This hyperplasia was first of a diffuse type, but was later superseded by large so called germinal centers, the latter lagging somewhat behind the rise in antibody titer. The fact that the tissue response accompanying the formation of antibodies was chiefly a lymphocytic one points to the lymphocyte as a factor in the formation of antibodies.
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The possible causes for the disappearance of eosinophils from the peripheral blood following the administration of certain adrenal steroid hormones are reviewed.
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Changes in physiological reproductive states of female Long-Evans hooded rats were directly correlated with changes in the concentration of acidophilic and basophilic connective tissue granulated cells in the lamina propria of the duodenum. Acidophilic granulated cell numbers were significantly higher at estrus and metestrus than at other stages of the estrous cycle or in the immature state. apcidophilic granulated cell numbers during pregnancy were not significantly different from cell numbers quantified during metestrus, diestrus, or proestrus, but were significantly lower than cell numbers during estrus. Late lactation (21-25 days) was associated with significant decreases in the numbers of acidophilic granulated cells from numbers observed during the estrous cycle and during pregnancy. Basophilic granulated cell numbers did not differ significantly during the estrous cycle, although the highest numbers were observed during proestrus. Basophilic granulated cell numbers were significantly higher during pregnancy than during the estrous cycle. Basophilic granulated cell counts in late lactation were comparable to numbers quantified in estrus, metestrus, and diestrus, but were significantly lower than during proestrus and pregnancy.
Article
Although the count of circulating lymphocytes in the blood stream remains constant, more lymphocytes enter the blood from the thoracic duct during 24 hours than are present in the blood at any one time. This excess of lymphocytes is not destroyed in the blood stream. The cells migrate from the blood vessels into the mucous membranes and through them to their surface. This occurs chiefly in the gastrointestinal tract, and it is apparently in the mucosa and especially within the intestinal lumen that the function of the lymphocyte is normally performed.
Article
Unsere Vorstellungen von der Entzündung sind von jeher ein Abbild unserer biologischen Kenntnisse gewesen. Während im Altertum und Mittelalter das der äußeren Betrachtung zugängliche Syndrom der mit Erwärmung und Schmerzhaftigkeit verbundenen Rötung und Schwellung (rubor et tumor cum calore et dolore)3 für das Wesen der Entzündung gehalten wurde und man in der Neuzeit ihren Kernpunkt zunächst noch in der den Kardinalsymptomen zugrunde liegenden örtlichen Kreislaufstörung suchte, ist es in den letzten hundert Jahren mit der Zunahme unseres Wissens immer deutlicher geworden, daß es bei der Entzündung überhaupt kein „Hauptcharakteristikum“4 gibt. Vielmehr handelt es sich um eine Kette bestimmt charakterisierter Vorgänge, deren einzelne Glieder durch verschieden starkes Hervortreten der Entzündung ihr jeweiliges Gepräge geben. Im Anfang dieser Kette steht eine durch eine Entzündungsursache bedingte Störung des physiologischen Gleichgewichts, am Ende eine Wiederherstellung dieses Gleichgewichts. Dazwischen liegen Reaktionen des Bindegewebsapparates, der darin enthaltenen Gefäße und Nerven und des in den Gefäßen befindlichen Blutes. Auch ist es immer deutlicher geworden, daß dieser Ausgleichsvorgang in vielen Fällen mit der Bildung von Antikörpern einhergeht, die Entzündung also ähnlich wie die als Stressreaktion5 bekannte Gleichgewichtsstörung häufig mit Anpassung verbunden ist. Auch hat sich gezeigt, daß hierbei neben örtlichen Vorgängen auf dem Entzündungsfelde Reaktionen der regionären Lymphknoten und selbst entfernter Strukturen eine erhebliche Rolle spielen. Eine moderne Lehre von der Entzündung darf sich daher nicht auf die örtliche, durch die Entzündungsursache bedingte Störung und ihre Ausgleichung beschränken, sondern muß auch die damit verbundenen Anpassungsvorgänge und die entfernten Reaktionen mit in Betracht ziehen.
Article
1.1. A total of eighteen rabbits were given injections of erude beef liver extract by intramuscular, intraperitoneal, and intravenous routes in an attempt to induce an eosinophil cell response in peripheral blood, bone marrow, and splenic parenchyma.2.2. Six of the animals received only crude beef liver extract for a six-week period. These developed a maximum rise in circulating blood eosinophils by the third week.3.3. Six of the rabbits also received beef liver extract for a six-week period, but when a significant rise of circulating eosinophils had been reached by the third to fourth week, nitrogen mustard was administered intravenously and simultaneously with the liver extract during the remainder of the experimental period. The previously noted eosinophilia was then reversed to eosinopenic levels and was associated with leukopenia and lymphocytopenia.4.4. Six of the animals received nitrogen mustard for two weeks prior to the injection of beef liver extract. This resulted in the development of peripheral blood cosinopenia and leukopenia. When cosinopenia had been established, the simultaneous administration of beef liver extract with nitrogen mustard failed to raise significantly the level of circulating eosinophils.5.5. Crude beef liver extract adsorbed on aluminum hydroxide gel was injected intradermally into each animal at the start of the experiment, at the height of circulating cosinophilia, prior to the initial administration of nitrogen mustard, and at the conclusion of the course of parenteral beef liver extract injections. All locally injected skin sites were biopsied forty-eight hours following intradermal injections.6.6. Infiltrations with eosinophilic granular cells were noted in the epidermis and corium of all animals, regardless of whether peripheral blood eosinophilia was present, had been reversed, or had been prevented from developing by the administration of nitrogen mustard.7.7. Eosinophilic cellular infiltration into the splenic parenchyma was demonstrated microscopically in all rabbits to whom only beef liver extract was administered. In those who had also received nitrogen mustard, an absence of eosinophilic infiltration and the presence of atrophy of the lymphoid follicles were observed.8.8. All animals treated with only beef liver extract exhibited marked hyperplastic granular eosinophilic bone marrows. Those who had been treated with nitrogen mustard prior to or simultaneously with liver extract exhibited agranular bone marrows with absence of eosinophilic precursor cells.9.9. Precipitating antibodies to beef liver extract could not be demonstrated in the sera of all animals treated with this material. The development of cutaneous eosinophilic cellular infiltration could not be correlated with associated antibody response or antigen-antibody reaction.10.10. Within the limitations of this experimental procedure, these results suggest that in the rabbit the development of a tissue eosinophilic cellular response may not be related to the presence of circulating peripheral blood eosinophils and local tissue eosinophils of the skin may have a source of origin independent of peripheral blood eosinophils. However, the exact origin or mode of their formation is not apparent.
Article
Ausgehend von der Frage nach den Entwicklungspotenzen der verschiedenen Blutleukocyten zchteten wir vergleichsweise Blutleukocyten und Lymphleukocyten des Ductus thoracicus unter gleichen Bedingungen in vitro.Die beiden Filme aus Blut und aus Lymphe enthalten mit Ausnahme der Granulocyten die gleichen Zellen, aber in verschiedenen Anteilen: Der Blutleukocytenfilm setzt sich zusammen aus 66% Granulocyten, 22% kleinen und mittleren Lymphocyten und 12% groen mononucleren Formen; der Lymphleukocytenfilm enthlt 96% kleine und mittlere Lymphocyten und 4% groe mononuclere Zellen.In den Kulturen des Blutleukocytenfilmes bildete sich nach 5 bis 7 Tagen in sehr vielen Fllen ein proliferierendes fibrocytres Gewebe; in den Kulturen von Lymphe hingegen kam es nur ganz ausnahmsweise zur Bildung eines solchen Gewebes, die meisten Zellen gingen in den Lymphkulturen nach 5–7 Tagen zugrunde, einige wenige Zellen, etwa der Zahl der groen Mononucleren entsprechend, wandelte sich zu Makrophagen und Riesenzellen um.Auf Grund der vergleichenden Zchtung von Blut- und Lymphzellen ist anzunehmen, da die kleinen und mittleren Lymphocyten nicht verantwortlich sind fr die Bildung des fibrocytren Gewebes; sonst mte sich dieser Proze in den zum grten Teil aus diesen Zellen bestehenden Lymphkulturen ganz besonders eindrcklich demonstrieren. Die groen mononucleren Zellen, Monocyten und groe Lymphocyten scheinen den Ausgangspunkt fr die beobachtete Umwandlung in Fibrocyten darzustellen.
Article
The cells of human thoracic duct fluid were concentrated and studied with the help of the electron microscope. Though most of the cells were considered to by typical lymphocytes, there proved to be a marked heterogeneity within this cell population. Some cells were completely devoid of rough endoplasmic reticulum whereas in others this organelle was well developed. This finding is discussed in the light of recent evidence that thoracic duct lymphocytes may play an important role in the immune response. The high incidence of multivesicular bodies and the occurrence of fibrillar structures in these cells is also pointed out. In addition it was observed that many thoracic duct eosinophiles have a paucity of specific granules and a somewhat degenerated appearance. The absence of neutrophiles, basophiles, and thrombocytes in thoracic duct lymph was also noted.
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