Differential engagement of cognitive and affective neural systems in pediatric bipolar disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Center for Cognitive Medicine, University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society (Impact Factor: 2.96). 10/2009; 16(1):106-17. DOI: 10.1017/S1355617709991019
Source: PubMed


This fMRI study investigates the neural bases of cognitive control of emotion processing in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Seventeen un-medicated PBD patients, 15 un-medicated ADHD patients, and 14 healthy controls (HC) (mean age = 13.78 +/- 2.47) performed an emotional valence Stroop Task, requiring them to match the color of an emotionally valenced word to the color of either of two adjacent circles. Both patient groups responded significantly slower than HC, but there were no group differences in accuracy. A voxel-wise analysis of variance on brain activation revealed a significant interaction of group by word valence [F(2,41) = 4.44; p = .02]. Similar group differences were found for negative and positive words. For negative versus neutral words, both patient groups exhibited greater activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and parietal cortex relative to HC. The PBD group exhibited greater activation in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) relative to HC. The ADHD group exhibited decreased VLPFC activation relative to HC and the PBD group. During cognitive control of emotion processing, PBD patients deployed the VLPFC to a greater extent than HC. The ADHD patients showed decreased VLPFC engagement relative to both HC and PBD patients.

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Available from: John A Sweeney, Jan 02, 2014
    • "The reduced representation of the emotional distracters results in reduced amygdala response to these distracters. Given the previous findings of executive attention dysfunction and emotion dys-regulation in ADHD (Arnsten and Rubia, 2012; Banich et al., 2009; Bush et al., 1999; Christakou et al., 2013; Posner et al., 2011; Rubia et al., 2009; Schneider et al., 2010), and previous findings from the studies using various versions of AST on ADHD population (Passarotti et al., 2010a; Posner et al., 2011), we hypothesized that this process of representation-priming is impaired in ADHD. As such, we predicted that children and adolescents with ADHD would show: (i) reduced recruitment of, and functional connectivity between, executive attention regions (dorsomedial and lateral frontal cortices); (ii) increased recruitment of regions implicated in emotional responding (amygdala) relative to healthy comparison youth during task conditions , due to disruption in priming of representation of task-relevant stimuli by executive attention areas. "
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    ABSTRACT: There are suggestions that patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show impairment in executive attention control and emotion regulation. This study investigated emotion regulation as a function of the recruitment of executive attention in patients with ADHD.
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    • "BDII Mixture of mood states Yes Not an exclusion, but details not provided Not provided Yes, current AAO 19.6 (4.0) 8 [4e99] GNG Comparable Welander-Vatn et al., 2013 24 (14) 24 (11) 35.6 (11.3) 34.5 (9.4) BDI Mixture of mood states Yes Yes Not provided Yes, current AAO 23.8 (9.5) Median 6.5 GNG Slower response times and more errors in BD Wessa et al., 2007 17 (7) 17 (6) 44.9 (12.7) 44.9 (11.4) BDI, II Euthymic Yes Yes Not provided No current 21.9 (12.7) Not provided GNG Comparable T. Hajek et al. / Journal of Psychiatric Research 47 (2013) 1955e1966 2003b; Cerullo et al., 2009; Deveney et al., 2012a; Diler et al., 2013; Elliott et al., 2004; Fleck et al., 2011; Frangou, 2012; Hummer et al., 2013; Kaladjian et al., 2009b; Kronhaus et al., 2006; Lagopoulos and Malhi, 2007; Malhi et al., 2005; Mazzola- Pomietto et al., 2009; McIntosh et al., 2008b; Nelson et al., 2007; Passarotti et al., 2010a, 2010b; Pavuluri et al., 2010; Roberts et al., 2013; Roth et al., 2006; Singh et al., 2010; Strakowski et al., 2005, 2008; Townsend et al., 2012; Weathers et al., 2012; Welander-Vatn et al., 2009, 2013; Wessa et al., 2007 "
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    • "Regarding comparisons among groups, for ADHD adults and schizophrenic patients there are few studies that have investigated emotional processing, although impairments in both facial recognition and emotional processing have been proposed as possible biomarkers of these conditions (Marsh and Williams, 2006). Some studies have compared emotional impairment in children with ADHD and BD and have shown that both groups of children have deficits (Brotman et al., 2010; Passarotti et al., 2010a,b "
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