Novel PORCN mutations in focal dermal hypoplasia
Human Genome Laboratory, Department for Molecular and Developmental Genetics, VIB, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Clinical Genetics
(Impact Factor: 3.93).
10/2009; 76(6):535-43. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.2009.01248.x
Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH), Goltz or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome, is an X-linked dominant multisystem disorder characterized primarily by involvement of the skin, skeletal system and eyes. We screened for mutations in the PORCN gene in eight patients of Belgian and Finnish origin with firm clinical suspicion of FDH. First, we performed quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis to define the copy number at this locus. Next, we sequenced the coding regions and flanking intronic sequences of the PORCN gene. Three de novo mutations were identified in our patients with FDH: a 150-kb deletion removing six genes including PORCN, as defined by qPCR and X-array-CGH, and two heterozygous missense mutations; c.992T>G (p.L331R) in exon 11 and c.1094G>A (p.R365Q) in exon 13 of the gene. Both point mutations changed highly conserved amino acids and were not found in 300 control X chromosomes. The three patients in whom mutations were identified all present with characteristic dermal findings together with limb manifestations, which were not seen in our mutation-negative patients. The clinical characteristics of our patients with PORCN mutations were compared with the previously reported mutation-positive cases. In this report, we summarize the literature on PORCN mutations and associated phenotypes.
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- "While FDH is thought to be the result of defective Wnt signaling, our finding raises the possibility that the disruption of the moonlighting function of PORCN may in some cases contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. In FDH, there are over 25 different mutations of PORCN found that have not been extensively characterized biochemically, and the severity of the disease varies greatly . It is possible that a subset of these mutations might alter proliferation in a developmental context in a Wnt-independent manner, especially since many types of mutations lead to premature stop codons. "
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ABSTRACT: Porcupine (PORCN) is a membrane-bound O-acyl transferase that is required for the palmitoylation of Wnt proteins, and that is essential in diverse Wnt pathways for Wnt-Wntless (WLS) binding, Wnt secretion, and Wnt signaling activity. We tested if PORCN was required for the proliferation of transformed cells. Knockdown of PORCN by multiple independent siRNAs results in a cell growth defect in a subset of epithelial cancer cell lines. The growth defect is transformation-dependent in human mammary epithelial (HMEC) cells. Additionally, inducible PORCN knockdown by two independent shRNAs markedly reduces the growth of established MDA-MB-231 cancers in orthotopic xenografts in immunodeficient mice. Unexpectedly, the proliferation defect resulting from loss of PORCN occurs in a Wnt-independent manner, as it is rescued by re-expression of catalytically inactive PORCN, and is not seen after RNAi-mediated knockdown of the Wnt carrier protein WLS, nor after treatment with the PORCN inhibitor IWP. Consistent with a role in a Wnt-independent pathway, knockdown of PORCN regulates a distinct set of genes that are not altered by other inhibitors of Wnt signaling. PORCN protein thus appears to moonlight in a novel signaling pathway that is rate-limiting for cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis independent of its enzymatic function in Wnt biosynthesis and secretion.
Available from: Hoang Nguyen
- "Females with FDH have heterozygous or mosaic loss-of-function mutations or large deletions of PORCN and the few affected males have mosaic mutations . This explains the female predominance of the disorder, absence of male-to-male transmission, and presumed male lethality of germline mutations , . PORCN is the human orthologue of the Drosophila segment polarity gene, porcupine
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ABSTRACT: Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (FDH) is a genetic disorder characterized by developmental defects in skin, skeleton and ectodermal appendages. FDH is caused by dominant loss-of-function mutations in X-linked PORCN. PORCN orthologues in Drosophila and mice encode endoplasmic reticulum proteins required for secretion and function of Wnt proteins. Wnt proteins play important roles in embryo development, tissue homeostasis and stem cell maintenance. Since features of FDH overlap with those seen in mouse Wnt pathway mutants, FDH likely results from defective Wnt signaling but molecular mechanisms by which inactivation of PORCN affects Wnt signaling and manifestations of FDH remain to be elucidated.
We introduced intronic loxP sites and a neomycin gene in the mouse Porcn locus for conditional inactivation. Porcn-ex3-7flox mice have no apparent developmental defects, but chimeric mice retaining the neomycin gene (Porcn-ex3-7Neo-flox) have limb, skin, and urogenital abnormalities. Conditional Porcn inactivation by EIIa-driven or Hprt-driven Cre recombinase results in increased early embryonic lethality. Mesenchyme-specific Prx-Cre-driven inactivation of Porcn produces FDH-like limb defects, while ectodermal Krt14-Cre-driven inactivation produces thin skin, alopecia, and abnormal dentition. Furthermore, cell-based assays confirm that human PORCN mutations reduce WNT3A secretion.
These data indicate that Porcn inactivation in the mouse produces a model for human FDH and that phenotypic features result from defective WNT signaling in ectodermal- and mesenchymal-derived structures.
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ABSTRACT: The digitized partial discharge (PD) signal recorded at one power
cable end consists of a sequence of pulses whose separation time
contains information on the relative location of the PD sites. However,
noisy PD signals can lead to a large PD site estimation error. The most
annoying noise encountered during PD measurements consists primarily of
amplitude modulated (AM) radio signals. The performance and the
resolution of the wide band PD detection system are critically affected
by this noise. This paper describes an adaptive noise mitigating system
(ANMS) which is aimed at effectively reducing this noise
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