Revised American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA.
Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association (Impact Factor: 4.49). 11/2009; 19(11):1167-214. DOI: 10.1089/thy.2009.0110
Source: PubMed


Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the publication of the American Thyroid Association's guidelines for the management of these disorders was published in 2006, a large amount of new information has become available, prompting a revision of the guidelines.
Relevant articles through December 2008 were reviewed by the task force and categorized by topic and level of evidence according to a modified schema used by the United States Preventative Services Task Force.
The revised guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules include recommendations regarding initial evaluation, clinical and ultrasound criteria for fine-needle aspiration biopsy, interpretation of fine-needle aspiration biopsy results, and management of benign thyroid nodules. Recommendations regarding the initial management of thyroid cancer include those relating to optimal surgical management, radioiodine remnant ablation, and suppression therapy using levothyroxine. Recommendations related to long-term management of differentiated thyroid cancer include those related to surveillance for recurrent disease using ultrasound and serum thyroglobulin as well as those related to management of recurrent and metastatic disease.
We created evidence-based recommendations in response to our appointment as an independent task force by the American Thyroid Association to assist in the clinical management of patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. They represent, in our opinion, contemporary optimal care for patients with these disorders.

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    • "Nevertheless, 7–23% of patients will develop metastases, two-thirds of whom will become resistant to radioactive iodine treatment (Durante et al. 2006). In these patients, the median survival at 10 years can be as low as 25–42%, especially when bone metastases are present (Durante et al. 2006, Pacini et al. 2006, Cooper et al. 2009). Differentiated thyroid carcinoma refractory to radiodine (CDT-RTI) is not considered to be responsive to chemotherapy generally, although for decades this has been considered to be the only systemic treatment with a palliative purpose. "

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    • "In fact, the threshold used by Yim et al.[9]was twice as high as the one we chose. Compared with the patients in our cohort, many of those included in their study probably had more markedly abnormal stimulated Tg, which is also predictive of structural recurrence[26]. However, the high disease-free rates that emerged during our follow-up are probably related mainly to the clinical profiles of our cohort. "
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    ABSTRACT: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients treated with thyroidectomy and radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) often have detectable TSH-stimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) levels without localizable disease after primary treatment. To assess the value of repeat stimulated Tg assays in these patients' follow-up, we retrospectively analyzed 86 cases followed in 5 Italian thyroid-cancer referral centers. We enrolled 86 patients with PTCs treated with total/near-total thyroidectomy plus RRA between January 1,1990 and January 31, 2006. In all cases, the initial postoperative visit revealed stimulated serum Tg ≥1 ng/mL, negative Tg antibodies, and no structural evidence of disease. None received empiric radioiodine therapy. Follow-up (median: 9.6 years) included neck ultrasound and basal Tg assays (yearly) and at least 1 repeat stimulated Tg assay. Of the 86 patients analyzed (initial risk: low 63 %, intermediate 35 %, high 2 %), one (1 %) had ultrasound-detected lymph node disease and persistently elevated stimulated Tg levels at 3 years. In 17 (20 %), imaging findings were consistently negative, but the final stimulated Tg levels was still >1 ng/mL (median 2.07 ng/mL, range 1.02-4.7). The other 68 (80 %) appeared disease-free (persistently negative imaging findings with stimulated Tg levels ≤1 ng/mL). Mean intervals between first and final stimulated Tg assays were similar (5.2 and 4.8 years) in subgroups with versus without Tg normalization. Reclassification as disease-free was significantly more common when initial stimulated Tg levels were indeterminate (<10 ng/mL). In unselected PTC cohorts with incomplete/indeterminate biochemical responses to thyroidectomy and RRA, periodic remeasurement of stimulated Tg allows most patients to be classified as disease-free.
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    • "Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is the most accurate method for diagnosis of thyroid nodule and for selection of nodules for surgery, with a sensitivity range of 83%-100% and a specificity range of 60%-96% [11] [12] [13]. FNAC is recommended for solid thyroid nodule more than 1 cm in diameter according to ATA guidelines [1]. However, since it is an invasive and somewhat expensive procedure, many patients are reluctant to undergo FNAC. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential diagnostic performance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in identifying malignancy in nodules that do not appear highly suspicious on conventional ultrasound (US). Methods: 330 pathologically confirmed thyroid nodules (40 malignant and 290 benign; mean size, 22.0±11.6 mm) not suspicious of malignancy on conventional US in 330 patients (mean age 52.8±11.7 years) underwent ARFI elastography before surgery. ARFI elastography included qualitative ARFI-induced strain elastography (SE) and quantitative point shear wave elastography (p-SWE). ARFI-induced SE image was assessed by SE score, while p-SWE was denoted with shear wave velocity (SWV, m/s). The diagnostic performance of four criteria sets was evaluated: criteria set 1 (ARFI-induced SE), criteria set 2 (p-SWE), criteria set 3 (either set 1 or 2), criteria set 4 (both set 1 and 2). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses were performed to assess the diagnostic performance. Results: SE score ≥4 was more frequently found in malignant nodules (32/40) than in benign nodules (30/290, P<0.001). The mean SWV of malignant nodules (3.64±2.23 m/s) was significantly higher than that of benign nodules (2.02±0.69 m/s) (P<0.001). ARFI-induced SE (set 1) had a sensitivity of 80.0% (32/40) and a specificity of 89.7% (260/290) with a cut-off point of SE score ≥4; p-SWE (set 2) had a sensitivity of 80.0% (32/40) and a specificity of 57.9% (168/290) with a cut-off point of SWV ≥2.15 m/s. When ARFI-induced SE and p-SWE were combined, set 3 had the highest sensitivity (92.5%, 37/40) while set 4 had the highest specificity (95.2%, 276/290). Conclusion: ARFI elastography can be used for differential diagnosis of malignant thyroid nodules without highly suspicious features on US. The combination of ARFI-induced SE and p-SWE leads to improved sensitivity and specificity.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
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