Parental psychopathology and socioeconomic position predict adolescent offspring's mental health independently and do not interact: The TRAILS study

Interdisciplinary Centre for Psychiatric Epidemiology (ICPE), University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
Journal of epidemiology and community health (Impact Factor: 3.5). 10/2009; 65(1):57-63. DOI: 10.1136/jech.2009.092569
Source: PubMed


Familial risk factors have been implicated in the development of mental health problems in adolescents. Whether the associations between parental loading, as assessed by lifetime psychopathology, and offspring internalising and externalising problems were moderated by family socioeconomic position (SEP) was investigated. Two hypotheses of moderation were tested: (1) the "social push" hypothesis in which parental loading effects are stronger in contexts with low environmental risks and (2) the "vulnerability" hypothesis in which parental loading effects are stronger in high-risk environments.
In a population-based sample of 2149, familial loading and family SEP were assessed at baseline by parent reports. Offspring psychopathology was assessed by reports from multiple informants (parent, self and teachers). Multiple linear regression was used to assess the independent associations of parental loading and family SEP on offspring psychopathology and their potential interaction.
Both family SEP and familial loading had significant independent main effects on offspring internalising and externalising problems. However, the interaction terms were not significant and did not add any explanatory power to the model.
Lower levels of family SEP appear not to confer additional risks for mental health problems in offspring of parents with high loading on psychopathology. During early adolescence, parental psychopathology and low family SEP seem independent risk factors for offspring mental health problems. Results do not support either the social push or vulnerability hypothesis as no evidence of interactions between parental loading and family SEP were found.

Download full-text


Available from: Kennedy Amone-P'olak
  • Source
    • "Gender (Merikangas et al. 2010; Verhulst et al. 1997), age (Botticello 2009; Kessler et al. 2007; Mooij et al. 2011; Steinhausen et al. 2008), ethnicity (''Dutch'', ''Surinamese/ Antillean/Aruban'', ''Turkish'', ''Moroccan'', or ''other ethnicity'') (Mooij et al. 2011; Romero et al. 2007; Schwab-Stone et al. 1995), marital status of parents (''living with father and mother/father or mother and partner'', or ''other marital status of parents'') and socioeconomic position (Amone-P'Olak et al. 2011; Mijanovich and Weitzman 2003). Socioeconomic position was measured on a 2-point scale: ''no, parents never experienced problems with money and/or income'' versus ''yes, experienced or experiencing right now''. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: School environment is an important determinant of psychosocial function and may also be related to mental health. We therefore investigated whether perceived school safety, a simple measure of this environment, is related to mental health problems. In a population-based sample of 11,130 secondary school students, we analysed the relationship of perceived school safety with mental health problems using multiple logistic regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Mental health problems were defined using the clinical cut-off of the self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. School safety showed an exposure-response relationship with mental health problems after adjustment for confounders. Odds ratios increased from 2.48 ("sometimes unsafe") to 8.05 ("very often unsafe"). The association was strongest in girls and young and middle-aged adolescents. Irrespective of the causal background of this association, school safety deserves attention either as a risk factor or as an indicator of mental health problems.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Community Mental Health Journal
  • Source

    Full-text · Article ·
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were as follows: to present a concise overview of the sample, outcomes, determinants, non-response and attrition of the ongoing TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which started in 2001; to summarize a selection of recent findings on continuity, discontinuity, risk, and protective factors of mental health problems; and to document the development of psychopathology during adolescence, focusing on whether the increase of problem behavior often seen in adolescence is a general phenomenon or more prevalent in vulnerable teens, thereby giving rise to diverging developmental pathways. The first and second objectives were achieved using descriptive statistics and selective review of previous TRAILS publications; and the third objective by analyzing longitudinal data on internalizing and externalizing problems using Linear Mixed Models (LMM). The LMM analyses supported the notion of diverging pathways for rule-breaking behaviors but not for anxiety, depression, or aggression. Overall, rule-breaking (in both genders) and withdrawn/depressed behavior (in girls) increased, whereas aggression and anxious/depressed behavior decreased during adolescence. TRAILS has produced a wealth of data and has contributed substantially to our understanding of mental health problems and social development during adolescence. Future waves will expand this database into adulthood. The typical development of problem behaviors in adolescence differs considerably across both problem dimensions and gender. Developmental pathways during adolescence suggest accumulation of risk (i.e., diverging pathways) for rule-breaking behavior. However, those of anxiety, depression and aggression slightly converge, suggesting the influence of counter-forces and changes in risk unrelated to initial problem levels and underlying vulnerability.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Show more