A genome-wide linkage scan in German Shepherd Dogs localizes canine platelet procoagulant deficiency (Scott syndrome) to canine chromosome 27

Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.
Gene (Impact Factor: 2.14). 10/2009; 450(1-2):70-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2009.09.016
Source: PubMed


Scott syndrome is a rare hereditary bleeding disorder associated with an inability of stimulated platelets to externalize the negatively charged phospholipid, phosphatidylserine (PS). Canine Scott syndrome (CSS) is the only naturally occurring animal model of this defect and therefore represents a unique tool to discover a disease gene capable of producing this platelet phenotype. We undertook platelet function studies and linkage analyses in a pedigree of CSS-affected German shepherd dogs. Based on residual serum prothrombin and flow cytometric assays, CSS segregates as an autosomal recessive trait. An initial genome scan, performed by genotyping 48 dogs for 280 microsatellite markers, suggested linkage with markers on chromosome 27. Genotypes ultimately obtained for a total of 56 dogs at 11 markers on chromosome 27 revealed significant LOD scores for 2 markers near the centromere, with multipoint linkage indicating a CSS trait locus spanning approximately 14 cm. These results provide the basis for fine mapping studies to narrow the disease interval and target the evaluation of putative disease genes.

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Available from: Carlos D. Bustamante, Apr 25, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The best understood consequence of the collapse of lipid asymmetry is exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) in the external leaflet of the plasma membrane bilayer, where it is known to serve at least two major functions: providing a platform for development of the blood coagulation cascade and presenting the signal that induces phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Lipid asymmetry is collapsed by activation of phospholipid scramblase(s) that catalyze bidirectional transbilayer movement of the major classes of phospholipid. The protein corresponding to this activity is not yet known. Observations on cells from patients with Scott syndrome, a rare hereditary bleeding disorder resulting from impaired lipid scrambling, have shown that there are multiple activation pathways that converge on scramblase activity.
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    ABSTRACT: Membrane remodeling, phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, and subsequent microparticle (MP) shedding regulation is a critical step in maintaining vascular homeostasis. Shed MP, more particularly those of platelet origin, could be viewed as a way to increase the catalytic procoagulant surface relying on the essential presence of PS for optimal hemostatic response. Whether "flip-flop" is mandatory for the release of MP is suggested from the phenotype of Scott's syndrome, a rare bleeding disorder in which both PS exposure and MP shedding are deficient. PS exposure results from a specific cytoskeleton degradation pathway involving caspases, tuned by mitochondria permeability changes, and requiring a sustained increase in intracellular calcium. The actual roles of transmembrane ion transport or transient transmembrane pores in PS exposure remain to be more firmly established. Considering that an excess of plasma membrane procoagulant activity is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis, the identification of effectors of PS exposure and MP release appear relevant targets in thrombosis research and focused drug design. In this view, animal models of Scott's syndrome should prove of primary importance for the characterization of the genetic trait(s) accounting for the associated defect that would provide an important hint toward the control of PS exposure and subsequent MP release.
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    ABSTRACT: Microparticles (MPs) derived from platelets, monocytes, endothelial cells, red blood cells, and granulocytes may be detected in low concentrations in normal plasma and at increased levels in atherothrombotic cardiovascular diseases. The elucidation of the cellular mechanisms underlying the generation of circulating MPs is crucial for improving our understanding of their pathophysiological role in health and disease. The flopping of phosphatidylserine (PS) to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane is the key event that will ultimately lead to the shedding of procoagulant MPs from activated or apoptotic cells. Research over the last few years has revealed important roles for calcium-, mitochondrial-, and caspase-dependent mechanisms leading to PS exposure. The study of Scott cells has unraveled different molecular mechanisms that may contribute to fine-tuning of PS exposure and MP release in response to a variety of specific stimuli. The pharmacological modulation of MP release may have a substantial therapeutic impact in the management of atherothrombotic vascular disorders. Because PS exposure is a key feature in pathological processes different from hemostasis and thrombosis, the most important obstacle in the field of MP-modulating drugs seems to be carefully targeting MP release to relevant cell types at an optimal level, so as to achieve a beneficial action and limit possible adverse effects.
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