Article

Responses to intimate partner violence in Kakuma refugee camp: Refugee interactions with agency systems

Authors:
  • Self employed
Article

Responses to intimate partner violence in Kakuma refugee camp: Refugee interactions with agency systems

If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

Abstract

Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognised as a significant problem amongst forcibly displaced communities, and great progress has been made by the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) in responding to IPV and other forms of sexual and gender based violence. However, they have not always effectively engaged refugee communities in these activities, with potentially negative consequences for the health and protection of women. This study was conducted in Kakuma refugee camp, north-west Kenya. Eighteen focus group discussions were conducted with 157 refugees from various nationalities, including Sudanese, Somali, Ethiopian, and Congolese. They focused on the nature and consequences of IPV in Kakuma. The aim of this paper is to explore how refugees in Kakuma talk about the ways that IPV is dealt with, focusing particularly on the ways that community responses are said to interact with formal response systems established by UNHCR and its implementing partners. Refugees talked about using a 'hierarchy of responses' to IPV, with only particularly serious or intransigent cases reaching UNHCR or its implementing agencies. Some male refugees described being mistrustful of agency responses, because agencies were believed to favour women and to prioritise protecting the woman at all costs, even if that means separating her from the family. Whilst community responses to IPV might often be appropriate and helpful, the findings of the current study suggest that in Kakuma they do not necessarily result in the protection of women. Yet women in Kakuma are reported to be reluctant to report their cases to UNHCR and its implementing agencies. A more effective protection response from UNHCR might involve closer co-operation with individuals and structures within the refugee communities to develop a co-ordinated response to IPV.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... 5 In addition to research on the development of GBV intervention in humanitarian settings, there has been growing interest among researchers and policymakers on how best to prevent and protect displaced people from GBV. Many of these studies have been undertaken from a medical perspective, followed by gender, refugee and humanitarian studies (for example, see Fisher, Nadler, and De Paulo 1983;Cornally and McCarthy 2011;Horn 2010aHorn , 2010bWirtz et al. 2013;Odwe, Undie, and Obare 2018). ...
... 5 In addition to research on the development of GBV intervention in humanitarian settings, there has been growing interest among researchers and policymakers on how best to prevent and protect displaced people from GBV. Many of these studies have been undertaken from a medical perspective, followed by gender, refugee and humanitarian studies (for example, see Fisher, Nadler, and De Paulo 1983;Cornally and McCarthy 2011;Horn 2010aHorn , 2010bWirtz et al. 2013;Odwe, Undie, and Obare 2018). ...
... Heise's work demonstrates, the ecological model reveals GBV as the product of multiple causal layers of factors (Heise 1998;Dutton 2011;UNHCR 2003;Horn 2010b). Over the years, informed by different disciplines, the ecological approach has been further developed to identify the drivers of violence through four contexts or levels: the 'individual', the 'inter-personal'' (including family, friends, intimate partners and peers), the 'community', and 'society'. ...
Article
Due to the heightened vulnerability of the population and the culture of impunity, Gender Based Violence (GBV) is likely to occur within the unique living environment such as violent conflict affected area. GBV not only damages the mind and body of the individuals but also creates high psychological and social barriers to seeking help. Additionally, it is often the case that victims do not receive sufficient physical protection or economic support within a conflict-affected environment. Concerning the above-mentioned issues, in 2000, the Security Council adopted Resolution 1325 on women, peace and security. Making reference to the adverse effects that conflict has on women, the resolution emphasizes the need for special measures to protect women and girls from any forms of violence including GBV. The adoption of Resolution 1325 led to an increase in the participation of women in peace processes and improved the victim protection and relief systems. However, it can hardly be said that there is enough support provided to women and girls in conflict zones. Previous research on GBV in conflict-affected societies has mostly identified the fact that GBV does exist or the causal relationship between conflict and GBV. Comparatively less research has been carried out on the help-seeking behavior of victims or the recovery process. Based on the above-mentioned lack of research, the JICA Ogata Research Institute has begun a research project looking at issues surrounding violent conflict and GBV and the challenges to supporting victims. Through studying and analyzing the ways GBV has been recognized within a conflict-affected community, the help-seeking behavior of the victims, and any assistance they are offered by the people around them and the aid community, improvements to GBV support systems will be discussed. One part of the field research is planned for Northern Uganda where a large number of refugees from South Sudan have fled. The outcomes of this research project will be published as JICA Ogata Research Institute Working Papers and international academic papers.
... The total of 953 identified studies decreased to 949 after the exclusion of repeated studies. After the abstracts of these 949 studies were reviewed, 94 were retrieved; of these, 36 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review (Ahmad-Stout et al., 2018;Odwe et al., 2018;Gennari et al., 2017;Nam et al., 2017;Wachter et al., 2017;Holtmann, 2016;Kalunta-Crumpton, 2016;Um et al., 2016;Usta et al., 2016;Kim and Sung, 2015;Parcesepe et al., 2015;Sipsma et al., 2015;Wako et al., 2015;Akhter and Kusakabe, 2014;Wirtz et al., 2014;Kyriakakis, 2014;Moya et al., 2014;Akinsulure-Smith et al., 2013;Fisher, 2013;Kalunta-Crumpton, 2013;Reina et al., 2013;Wirtz et al., 2013;Feseha et al., 2012;Fuchsel et al., 2012;Keygnaert et al., 2012;Zakar et al., 2012;Zannettino, 2012;Anitha, 2011;Earner, 2010;Horn, 2010;Jin and Keat, 2009;Ahmad et al., 2009;Erez et al., 2009;Bui and Morash, 2008;Morash et al., 2007;Thapa-Oli et al., 2008) -see Figure 1. ...
... Furthermore, two studies (Horn, 2010;Wachter et al., 2017) highlighted that the refugee experience itself may cause a breakdown in traditional marriage practices in camps, which drives men to commit violence against their spouses. Refugees in the Kakuma, Ajuong Thok, Dadaab and Domiz camps reported an increase in the number of spontaneous and hasty marriages where "couples agreed to get married without the involvement of their families due to reasons like the inability of men to pay a dowry or because family members are not present in the camp" (Horn, 2010). ...
... Furthermore, two studies (Horn, 2010;Wachter et al., 2017) highlighted that the refugee experience itself may cause a breakdown in traditional marriage practices in camps, which drives men to commit violence against their spouses. Refugees in the Kakuma, Ajuong Thok, Dadaab and Domiz camps reported an increase in the number of spontaneous and hasty marriages where "couples agreed to get married without the involvement of their families due to reasons like the inability of men to pay a dowry or because family members are not present in the camp" (Horn, 2010). Another reason that was highlighted in the Dadaab camp in Kenya was men rushing to marry women who were divorced or widowed, only for the sake of their money or remittances, and women with children from a previous marriage were also susceptible to IPV (Wachter et al., 2017). ...
... IPV victims were also reported to be reluctant to leave their abusive husbands, to report the abuse and to use humanitarian services. Reasons included perceived and experienced stigma, reliance on social/economic/security support from husbands, lack of awareness of services, and fear of the risk children being kidnaped while mothers sought services (Al-Natour et al., 2019;Wirtz et al., 2013;Horn, 2010). Other studies spoke of women feeling abandoned and isolated in the aftermath of war-related violence, which was also associated with under-age marriages in refugee camps (Newbury & Baldwin, 2000). ...
... Lastly, the review revealed that humanitarian responses, including SGBV approaches, have often been top-down recommendations and have not relied on research conducted on the ground (Horn, 2010;Asgary et al., 2013). Moreover, these have generally not engaged with religious beliefs and spiritual aspects of life that may be salient for communities. ...
... IPV victims were reported to be reluctant to leave their abusive husbands, to report the abuse and to use humanitarian services. Reasons included perceived and experienced stigma, reliance on social/economic/security support from husbands, lack of awareness of services, and fear of the risk children being kidnaped while mothers sought services (Al-Natour et al., 2019; Wirtz et al., 2013;Horn, 2010). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Unexpectedly, on 4 November 2020 (four days after the official start date of project dldl/ድልድል), a conflict erupted in Tigray region. The eruption of the war raised an urgent need to pay attention to violence experienced in political conflict and to war trauma and to understand the implications for domestic life and family relations in the conflict-affected communities, as well as identify appropriate approaches considerate of Tigray's religio-cultural fabric. To address these objectives, a rapid scoping literature review was undertaken in the three months following the outset of the conflict to identify the state of evidence on the relationship between political violence and domestic violence internationally paying particular attention on the role of religio-cultural parameters in this relationship. Urgent responses to SGBV and efforts to promote children’s protection are currently being led by international humanitarian agencies in coordination with relevant government ministries, as well as organisations working in the region with access and capacity to contribute to the wider humanitarian response. It is hoped that the presentation of this evidence can help international, regional, national and local actors, including women’s organisations in Tigray currently working in the warzone to identify how they might better support affected individuals in ways that not only respond to the immediate consequences of war-related violence but also consider previously existing forms of violence and resources to prevent and address further abuse in domestic and communal life post displacement while the conflict is still ongoing and in post-conflict society when peace is, hopefully, restored.
... The total of 953 identified studies decreased to 949 after the exclusion of repeated studies. After the abstracts of these 949 studies were reviewed, 94 were retrieved; of these, 36 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review (Ahmad-Stout et al., 2018;Odwe et al., 2018;Gennari et al., 2017;Nam et al., 2017;Wachter et al., 2017;Holtmann, 2016;Kalunta-Crumpton, 2016;Um et al., 2016;Usta et al., 2016;Kim and Sung, 2015;Parcesepe et al., 2015;Sipsma et al., 2015;Wako et al., 2015;Akhter and Kusakabe, 2014;Wirtz et al., 2014;Kyriakakis, 2014;Moya et al., 2014;Akinsulure-Smith et al., 2013;Fisher, 2013;Kalunta-Crumpton, 2013;Reina et al., 2013;Wirtz et al., 2013;Feseha et al., 2012;Fuchsel et al., 2012;Keygnaert et al., N. Daoud 2012;Zakar et al., 2012;Zannettino, 2012;Anitha, 2011;Earner, 2010;Horn, 2010;Jin and Keat, 2009;Ahmad et al., 2009;Erez et al., 2009;Bui and Morash, 2008;Morash et al., 2007;Thapa-Oli et al., 2008) -see Figure 1. ...
... Furthermore, two studies (Horn, 2010;Wachter et al., 2017) highlighted that the refugee experience itself may cause a breakdown in traditional marriage practices in camps, which drives men to commit violence against their spouses. Refugees in the Kakuma, Ajuong Thok, Dadaab and Domiz camps reported an increase in the number of spontaneous and hasty marriages where "couples agreed to get married without the involvement of their families due to reasons like the inability of men to pay a dowry or because family members are not present in the camp" (Horn, 2010). ...
... Furthermore, two studies (Horn, 2010;Wachter et al., 2017) highlighted that the refugee experience itself may cause a breakdown in traditional marriage practices in camps, which drives men to commit violence against their spouses. Refugees in the Kakuma, Ajuong Thok, Dadaab and Domiz camps reported an increase in the number of spontaneous and hasty marriages where "couples agreed to get married without the involvement of their families due to reasons like the inability of men to pay a dowry or because family members are not present in the camp" (Horn, 2010). Another reason that was highlighted in the Dadaab camp in Kenya was men rushing to marry women who were divorced or widowed, only for the sake of their money or remittances, and women with children from a previous marriage were also susceptible to IPV (Wachter et al., 2017). ...
Article
This article provides a systematic review of the empirical evidence related to intimate partner violence (IPV) in migrant communities. The main goal of the article is to understand the exposure to and impact of IPV among migrant women, the drivers of IPV and the barriers to disclosure and help-seeking. The search resulted in 36 studies that meet the inclusion and quality assessment criteria. The findings show that migrant women are exposed to various levels of IPV in refugee and immigrant contexts. Following the ecological model, the drivers of IPV are categorised at the individual level (e.g., alcohol and substance abuse), the relationship/household level (e.g., reversal of gender roles), and the community/society level (e.g., social acceptability of IPV). The literature review also highlights gaps in the literature, such as the relationship between IPV and other types of violence suffered by women. The article has recommendations, one of which is to conduct future large-scale studies that consider the intersectional, and post-structural feminist perspectives.
... Restrictions on mobility among all refugees have particular implications for women and girls (UN Women, 2018), limiting women's ability to leave abusive relationships and seek help for IPV in new contexts. Community dynamics and structures in displacement often differ from pre-displacement mechanisms, obscuring familiar pathways to help and assistance (Horn, 2010b). Prior to displacement, volunteers and other civil society actors may have worked with existing women-led organizations and IPV service providers, and served an important role in helping women access help; yet, these mechanisms may not survive the onset of a crisis or function as they previously had in displacement, thereby creating fissures in reporting avenues. ...
... It is likely that only a small percentage of survivors in displacement settings report IPV to a formal institution (Horn, 2010b;Al-Natour et al., 2018). Women are often reluctant to disclose the violence they face at home due to complex and gendered social pressures and stigmatizing and victim-blaming forces (Kennedy and Prock, 2018;Strang et al., 2020). ...
... Women are often reluctant to disclose the violence they face at home due to complex and gendered social pressures and stigmatizing and victim-blaming forces (Kennedy and Prock, 2018;Strang et al., 2020). Displaced women may be especially conscious of the potentially serious economic and social consequences of disclosing IPV (Horn, 2010b;Al-Natour et al., 2018;Strang et al., 2020). The lack of economic opportunities for women to meet their own and their children's basic needs are strong factors hindering women from seeking formal help (Vyas and Watts, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Armed conflict and forced migration are associated with an increase in intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Yet as risks of IPV intensify, familiar options for seeking help dissipate as families and communities disperse and seek refuge in a foreign country. The reconfiguration of family and community systems, coupled with the presence of local and international humanitarian actors, introduces significant changes to IPV response pathways. Drawing from intensive fieldwork, this article examines response options available to women seeking help for IPV in refugee camps against the backdrop of efforts to localize humanitarian assistance. This study employed a qualitative approach to study responses to IPV in three refugee camps: Ajuong Thok (South Sudan), Dadaab (Kenya), and Domiz (Iraqi Kurdistan). In each location, data collection activities were conducted with women survivors of IPV, members of the general refugee community, refugee leaders, and service providers. The sample included 284 individuals. Employing visual mapping techniques, analysis of data from these varied sources described help seeking and response pathways in the three camps, and the ways in which women engaged with various systems. The analysis revealed distinct pathways for seeking help in the camps, with several similarities across contexts. Women in all three locations often "persevered" in an abusive partnership for extended periods before seeking help. When women did seek help, it was predominantly with family members initially, and then community-based mechanisms. Across camps, participants typically viewed engaging formal IPV responses as a last resort. Differences between camp settings highlighted the importance of understanding complex informal systems, and the availability of organizational responses, which influenced the sequence and speed with which formal systems were engaged. The findings indicate that key factors in bridging formal and community-based systems in responding to IPV in refugee camps include listening to women and understanding their priorities, recognizing the importance of women in camps maintaining life-sustaining connections with their families and communities, engaging communities in transformative change, and shifting power and resources to local women-led organizations.
... GBV takes many forms in humanitarian settings, with estimates that one in five refugee or displaced women experience sexual violence [10]. In camp settings for displaced people, intimate partner violence (IPV) is often the most common reported form of GBV [11][12][13]. ...
... Pakistan floods, Ethiopia drought, Indonesia tsunami, Nepal earthquake), and the remainder involved humanitarian settings at various stages of crisis. Less than half [11] were peer-reviewed articles and 17 were organisation reports, evaluations or non-peer reviewed research, three of which were independent evaluations. ...
... Despite good progress in Lebanon, weak accountability mechanisms and follow-up, meant trainings did not necessarily translate into action within sector responses [41]. Furthermore, engaging refugee women in the design, management, and leadership of GBV risk mitigation measures appeared limited across setting, and accountability to affected women and girls minimal [11,48,58]. Humanitarian sectors responding to the Syrian conflict in 2015, rarely included meaningful or consistent accountability to refugees [58]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Gender-based violence (GBV) is a global health, human rights, and protection issue, which can increase during emergencies. GBV coordination is an essential component of every humanitarian response, ensuring that, from the earliest phases of a crisis, accessible and safe services are available and prevention and mitigation mechanisms are implemented to reduce GBV. We sought to address the limited evidence on GBV coordination, by reviewing literature on GBV coordination in emergencies, identifying facilitators and barriers influencing effectiveness. Methods We conducted a scoping review on GBV coordination in emergencies from 1990 to 2020. Studies explicitly discussing GBV coordination in humanitarian, natural disaster and public health emergencies, in low or middle-income countries, were included. Using thematic analysis, we developed a six-topic framework to synthesise evidence on effective GBV coordination and present recommendations for strengthening GBV coordination in emergencies. Findings We included 28 of 964 sources identified, covering 30 different emergency settings across 22 countries. Sources spanned emergency settings, with minimal evidence in public health emergencies and none focussed solely on GBV coordination. Several sources suggested that timely establishment of GBV coordination mechanisms, led by dedicated, experienced coordinators, increased funding and strengthened service provision. GBV risk mitigation was compromised by weak commitment across sectors, poor accountability systems, and limited engagement of affected women. Inclusive GBV coordination, involving national and local actors is vital but engagement efforts have been inadequate and localisation funding targets not yet achieved. Implementation of the GBV Information Management System has reinforced coordination, funding allocation and service provision. While specialist GBV services remain insufficient, emergencies can present opportunities for expansion. Sustainability and long-term impact are compromised by over-reliance on international leadership and funding, weak commitment by governments, and limited attention to GBV prevention. Conclusion Despite enhanced global commitments to addressing GBV in recent years, it remains consistently under-prioritised and under-resourced. Recommendations to strengthen GBV coordination in emergencies include: funding dedicated GBV coordination positions across all types of emergencies, building the global GBV coordination workforce, expanding inclusion of national actors and investing in GBV risk mitigation and prevention through multiyear funding. The evidence-based framework for effective GBV coordination presented here, can guide further research in diverse emergencies.
... Drawing on an ecological framework (Bronfenbrenner, 1979), which describes individuals as existing in nested systems of protection and care, family and friends are among the innermost 'layers' of support for survivors. The impactful relationship that informal support networks play in the lives of survivors has been documented in other studies of survivors of sexual violence in conflicted-affected societies globally (Hyder, Noor, & Tsui, 2007;Wirtz et al., 2014;Zraly, Rubin-Smith, & Betancourt, 2011), as well as within the context of northern Uganda (Annan & Brier, 2010;Horn, 2010;Muhwezi et al., 2011). Based on this framework, one might envision a structure in which actors in informal support networks work to ensure healing and justice for girls impacted by sexual violence (Horn, 2010). ...
... The impactful relationship that informal support networks play in the lives of survivors has been documented in other studies of survivors of sexual violence in conflicted-affected societies globally (Hyder, Noor, & Tsui, 2007;Wirtz et al., 2014;Zraly, Rubin-Smith, & Betancourt, 2011), as well as within the context of northern Uganda (Annan & Brier, 2010;Horn, 2010;Muhwezi et al., 2011). Based on this framework, one might envision a structure in which actors in informal support networks work to ensure healing and justice for girls impacted by sexual violence (Horn, 2010). In practice, however, informal networks did not always provide support for survivors. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual violence is an issue of significant concern in conflict-affected societies, with girls often among those most affected. While formal support services such as medical care, psychosocial support, and legal assistance for survivors are undeniably important, informal actors also play a key but poorly understood role in assisting survivors. This study examines the experiences of young female survivors of sexual violence in northern Uganda in order to explore the variety of roles (both positive and negative) that informal support networks played in contributing to survivors’ healing and recovery. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 female survivors of sexual violence between the ages of 13–17 who were living in camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Lira, northern Uganda. Each girl participated in a series of 4 interviews over a 1-year period. Girls participating in this study identified social stigma to be the primary source of psychosocial distress following an incident of sexual violence, as well as the most significant barrier to their recovery and reintegration. Findings also suggest that the relationship between a girl and her perpetrator had a significant impact on the type of follow-up support she received— particularly with regard to her ability to access justice. Survivor accounts also indicate that family members played a complex role in girls’ lives following an incident of abuse—in some cases providing significant support, while in others exposing girls to additional stigma or marginalization. Findings offer important insights to inform the development of response initiatives that build upon community-based networks, while also strengthening linkages between formal and informal forms of support in the lives of survivors.
... One of the forms of instrumental support provided by community members was in playing a counselling and mediating role for women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) [41,42,45,50]. A hierarchy of response was consistently described across the studies where women experiencing IPV would first go to family members for advice and counsel and then, if the issue was not resolved, to community leaders. ...
... "A woman who terminates her pregnancy … she is considered a criminal, she is discriminated against, she is considered as the one who does not have friends because she is a murderer" [49, p. 5] Informal social control also played a role in the way communities responded to IPV, which as previously mentioned, did not always prioritise the safety and wellbeing of the women involved. The risk of possible humiliation and entailing consequences created social pressure to remain in violent relationships [40,41,45,50]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Social capital is an important social determinant of women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights. Little research has been conducted to understand the role of social capital in women’s sexual and reproductive health and how this can be harnessed to improve health in humanitarian settings. We synthesised the evidence to examine the nexus of women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights and social capital in humanitarian contexts. Methods We undertook a systematic review of qualitative studies. The preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis guidelines were used to identify peer-reviewed, qualitative studies conducted in humanitarian settings published since 1999. We searched CINAHL, MEDLINE, ProQuest Health & Medicine, PubMed, Embase and Web of science core collection and assessed quality using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. We used a meta-ethnographic approach to synthesise and analyse the data. Findings Of 6749 initially identified studies, we included 19 studies, of which 18 were in conflict-related humanitarian settings and one in a natural disaster setting. The analysis revealed that the main form of social capital available to women was bonding social capital or strong links between people within groups of similar characteristics. There was limited use of bridging social capital, consisting of weaker connections between people of approximately equal status and power but with different characteristics. The primary social capital mechanisms that played a role in women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights were social support, informal social control and collective action. Depending on the nature of the values, norms and traditions shared by network members, these social capital mechanisms had the potential to both facilitate and hinder positive health outcomes for women. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding social capital in planning sexual and reproductive health responses in humanitarian settings. The analysis highlights the need to investigate social capital from an individual perspective to expose the intra-network dynamics that shape women’s experiences. Insights could help inform community-based preparedness and response programs aimed at improving the demand for and access to quality sexual and reproductive health services in humanitarian settings.
... In Kenya, several factors may prevent women from seeking help through formal and informal systems. Social and cultural norms such as women justifying abuse as her husband's rights (Gillum et al., 2018) as well as structural barriers such as lack of community and government response to IPV (Horn, 2010) have been associated with accessing support. The feminist perspective asserts that men's use of violence against women is an issue of power and control or a means to discipline or punish his wife and is therefore justified (McCarthy et al., 2018). ...
... To study this concept, we looked at the type of IPV, i.e. physical, emotional or sexual violence, women report. In addition, given the country's history of minimal community and governmental response to IPV (Horn, 2010), the decision for women in Kenya to seek help may be complicated by this historical pattern of insufficient responses to reports of IPV. However, as violence escalates, survivors of IPV are also more likely to progress from informal sources of support, such as friends and family, to more formal sources of support, such as community agencies (Haggerty & Goodman, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Several factors influence a victim's decision on whether or not to seek help after experiencing Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). This study used data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for Kenya (2014) of ever married women (n = 5265). Majority of the women did not seek help after experiencing IPV (55.5%). Women justification for IPV decreased the odds of seeking help from informal services by 0.75 times and formal services by 0.58 times. Understanding cultural determinants of help seeking would contribute in the development of effective policies and programs for preventing and responding to IPV in Kenya and across the world.
... De lo contrario, las sobrevivientes no acudirán a ellos para denunciar (Ho y Pavlish 2011). Si, en cambio, se decide recurrir a la justicia informal comunitaria, muchas veces esta no garantiza el bienestar y la seguridad de las denunciantes (Horn 2010, Scott et al. 2013. Por otro lado, se ha demostrado que las intervenciones orientadas a transformar las normas socioculturales sobre los géneros y la violencia en el contexto de emergencia aumentan la concienciación sobre la igualdad de los géneros, reducen la cultura del silencio y fomentan el empoderamiento de las supervivientes de la violencia de género (Gurman et al. 2014). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Previous studies have shown that displaced women suffer more sexual violence than other female populations in the world. In this article, it is analysed how this social problem is defined in Colombia and to what extent there is coherence between the causes identified and the preventive measures proposed to end it. Through N-Vivo software, we perform a content analysis of the judicial decrees issued by the Constitutional Court between 2008 and 2015 about the situation of internally displaced people within the context of the armed conflict. Findings suggest that, when addressing sexual violence, most judicial decrees identify armed actors as the main perpetrators of sexual violence and that when identifying risk factors, judicial decrees tend to stress the importance of the socio-demographic profile of the people attacked rather than the structural causes of the phenomena. Preventive measures are partially coherent with the diagnosis performed; however, some of them are not the most effective ones according to the specialized literature. http://ried.unizar.es/index.php/revista/pages/view/enprensa
... Located in the arid desert near Kenya's northwest border with South Sudan and Uganda, today Kakuma 1 houses approximately 185,000 refugees and is one of two areas where refugees can live legally in Kenya [60]. Kakuma faces everyday conflicts from overcrowding, malnourishment, tribal differences, gender-based violence, and camp-host frictions [25,50,68]. ...
Article
This paper explores computing education as a potential site for intercultural learning and encounter in post-conflict environments. It reports on ethnographic fieldwork from the Nairobi Play Project, a constructionist educational program serving adolescents aged 14-18 in urban and rural multi-ethnic refugee communities in Kenya. While the program offers programming and game design instruction, an equal goal is to foster interaction, collaboration, dialogue and understanding across cultural backgrounds. Based on fieldwork from two project cycles involving 5 after-school classes of 12-24 students each, we describe key affordances for encounter, important resistances to be managed or overcome, and emergent complications in the execution of such programs. We argue that many important accomplishments of intercultural learning occur through moments of friction, breakdowns, and gaps -- for example, technical challenges that produce sites of shared humour; frictions between intercultural activities and computing activities; acts of disrupting order; and unstructured time that students collaboratively fill in. We also describe significant complications in such programs, including pressures to adopt norms and practices consistent with dominant or majority cultures, and instances of intercultural bonding over artefacts with xenophobic themes. We reflect on the implications of these phenomena for the design of future programs that use computing as a backbone for intercultural learning or diversity and inclusion efforts in CSCW, ICTD, and allied fields of work.
... The discomfort during the winter was caused mainly because of draughts and gaps in the structure of shelters, and due to safety and a lack of resources that mean the gas heater can be used only for an average of 10 h a day. Author(s) Content of research Werker (2007) Analysis of the economy of the Kyangwali refugee camp in Uganda Dzeamesi (2008) Empirical evidence from Buduburam camp in Ghana to examine the options for transforming refugee communities into more developed societies Horn (2010) Exploration how refugees in Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya deal with intimate partner violence Mahamud et al. (2012) A case-control study to describe the cholera outbreak in the Kakuma camp Ramadan (2012) Spatial analysis of the refugee camp and daily life of the refugee population Versluis (2014) Tracking the distribution of material assistance in five refugee camps Dalal (2015) Description of the socio-economic dynamics in Zaatari camp in Jordan in relation to urbanisation and the economy of Jordan Albadra et al. (2017) Social and thermal comfort during summer and winter in camps for Syrian refugees in Jordan Alloush et al. (2017) Comparison of the economic life in three refugee camps in Rwanda for Congolese refugees and their interactions with the host community Barbieri et al. (2017) Analysis of the importance of food processing and cooking technologies in informal settlements and refugee camps Dhesi et al. (2017) Examining the health problems and health exclusion caused by poor health conditions in the camps Gengo et al. (2017) Analysis of the effects of refugee presence on the nutritional status of the host community Wachter et al. ...
Article
Purpose The aim of this paper was to investigate the criteria and sub-criteria with the most impact on determining a suitable location for refugee camps. This paper also analysed the relationships between the main criteria used in the selection process. Design/methodology/approach This study applied a combination of fuzzy methods and the Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) and Analytical Network Process (ANP) methods as tools for multiple-criteria decision analysis. A questionnaire was distributed to field workers in an international humanitarian organization team. Findings Five main criteria and twenty sub-criteria were defined. Between them, the highest ranked sub-criteria were long-term planning, optimal distribution and opportunity for growth. These findings were specific to the interviewed respondents of presented research at the time the data were collected and offer a potential research design for future research examining different organizations and teams. Research limitations/implications The methods and evaluation were based on human opinions that were potentially biased. Practical implications The results of this study could be useful to government organizations, UN agencies, humanitarian organizations and other decision-making parties in selecting camp locations for refugees or internally displaced people according to how the importance of particular sub-criteria is understood. Originality/value New sub-criteria were included in this research. To date, the combination of fuzzy, DEMATEL and ANP methods has not been previously used in relation to these issues. Scientific knowledge concerning refugee camp siting problems is limited. This research extends this knowledge with the involvement of humanitarian workers as respondents. This paper also offers organizations a process for solving complex decision-making problems with long-term results or effect.
... In Bangladesh, when men in ultra-poor households were offered interest-free loans to facilitate migration, seasonal male migration reduced female exposure to physical and/or sexual IPV over a six-month period by 3.5 percent (Mobarak and Ramos, 2019). Evidence focused on other crisis settings, including refugee camps and humanitarian assistance zones, confirms that when family members are in close proximity under conditions of duress for extended periods of time, rates of VAW/C increase (Wako et al., 2015;Falb et al., 2013;Horn, 2010). In many senses, forced quarantines and social isolation measures are analogous to settings where forcibly displaced persons are relocated (e.g. ...
Research
Full-text available
Times of economic uncertainty, civil unrest, and disaster are linked to a myriad of risk factors for increased violence against women and children (VAW/C). Pandemics are no exception. In fact, the regional or global nature and associated fear and uncertainty associated with pandemics provide an enabling environment that may exacerbate or spark diverse forms of violence. Understanding mechanisms underlying these dynamics are important for crafting policy and program responses to mitigate adverse effects. Based on existing published and grey literature, we document nine main (direct and indirect) pathways linking pandemics and VAW/C, through effects of (on): (1) economic insecurity and poverty-related stress, (2) quarantines and social isolation, (3) disaster and conflict-related unrest and instability, (4) exposure to exploitative relationships due to changing demographics, (5) reduced health service availability and access to first responders, (6) inability of women to temporarily escape abusive partners, (7) virus-specific sources of violence, (8) exposure to violence and coercion in response efforts, and (9) violence perpetrated against health care workers. We also suggest additional pathways with limited or anecdotal evidence likely to effect smaller subgroups. Based on these mechanisms, we suggest eight policy and program responses for action by governments, civil society, international and community-based organizations. Finally, as research linking pandemics directly to diverse forms of VAW/C is scarce, we lay out a research agenda comprising three main streams, to better (1) understand the magnitude of the problem, (2) elucidate mechanisms and linkages with other social and economic factors and (3) inform intervention and response options. We hope this paper can be used by researchers, practitioners, and policymakers to help inform further evidence generation and policy action while situating VAW/C within the broader need for intersectional gender-and feminist-informed pandemic response.
... Due to the curtailed freedom of refugees, for example, to work and create a livelihood, they remain trapped in encampment affecting women in the long run. Factors such as poverty and deprivation will inform the baseline of analysis between women refugees and their bodies being a center of frustration in the camps (Horn 2010). ...
... As emerging communities are resettled in new countries, networks and support systems that have existed for centuries struggle to survive the new culture (Mulholland et al., 2020). Culture shock and a disconnect from previously upheld values begin to erode as young members within a resettled community forego cultural norms and adapt to the host culture (Horn, 2010). Frustration and a sense of disorder occurs as the family paradigm shifts. ...
Article
Full-text available
South Sudanese families have faced many hardships in the process of acculturation to Australian society. This has led to rapid family breakdown amongst refugees from South Sudan who live in Melbourne, Australia, and has created tension between families, the wider South Sudanese community, and authorities. This qualitative study explores how shifting dynamics of religious faith, the concept of family and cultural values impacts South Sudanese families and young people. The study consisted of 23 semi-structured interviews, three focus groups and two feedback forums, gathering data from South Sudanese youth aged 14 to 21 years, social workers, elders and parents from the South Sudanese community. Several themes were identified including the impact of intergenerational conflict, coping with new freedoms in Australia, the associated tensions these freedoms create within the South Sudanese community, and young people’s conflict with religion. The patriarchal system that underpins the family structure of the South Sudanese culture is under significant strain as women and children are becoming aware of their rights, resulting in friction between men and women, parents and children. Male elders believed the embracing of freedom by women and children was at the core of family breakdown, leading to cultural erosion, and was the root of the problems experienced by the youth. The church as a traditional meeting place and a centre point for social inclusion within the South Sudanese community remains relevant as an important factor in social networking for parents and elders but lacks relevance for many South Sudanese youth.
... Not only is the home environment stressful and unsafe for women during the pandemic, but physical and sexual violence can also occur even at the quarantine camps as found in some past pandemic studies. Quarantine camps can lead to increased exposure to perpetrators, living in containment with decreased freedom and privacy, under circumstances of physical and psychological stress 63,64 . Such incidents can have adverse effects on mental health and may persist for years post-pandemic. ...
Article
Abstract Introduction: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has infected more than 10 million people globally and it caused more than 500 thousand deaths. Researchers have highlighted the need for early detection and intervention for psychological ill-effect of the pandemic on various population subgroups. Women may be more vulnerable in such a crisis phase. This review addresses the mental health needs of women and the kind of interventions needed to cater to their various psychological issues. Methodology: All existing literature was searched using PubMed, Google Scholar, and Medline databases for articles published on mental health aspects of women during COVID-19 pandemic. Only English language articles published till 15th June 2020 were considered for the review. Data were extracted by the authors from the selected articles and findings were synthesized in a narrative format. Results: From the available literature, following themes were identified for further discussion: sexual health and contraception, pregnancy, lactation, domestic abuse, female healthcare workers, women with pre-existing mental illness, women with substance use disorders, homeless women, refugees and professional sex workers. Studies have reported a higher burden of mental health issues in females than male counterparts, and an increase in domestic violence and crises for those at-risk (like refugees and women with pre-existing illnesses). Conclusion: Women mental health is compromised in many aspects due to COVID 19 pandemic. Findings stress upon the increased need for early detection and prompt intervention for women in the community to alleviate the long-term psychological consequences of this pandemic.
... It is important to identify risk and protective factors for such violence, and the means by which this information may be used to plan more effective prevention and response programs. For example, a study in Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya featured 18 refugee focus group discussions exploring the nature and consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV) in the camp and responses to IPV [11]. The study provided insights not only into how people interpreted the issue of IPV but also what were considered to be more effective response mechanisms such as traditional, familial or community-based responses rather than agency-led, formal interventions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Gender-based violence (GBV) is a significant problem in conflict-affected settings. Understanding local constructions of such violence is crucial to developing preventive and responsive interventions to address this issue. Methods This study reports on a secondary analysis of archived data collected as part of formative qualitative work – using a group participatory ranking methodology (PRM) – informing research on the prevalence of GBV amongst IDPs in northern Uganda in 2006. Sixty-four PRM group discussions were held with women, with men, with girls (aged 14 to 18 years), and with boys (aged 14 to 18 years) selected on a randomized basis across four internally displaced persons (IDP) camps in Lira District. Discussions elicited problems facing women in the camps, and – through structured participatory methods - consensus ranking of their importance and narrative accounts explaining these judgments. ResultsAmongst forms of GBV faced by women, rape was ranked as the greatest concern amongst participants (with a mean problem rank of 3.4), followed by marital rape (mean problem rank of 4.5) and intimate partner violence (mean problem rank of 4.9). Girls ranked all forms of GBV as higher priority concerns than other participants. Discussions indicated that these forms of GBV were generally considered normalized within the camp. Gender roles and power, economic deprivation, and physical and social characteristics of the camp setting emerged as key explanatory factors in accounts of GBV prevalence, although these played out in different ways with respect to differing forms of violence. Conclusions All groups acknowledged GBV to represent a significant threat - among other major concerns such as transportation, water, shelter, food and security – for women residing in the camps. Given evidence of the significantly higher risk in the camp of intimate partner violence and marital rape, the relative prominence of the issue of rape in all rankings suggests normalization of violence within the home. Programs targeting reduction in GBV need to address community-identified root causes such as economic deprivation and social norms related to gender roles. More generally, PRM appears to offer an efficient means of identifying local constructions of prevailing challenges in a manner that can inform programming.
... Due to the curtailed freedom of refugees, for example, to work and create a livelihood, they remain trapped in encampment affecting women in the long run. Factors such as poverty and deprivation will inform the baseline of analysis between women refugees and their bodies being a center of frustration in the camps (Horn 2010). ...
... Quanto à violência baseada em gênero, uma das mais comuns nesses lugares (Costa, 2006), há estudos mais descritivos, como sobre a violência por parceiro íntimo em Kakuma, no Quênia (Horn, 2010). Há ainda estudos mais prescritivos, como um que busca por justiça social para esse tipo de violência em um campo de Ruanda (Pavlish & Ho, 2009). ...
Preprint
Projeto de tese aprovado em exame de qualificação aos 24.10.2019.
... The UNHCR addresses gender-based violence (GBV) within refugee camps, recommending remediation through community involvement, male partner engagement, and implementation of staff training 37 . However, such programmes were not available for migrant women in this cohort and may not be universally appropriate to implement; Horn found that community action against GBV was often rejected by inhabitants of Kakuma refugee camp, Kenya 38 . This highlights the importance of assessing contextual compatibility of recommendations. ...
Article
Background Antepartum depression affects around 15% of pregnant women worldwide, and may negatively impact their infants' physical, cognitive and social development, and confer a greater risk of emotional dysregulation in their children. Risk factors for antepartum depression disproportionately affect women from resource-sparse settings. In particular, pregnant refugee and migrant women face many barriers to diagnosis and care of mental health conditions, yet this group is under-represented in the literature. This study explores what refugee and migrant women living along the Thai-Myanmar border perceive as being contributory and protective factors to their antepartum depression, through secondary qualitative analysis of responses to clinical interviews for depression. Methods Previous research investigating perinatal depression in pregnant refugee and migrant women on the Thai-Myanmar border involved assessing 568 women for depression, using the Structured Clinical Interview for the diagnosis of DSM-IV Disorders (SCID). This study analyses a subsample of 32 women, diagnosed with persistent depression during the antepartum period. Thematic analysis of responses to the SCID and social and demographic surveys was undertaken to investigate factors which contribute towards, or protect against, persistent antepartum depression. Results Major themes which women described as contributing towards persistent antepartum depression were financial problems, interpersonal violence, substance misuse among partners, social problems and poor health. Factors women considered as protecting mental wellbeing included social support, accessible healthcare and distractions, highlighting the need for focus on these elements within refugee and migrant settings. Commonly expressed phrases in local Karen and Burmese languages were summarised. Conclusions Knowledge of factors affecting mental wellbeing in the study population and how these are phrased, may equip stakeholders to better support women in the study area. This study highlighted the limitations of contextually generic diagnostic tools, and recommends the development of tools better suited to marginalised and non-English speaking groups.
... Nonetheless, the binary construction of identities that emerge in the present study are reminiscent of the ones in Wong and Sarah (2013), whereby they illuminate the deficit discourses and achievement discourses used to construct negative identities for refugees and positive identities for United Nations staff. Other studies that have a bearing to the findings of the present study include those of Hanson-Easey and Augoustinos (2010) and Horn (2010). The former study also focused on linguistic issues and applies CDA to interrogate how the news media uses collective identities in the construction of culture as a narrative. ...
Article
Full-text available
Dadaab refugee camp, located in the northern part of Kenya, is currently the world’s largest refugee camp in both size and population. Having been in existence for more than 25 years since the outbreak of civil war in Somalia and the subsequent disintegration and demise of the Somali state, since its inception, the camp has been a home to refugees fleeing from war and famine, not only from Somalia but also from Uganda, Ethiopia, The Democratic Republic of Congo, Eretrea and Sudan. This paper analyses the news articles on the quest to close Dadaab refugee camp by the Kenyan Government. Applying the analytic and conceptual tools of critical discourse analysis (CDA), the paper argues that underlying the openly stated reasons for proposing a closure of the camp by the Government of Kenya are subtle and latent geopolitical and economic arguments which are majorly tangential to the refugee question itself; and also explicates how the identities of the refugees at Dadaab were constructed, reconstructed, contested, negotiated, enacted and reproduced through language as both the government of Kenya and the international community advanced their various positions with regard to the proposed closure. It emerges that the refugees themselves were reduced to mere passive observers in a process that was inherently meant to define and decide their destiny.
... The empirical link between the availability of economic resources, fewer educational opportunities and violence risks has also been documented across other settings [27], including among displaced populations [28,29]. Our findings confirm the importance of addressing the underlying structural drivers of vulnerability to violence such as poverty, given the important role of economic concerns in terms of determining the social trajectories of Syrian adolescent girls and young women in this setting, and the consequences in terms of reinforcing restrictive gender norms. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background There is limited evidence regarding the ways in which displacement disrupts social norms, expectations and trajectories for adolescent girls and young women and the resulting impacts on their risks of violence. This knowledge gap is especially marked with regards to Syrian adolescent girls and young women seeking refuge in Turkey. We explored risks of gender-based violence against Syrian adolescent girls and young women in Turkey and examined how these risks were shaped by their displacement. Methods Data were collected in August 2016 in Izmir, Turkey through five sex-specific focus group discussions with Syrian adolescents and young people (aged 15–25 years) and two mixed gender focus group discussions with Syrian adults (18 years and older). Group discussions covered the issues facing Syrian adolescents and young women in Turkey, and how these were influenced by their displacement. Discussions in Arabic were audio-recorded, transcribed and translated into English. Data were coded inductively, and analysed thematically. Results Syrian adolescent girls and young women expressed an increased sense of vulnerability to violence since their displacement. Due to financial strains and limited educational opportunities, they were often encouraged by parents to work or marry, both of which they perceived to increase the risks of violence. In contrast, some adults suggested that marriage could protect adolescent girls and young women from risks of violence associated with working. Being alone outside the home was viewed as risky by all participants due to pervasive sexual, verbal and physical harassment, aggression, and even kidnapping attempts. To limit these risks, many parents reported keeping adolescent girls and young women at home, or ensuring that they were accompanied by male relatives when in public. Conclusions Syrian adolescent girls and young women face multiple risks of violence following displacement related to altered social trajectories. Some family-based strategies to protect young women from violence could reinforce restrictive gender norms and increase risks of violence. Interventions to address violence should include providing safe spaces, access to education and safe transport for young women, and financial support for families as well as community-based interventions to address the daily risks of sexual harassment in public spaces.
... Received 28 July 2017; Received in revised form 13 January 2018; Accepted 15 January 2018 likelihood of abuse disclosure is often limited for fear of social sanctions (Jayasuriya and Gibson, 2013). Research in settings where inter-and intra-household violence is common indicates that reporting abuse to authorities is often rare (Horn, 2010;Stark et al., 2013), demonstrating an underutilization of formal protection mechanisms that typically include law enforcement, social workers and other officials charged with child protection. ...
Article
Abstract Refugee adolescents face increased vulnerability to child protection risks including abuse, neglect, violence, and exploitation. The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the nature of violence against adolescents in Kiziba Camp, Rwanda, using an ecological framework to analyze the factors that influence protection risks and abuse disclosure across multiple system levels. In order to understand these issues more comprehensively, a transgenerational inquiry sought perceptions from both adolescents and their caregivers. In April 2016, as part of a larger, comprehensive study on adolescent protection, 19 focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 70 adolescents and 68 caregivers from the Democratic Republic of Congo. A qualitative content analysis identified three salient themes. First, structural protection risks exist for adolescents in Kiziba Camp, with economic insecurity and resource constraints resulting in specific risks such as overcrowded housing and adolescents traveling for firewood collection. Second, intergenerational conflict between caregivers and adolescents was perceived to negatively influence abuse disclosure. Lastly, protection mechanisms and reporting pathways were underutilized as caregivers and adolescents expressed concern over the shame, embarrassment, and social rejection that characterized formal disclosure in Kiziba, often rooted in restrictive and inequitable gender norms. These findings suggest that efforts at child protection should be multi-faceted and address structural aspects of risk; household levels of communication and trust; and societal norms that deter abuse reporting. The study also underscores the need for further research on risk and protective factors in camp settings to better tailor interventions aiming to reduce violence against children.
... Due to the curtailed freedom of refugees, for example, to work and create a livelihood, they remain trapped in encampment affecting women in the long run. Factors such as poverty and deprivation will inform the baseline of analysis between women refugees and their bodies being a center of frustration in the camps (Horn 2010). ...
... However, the study also showed that community measures do not necessarily result in the protection of abused women and can even support re-victimisation, as many women were blamed for their own abuse at the hands of their partners. 43,65 In addition, included literature also pointed towards the importance of changing harmful gender norms, raising public awareness about SV and providing economic opportunities to female refugees to decrease their vulnerability to repeated sexual exploitation as well as to address the underlying social mechanisms that lead to repeat abuse of female refugees. [40][41][42]45,50 Legal protection Five studies discussed legal interventions such as legal aid services and prosecution of SV offences but there was limited evidence regarding their effectiveness. ...
Article
Full-text available
Continuing international conflict has resulted in several million people seeking asylum in other countries each year, over half of whom are women. Their reception and security in overburdened camps, combined with limited information and protection, increases their risk and exposure to sexual violence (SV). This literature review explores the opportunities to address SV against female refugees, with a particular focus on low-resource settings. A systematic literature review of articles published between 2000 and 2016 was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Databases including Medline (Ovid), PubMed, Scopus, PsychINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Grey literature from key refugee websites were searched. Studies were reviewed for quality and analysed according to the framework outlined in the UNHCR Guidelines on Prevention and Response of Sexual Violence against Refugees. Twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 7 studies addressed prevention, 14 studies response and 8 addressed both. There are limited numbers of rigorously evaluated SV prevention and response interventions available, especially in the context of displacement. However, emerging evidence shows that placing a stronger emphasis on programmes in the category of engagement/participation and training/education has the potential to target underlying causes of SV. SV against female refugees is caused by factors including lack of information and gender inequality. This review suggests that SV interventions that engage community members in their design and delivery, address harmful gender norms through education and advocacy, and facilitate strong cooperation between stakeholders, could maximise the efficient use of limited resources.
... In general, stress related to conflict has been found to be a potential trigger for gender-based violence, particularly intimate partner violence, or it may exacerbate ongoing violence (Wirtz, Glass, Pham, Aberra, Rubenstein, Singh and Vu 2013;Annan and Brier 2010;Horn 2010). Evidence suggests that prolonged exposure to violence increases the risk of accumulation of daily stressors such as an insecure economic environment, where the resulting stress may also aggravate violence within the family structure (Stark and Ager 2011; Wirtz et al. 2013;HSRP 2012;Llosa, Casas, Thomas, Mairai, Grais and Moro 2012). ...
... Critically, and with reference to the Democratic Republic of Congo, Eriksson Baaz and Stern draw attention to the currency of this form of violence when they argue that 'it is sexual violence that has drawn the lion's share of attention, especially among "outside" observers' (Eriksson Baaz and Stern 2013: 5-6). 1 Given the amount of attention, one might wonder how prevalent gender-based violence is in situations of displacement. Interestingly, very few studies have been made on the prevalence of the phenomenon, as most of the policy-oriented literature is concerned with finding solutions and with evaluating the policy initiatives that have been put in place so far (Hynes and Cardozo 2000;Annan and Brier 2010;Horn 2010). They take for granted that gender-based violence is particularly rife in situations of displacement, and they take it as a common point of departure rather than something that needs to be explored. ...
Chapter
This articles questions some of the assumptions that implicitly lie behind many policy papers, reports and academic articles that are concerned with conflict, forced migration and sexual and gender based violence. It argues that despite the good intentions of wanting to combat such violence, many of these studies and reports rely on assumptions that conflict and displacement lead not only to societal breakdown but also to a breakdown of social and moral norms. Once these norms have broken down, it is assumed, subaltern, male sexualities are left untamed. The article argues that humanitarian discourse thus – despite its good intentions – reproduces orientalist and neo-colonial assumptions about violence and sexuality in the Global South. The article is based on a critical reading of policy reports and studies by refugee scholars and practitioners.
... To explain such disparities, McIllwaine (2013) notes that while some underlying risk factors of domestic violence are especially acute in cities, others are less prominent. On the one hand, domestic violence is related to stress, and routine violence in urban communities aggravates these stressors (Wirtz et al. 2014;Horn 2010;Annan and Brier 2010). However, cities also provide opportunities for the economic empowerment of women (e.g. in Ghana in Mueller and Tranchant, forthcoming), and stronger norms around gender equality can help prevent violence against women. ...
... Others have centered their analysis on the 'domestic', tracing the longer term and privatized impacts of warfare on partners and their families. Here feminist scholars have examined the heightening of domestic violence amongst refugees living with the stressors of conflictinduced loss, flight, dislocation and resettlement (Carlson 2005;Horn 2010;Ondeko and Purdue 2004;Szczepanikova 2008). In turn, work has examined the experiences of refugees resettled in the global north who, along with other immigrant communities, also face a host of overlapping factors that can heighten vulnerability to domestic violence. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent feminist geographic scholarship insists we rethink domestic violence as ‘intimate war’. Using this concept I analyze narratives of violence and resistance articulated by U.S.-resettled South Sudanese women and collected in the wake of a fatal incidence of domestic violence in 2005. One of a spate of intimate partner murders that shook the community at this time, this tragic event spurred debates about shifting gender norms, the stresses and opportunities of life in the diaspora, and the irradicable legacies of war. Bringing Pain and Staeheli's ‘intimacy-geopolitics’ to bear on this particularly violent, momentary and publicized aggression, I situate it within a more complex, quotidian, and dynamic terrain of power. In line with feminist political geography, this analysis complicates scalar distinctions of body, home and nation-state, demonstrating the common foundations of ‘private’, domestic and ‘public’, state-sanctioned violences. Inspired by Katz’s countertopographical approach, I extend our understanding of intimate war by contouring moments of violence and resistance in a diasporic context, over the lifecourse of refugee women, and across their sites of flight, displacement and resettlement. Tracing the mobilities of intimate war in this way productively reveals the spatial and temporal, as well as scalar, folds that may form part of its foundation.
... The effect of quarantines that have become common amid the COVID-19 pandemic may also precipitate social effects as evidenced on health emergencies such as SARS, Swine Flu, and in uenza which were associated with problematic coping behaviours and psychosocial complications [28][29][30][31][32]. Restriction of movement can be challenging for parenting with increases in abuse meted against children due to a con uence of school closures, stress, fear, and uncertainty [33]. Evidence also shows that quarantines have been generally associated with violence against women and children through increasing their day-to-day exposure to potential perpetrators [27,[34][35][36][37]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The effects of COVID-19 on harmful traditional practices such Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) and Child, Early or Forced Marriages (CEFM) have not been well documented. We examined how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected FGM/C and CEFM in Kenya, Uganda, Senegal, and Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design with a mixed methods approach was used. Household surveys targeting women and men aged 15–49 years in Kenya (n = 312), Uganda (n = 278), Ethiopia (n = 251), and Senegal (n = 208) were conducted. Thirty-eight in-depth interviews with programme implementers and policymakers were carried out in Kenya (n = 17), Uganda (n = 9), Ethiopia (n = 8), and Senegal (n = 4). Results In Kenya, the COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to the increase in both FGM/C and CEFM cases. Minimal increase of FGM/C cases was reported in Uganda and a significant increase in CEFM cases. In Ethiopia, the COVID-19 pandemic had a limited effect on changes in FGM/C and CEFM. In Senegal, there were minimal effects of COVID-19 on the number of FGM/C and CEFM cases. The pandemic has negatively affected implementation of interventions by the justice and legal system, the health system, and civil societies. Conclusions The pandemic has had varied effects on FGM/C and CEFM across the four countries. Across the four countries, the pandemic has negatively affected implementation of interventions by the various sectors that are responsible for preventing and responding to FGM/C and CEFM. This calls for innovative approaches in intervening in the various communities to ensure that women and girls at risk of FGM/C and CEFM or in need of services are reached during the pandemic. Evidence on how effective alternative approaches such as the use of call centres, radio talk shows and the use of local champions as part of risk communication in preventing and responding to FGM/C and CEFM amid COVID-19 is urgently required.
... Mapping the IPV services within Nyarugusu revealed a complex inter-institutional context comprised of both formal and informal services, which is similar to the organization of the IPV services described in other refugee camp settings [56]. We identified nine governmental or non-governmental organizations providing formal services to survivors of IPV in Nyarugusu Refugee Camp. ...
Article
Full-text available
Inter-agency guidelines recommend that survivors of intimate partner violence in humanitarian settings receive multisectoral services consistent with a survivor-centered approach. Providing integrated services across sectors is challenging, and aspirations often fall short in practice. In this study, we explore factors that influence the implementation of a multisectoral, integrated intervention intended to reduce psychological distress and intimate partner violence in Nyarugusu Refugee Camp, Tanzania. We analyzed data from a desk review of donor, legal, and policy documents; a gender-based violence services mapping conducted through 15 interviews and 6 focus group discussions; and a qualitative process evaluation with 29 stakeholders involved in the implementation of the integrated psychosocial program. We identified the challenges of implementing a multisectoral, integrated intervention for refugee survivors of intimate partner violence at the structural, inter-institutional, intra-institutional, and in social and interpersonal levels. Key determinants of successful implementation included the legal context, financing, inter-agency coordination, engagement and ownership, and the ability to manage competing priorities. Implementing a multisectoral, integrated response for survivors of intimate partner violence is complex and influenced by interrelated factors from policy and financing to institutional and stakeholder engagement. Further investment in identifying strategies to overcome the existing challenges of implementing multisectoral approaches that align with global guidelines is needed to effectively address the burden of intimate partner violence in humanitarian settings.
... These examples of health emergencies were associated with problematic coping behaviours and psychosocial complications [28][29][30][31][32]. Restriction of movement can be challenging for parenting with increases in abuse meted against children due to a confluence of school closures, stress, fear, and uncertainty [33]. Evidence also shows that quarantines have been generally associated with violence against women and children through increasing their day-to-day exposure to potential perpetrators [27,[34][35][36][37]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The effects of COVID-19 on harmful traditional practices such Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) and Child or Forced Marriages (CFM) have not been well documented. We examined respondents’ perceptions on how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected FGM/C and CFM in Kenya, Uganda, Senegal, and Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design with a mixed methods approach was used. Data collection on participants’ perceptions on the effects of COVID-19 on FGM/C and CFM took place between October-December 2020. Household surveys targeting women and men aged 15–49 years in Kenya ( n = 312 ), Uganda ( n = 278 ), Ethiopia ( n = 251 ), and Senegal ( n = 208 ) were conducted. Thirty-eight key informant interviews with programme implementers and policymakers were carried out in Kenya ( n = 17 ), Uganda ( n = 9 ), Ethiopia ( n = 8 ), and Senegal ( n = 4 ). Results In Kenya, the COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to the increase in both FGM/C and CFM cases. Minimal increase of FGM/C cases was reported in Uganda and a significant increase in CFM cases. In Ethiopia, the COVID-19 pandemic had a limited perceived effect on changes in FGM/C and CFM. In Senegal, there were minimal perceived effects of COVID-19 on the number of FGM/C and CFM cases. The pandemic negatively affected implementation of interventions by the justice and legal system, the health system, and civil societies. Conclusions The pandemic has had varied perceived effects on FGM/C and CFM across the four countries. Generally, the pandemic has negatively affected implementation of interventions by the various sectors that are responsible for preventing and responding to FGM/C and CFM. This calls for innovative approaches in intervening in the various communities to ensure that women and girls at risk of FGM/C and CFM or in need of services are reached during the pandemic. Evidence on how effective alternative approaches such as the use of call centres, radio talk shows and the use of local champions as part of risk communication in preventing and responding to FGM/C and CFM amid COVID-19 is urgently required.
... Over the last decade, a growing evidence base suggests that most acts of GBV perpetrated in humanitarian settings occur at the household and community level [8]. Humanitarian emergencies can intensify conflict within families; economic losses put strain on households, and rapidly changing gender norms triggered by displacement and other stressors can initiate or exacerbate existing cycles of domestic violence [6,[9][10][11]. Global evidence from both non-humanitarian and humanitarian settings confirms that intimate partner violence (IPV) and violence against children (VAC) by their caregivers frequently co-occur in the same households [12][13][14][15]. Additionally, while substantially under researched in low-and middle-income countries, several studies from high income settings suggest that sibling violence also co-occurs with IPV and VAC, and further contributes to cycles of polyvictimization within households [16][17][18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Household violence is one of the most prevalent forms of gender-based violence faced by adolescent girls in humanitarian settings. A growing evidence base demonstrates the extent to which multiple forms of familial violence, including intimate partner violence, violence against children, and sibling violence overlap in the same households. However, existing evidence of family support programming that effectively reduces violence against girls by addressing intersecting forms of household violence are limited, particularly in the Global South. Through a qualitative implementation evaluation informed by a grounded theoretical approach, we explored the perceived impact of a gender transformative, whole-family support intervention aimed at building adolescent girls’ protective assets against violence, among program participants in two communities of internally displaced people Maiduguri, Borno State, Northeast Nigeria. Methods We conducted six in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions with adult caregivers; six participatory activities and four paired interviews with adolescent girls and boys; and 12 key informant interviews with program staff. Criterion sampling was used to recruit 21 male caregivers, 21 female caregivers, 23 adolescent boys, and 21 adolescent girls; purposive sampling was used to recruit 12 program staff to participate in qualitative research activities. We audio recorded, translated, and transcribed all interviews. In a collaborative coding process, a multi-stakeholder team used applied thematic analysis in Dedoose to identify emergent themes in the data. Results Participants reported a decreased tolerance for and perpetration of violence against girls at the household level, and endorsed their right to protection from violence at the community level. However, alongside these self-reported changes in attitude and behavior, aspects of normative, patriarchal norms governing the treatment of adolescent girls were maintained by participants. Conclusions This study builds the evidence base for gender transformative, whole-family support programming and its impact on preventing violence against adolescent girls in humanitarian emergencies. Situating our findings in a feminist analysis of violence, this study calls attention to the complexity of gender norms change programming amongst families in conflict-affected settings, and highlights the need for programming which holistically addresses the relational, community, and structural drivers of violence against girls in emergencies.
... Cultural norms and fear of being ostracized prevent women from reporting to the police or accessing legal services (Horn 2009;Shalabi et al. 2015). Thus, informal support networks may be more acceptable than seeking help from the police or legal sources due to experiences such as racial prejudice and discrimination. ...
Article
Immigrant and refugee women are at high risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) and intimate partner homicide (IPH). Given the growing number of immigrants and refugees in the US and the concerns about IPV and IPH among immigrant and refugee groups, this paper aims to identify survivors and practitioners’ perceptions of (a) common and culturally specific risk and protective factors for IPV and IPH for immigrant and refugee women and (b) areas of safety planning interventions for survivors who are at risk for severe or lethal violence by an intimate partner. Qualitative data for this multi-site study were collected from women and practitioners residing in seven geographically diverse US locations. Eighty-three in-depth interviews were conducted with adult immigrant and refugee survivors of IPV, who identified as Asian (n = 30), Latina (n = 30), and African (n = 23). Additionally, nine focus groups and five key informant interviews were conducted with practitioners (n = 62) who serve immigrant and refugee survivors of IPV. Results revealed multilevel risk and protective factors for IPV/IPH found at the societal level (e.g., patriarchal cultural norms), relationship level (e.g., partner abusive behaviors), and individual level (e.g., acculturation in the US). These findings can inform the development of culturally responsive risk assessment and safety planning interventions across legal, social service, and healthcare settings.
Chapter
On settlement to Australia, the refugee men regained civil rights they had lost as a result of forced migration. The men’s traditional rights as citizens of their ethnic communities continued to influence their views about entitlements in organising and pursuing intimacies in Australia. However, the men’s traditional rights were now challenged by legislations and the new ways of life in Australia that increasingly protected the rights of women and children. For some men, the complexity of understanding their entitlements to their traditional rights in Australia was aggravated by multiculturalism, a policy that encourages migrants to retain their cultural traditions in a predominantly Anglo-centric society. This became a foundation for new claims of recognition of traditional intimacy rights by these men—claims that allow us to see the nexus between intimacy, citizenship and migration.
Article
Using qualitative data from 21 group discussions and unique survey data from a representative cross-section of 439 women in the Gaza Strip, we investigate how the Israeli military operation “Protective Edge” in 2014 influenced domestic violence (DV), accounting for risk factors at different levels of the ecological model. We combine our survey data with secondary data on infrastructure destruction across Gaza’s neighborhoods, and use propensity score matching techniques to address endogeneity concerns. Our results show that the military operation increased DV, and that this effect manifests itself at relatively low-levels of destruction. Our analysis suggests that the mechanisms are displacement, a lowered ability of married women to contribute to household decision-making, and reduced social support networks.
Chapter
African migration may only recently have gained greater public visibility, but it has long been a transformative force in Africa linked to a long history of incorporation into successive geo‐political systems of global domination and exploitation. This chapter highlights anthropological research in Africa that featured prominently in creating and orienting the new interdisciplinary field of forced migration studies. It plots how Harrell‐Bond and other anthropologists shaped the scope of the field through works that insisted on critically questioning the categorizations used by policy‐makers to distinguish and demarcate the displaced from other migrants. The chapter tracks some of the key problematics that Africanist anthropologists have explored as they have studied all of different forced migrant populations, including social differentiation and social transformation. It briefly discusses some of the ways in which the anthropological study of African displacement has set the stage for new directions in Africanist anthropology.
Article
War and interpersonal violence together account for a large burden on global health. Yet very few studies look at the relationship between these types of aggression. Non-partner physical violence (NPPV) is an often-understudied form of gender-based violence (GBV). This analysis draws on two datasets from one conflict-affected country, Liberia, to evaluate the impact of conflict on NPPV post-conflict. The Armed Conflict Location and Event Dataset (ACLED) measures the intensity of the conflict in Liberia from 1999-2003, while the Demographic and Heath Survey (DHS) data measure women's experiences with violence four years post-conflict. Almost half of women surveyed (45%) indicated that they experienced any kind of NPPV, highlighting the widespread nature of this issue. A multilevel modelling approach was used to account for the nesting of individuals within districts. Women living in districts that experienced conflict events in four or five years were almost three times as likely (aOR 2.93, p < .001) to experience past-year NPPV compared to individuals living in no conflict districts. Findings from this study suggest women residing in a conflict event-affected district may be at heightened risk of increased violence even years after peace is declared.
Article
A high prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) has been documented among women living in conflict-affected and refugee-hosting areas, but why this occurs is not well understood. Conflict and displacement deteriorate communities’ social cohesion and community connectedness; these neighborhood social environments may influence individual IPV outcomes. We explored neighborhood-level social disorganization and cohesion as predictors of recent IPV in refugee-hosting communities in northern Ecuador by conducting multi-level logistic regression on a longitudinal sample of 1,312 women. Neighborhood social disorganization was marginally positively associated with emotional IPV (AOR: 1.17, 95% CI: .99, 1.38) and physical and/or sexual IPV (AOR: 1.20, 95% CI: .96, 1.51). This was partially mediated by neighborhood-level civic engagement in the case of emotional IPV. At the household level, perceived discrimination and experience of psychosocial stressors were risk factors for both types of IPV, whereas social support was protective. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to examine how neighborhood social factors influence IPV outcomes in refugee-hosting communities or in South America. As the world grapples with the largest number of displaced people in history, this research can inform prevention and response programming and reinforces the critical importance of promoting acceptance of refugees and immigrants and positively engaging all community members in civic life in refugee-hosting settings.
Research
Gender-based violence (GBV) is one of the most prevalent risks to people affected by conflict. Though GBV is rooted in pre-conflict conditions, the circumstances within the refugee settlement exacerbate such problems, thereby demanding more concrete plans of actions. Despite the existence of refugee policies geared towards the prevention, protection and recovery from GBV, there are still many barriers that discourage GBV survivors from seeking help. Capitalizing on data collected in Uganda from among South Sudanese refugees and relevant support/service providers for GBV help-seeking this report addresses questions on refugees’ recognition of violence, their pathways in help-seeking, and the barriers to receiving further assistance. The report also looks into the obstacles for providers of support and services, and their recommendations on how to improve service delivery. The report is based on field research conducted as part of JICA Research Institute’s research project “Conflict and Gender Based Violence: The role of aid in help-seeking and recovery process for victims.”
Article
Full-text available
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) continues to be a serious problem worldwide. South Africa has a high prevalence of women experiencing IPV. Although much research reports on the prevalence rates, risk factors, and consequences of IPV, fewer studies report on how women deal with the experiences of IPV. Objective: This systematic review of the empirical literature aimed to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on women's experiences of coping with IPV in South Africa. Methods: A four-level search and retrieval strategy using PRISMA and JBI guidelines was conducted, which included critical appraisal, study selection, data extraction, and data synthesis. Ten studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. They were assessed to meet a set threshold (7/10) based on the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Qualitative Research. All studies were conducted between 2010 and 2020, conducted in South Africa, and used qualitative methodologies to accomplish the overall aim of investigating IPV experiences of women and their responses to it. Results: The total number of women included in the studies was 159. The data extraction yielded 49 findings of which 47 were aggregated into 14 categories and three themes: (1) help- and support-seeking coping, (2) emotional regulation coping, and (3) problem avoidance and distraction coping. Help- and support-seeking coping refers to women's responses when they seek instrumental aid, advice, comfort, and/or understanding from others. Emotional regulation includes responses of women in which their emotions were expressed or regulated. Problem avoidance and distraction coping represent responses of women in which they take efforts to avoid thinking about the problem situation and rather reshift their focus. Conclusion: Overall, this review found that a variety of coping responses are used by South African women experiencing IPV. The findings point to the need for understanding IPV and responses to it within a broader social context rather than just at the personal level. Approaching IPV at many levels may lead to a change in societal norms, better access to and delivery of services to IPV survivors, more functional family affairs, and personal well-being and improved quality of life.
Chapter
Full-text available
Rohingya crisis is a long-standing festering issue where human rights should have been the focus. But that is not happening. It is being dwarfed by geopolitics, ethnicity, and religion. Here Buddhism—along with ethnicity—is coming at odds with Islam. There are reports of state-sponsored genocide against the Rohingya Muslims, aided by ultra-nationalist Buddhists monks. As a sequel, thousands of Rohingya refugees have taken shelter in a neighboring country such as Bangladesh. Even Malaysia and Saudi Arabia are sheltering them. The worst atrocities that befell on the Rohingyas—resulting in one million moved out of the country—were in August 2017 that started in 1977–1978. The exodus of refugees started from then onwards. The world conscience is stirred by this traumatic event, but no concrete and concerted efforts are being undertaken—even at the UN level—to stop this carnage. It is felt it is the geopolitical interests of China, India, and Russia that are dwarfing this disconcerting human tragedy. The paper attempts to address the issue mostly highlighting genocide, geopolitics, and ethnicity part of the crisis.
Chapter
Gender-based violence (GBV) has been recognized as a significant problem among forcibly displaced communities, like those in refugee camps. Since the adaptation of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, significant progress has been made by the international community and the UN member countries to respond to GBV. However, responding to only those who seek help is not enough to prevent more GBV from happening. More, the acknowledged perception of GBV as a taboo that invites social stigma heightens the challenge of supporting all its survivors. To find a more effective way to provide support to these “neglected” survivors, the paper identifies the GBV help-seeking pathways and barriers that are recognized in refugee communities. To examine these, field research was conducted in six refugee settlement areas in Uganda. Twelve focus group discussions (6 male and 6 female groups) were conducted and participated in by refugees from various ethnic groups in South Sudan. The paper explored how South Sudanese refugees in those settlements recognized GBV including their help-seeking pathways and identified what constitutes their decision to seek help/not seek help for themselves and even for others. The study confirmed that after residing in the settlement for several years, refugees’ GBV concerns are mainly domestic violence between partners rather than sexual violence committed by strangers. Their existing socio-cultural norms, the current referral mechanisms for help seeking within the refugee communities, and low expectation of outside services are barriers to refugees’ GBV help seeking. The paper finally recommended two forms for support. First is the support for social transformation on the existing gender norms within refugee communities, and second is the provision of material resources and capacity building for service providers in host-communities.
Book
Full-text available
Chapter
This chapter explains that to choose political institutions for a divided society, one must look not just at the political practices of diverse groups but most importantly at their political ideals. Conducting an empirical analysis, this study reveals that despite the prominence of centrifugal practices in Afghanistan, the general political ideals are centripetal. In other words, a concurrent majority of ethnic groups demand representation through an inclusive political arrangement that would rather diminish the role of ethnicity in power and politics. Therefore, to level up its political practices to its ideals, Afghanistan needs institutional designs that while incentivizing inclusion and pluralism do not require power sharing to be explicitly and solely based on ethnic affiliations.
Article
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most common form of violence against women in both conflict and non-conflict settings but in conflict settings it often receives less attention than other forms of gender-based violence (GBV), such as conflict-related sexual violence. To examine whether increased rates of IPV are linked to conflict we use data from Domestic Violence module of the Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) collected in 2008 and 2013 and spatially link them to the Boko Haram (BH) actor file of the Armed Conflict Location and Events Database (ACLED). To estimate whether the BH insurgency is associated with increases in IPV we use a quasi-experimental approach, employing a kernel-based difference-in-difference model. We also examine the effect of the BH insurgency on women’s likelihood of experiencing controlling behavior from a husband or partner, women’s autonomy in household decision-making and their control over their own earnings. We find that the presence of BH increases the probability that women experience physical or sexual IPV by about 4 percentage points after controlling for known correlates of IPV; partner’s alcohol use, previous exposure to IPV and condoning IPV as a social norm. Further, we find controlling behaviors from husbands/partners – another form of IPV - are heightened in locations that are impacted by the BH insurgency. In these places women’s risk of experiencing controlling behavior increases by 14 percentage points, indicating that the BH insurgency exacerbates another form of IPV; behaviors that are often pre-cursors to physical and sexual IPV. Our results underscore the need for policy makers to prioritize programs that respond to and prevent IPV in conflict affected settings. Effective program responses can be both integrated into sectoral programs and delivered as standalone programs alongside other interventions that provide services to communities living in conflict-affected settings.
Article
This paper evaluates the impacts of armed conflict on intimate partner violence against women in Africa. Exploiting both spatial and temporal variations in the number of battles proxying for armed conflict intensity, we find that women residing in conflict-affected areas are prone to suffering intimate partner violence. In particular, a 1SD increase in the number of battles (equivalent to the increase by 4.8 battles) raises the composite indices of less severe violence, more severe violence, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse against women by 8.74%, 10.34%, 10.64%, and 7.14% relative to the sample averages, respectively. Given the long-term consequences of intimate partner violence, our findings call for expanding efforts in the prevention and mitigation of armed conflict.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Gender based violence (GBV) remains one of the most serious threats to the health and safety of women and girls worldwide. The problem is even more pronounced in refugee populations where women and girls are at increased risk of violence. In 2015, UNHCR reported the highest number of forcibly displaced people in recorded history. Despite growing need, there have been few rigorous evaluations of interventions aimed at primary GBV prevention and no systematic reviews of GBV prevention efforts specifically focused on refugee populations; reviews to date have primarily examined prevention of conflict related sexual violence, with very limited focus on other forms of GBV such as intimate partner violence Methods: This study reviewed the scientific literature addressing strategies for primary prevention of GBV and their effectiveness among refugee populations over the past ten years (2006 to 2015). Narrative content analysis methods were used to extract findings related to prevention activities/programs recommended by the global humanitarian community, such as sociocultural norms change, rebuilding family and community support structures, improving accountability systems, designing effective services and facilities, working with formal and traditional legal systems, monitoring and documenting GBV, and/or engaging men and boys in GBV prevention and response. Results: Study findings indicate that a range of GBV prevention activities recommended by the global humanitarian community are currently being applied in a variety of settings. However, there remains a limited body of evidence on the effectiveness of GBV prevention programs, interventions, and strategies, especially among refugee populations. Conclusion: Commonly agreed upon standards or guidelines for evaluation of GBV prevention programming, and publication of evaluations conducted using these guidelines, could assist humanitarian stakeholders to build and disseminate an evidence base of effective GBV prevention interventions, programs and strategies. Evaluation of GBV prevention efforts, especially among refugee populations, must be given higher priority to justify continuation or revision of recommended GBV activities/programs being implemented in diverse humanitarian settings.
Chapter
Full-text available
The focus on refugee women as mandating specific policies and as a distinct subject of inquiry may be traced back to the mid-1970s. This was a time of a growing awareness of women’s rights, and of the importance of women’s role in the development process, in general and in particular with regard to refugee women. The following 20 years were marked by the proclamation of the UN decade for women, the 1985 Nairobi conference and the 1995 Beijing Platform of Actions which highlighted the situation of refugee women as an area of special concern and gave a new impetus to international and local efforts. Yet, the incorporation of women within the field of refugee policies and refugee studies has been slow, marginal and contradicted by broader structural constraints although marked by important steps towards ending the marginalisation of the issue, including the creation of the position of the UNHCR refugee women’s coordinator and the Beijing Platform for Action. The UNHCR, in its never-ending quest for durable solutions, has embarked on worldwide repatriation policies which largely undermine, when they do not contradict outright, the organisation’s protection mandate and, in particular, the protection of refugee women. The discrepancy between the public relation statement ‘women and children represent 80 per cent of the world refugee population’ repeated ad nauseam and the ‘voluntary’ return (at the barrel of a gun) of a number of these very refugee women and children painfully demonstrates the limits of the rights and protection framework put forward in Beijing, and the obstacles faced in its translation into practice.
Article
Full-text available
This article aims to give an account of how refugees' family relations are constructed in exile. It is based on fieldwork conducted among Chechen asylum seekers living in a refugee camp in the Czech Republic in April 2004. It argues that although traditional norms defining women's and men's position in Chechen families have often been transgressed in the actual experiences of men and women in situations of emergency such as war, flight and life in the camp, they remain relatively unchanged at the level of refugees' ideal notions of femininity and masculinity. It also shows that the environment of the refugee camp provides, on the one hand, some opportunities for the increase of women's power in the family and men's involvement in childcare and household duties. But on the other hand, the assistance in the camp is based on an undiversified and gender-blind perception and construction of refugees as passive objects of aid, and latently sustains gendered violence.
Article
Full-text available
This study uses qualitative methods to examine how domestic violence affects the use of contraceptives by women in a rural village in India. The study highlights how multilevel factors are linked to a woman's ability to contracept and make fertility decisions in a context where being a wife implies obedience, limited mobility, sexual availability, and high fertility. The authors find that violence is normalized, or considered acceptable, if women do not adhere to expected gender roles. Although women's ability to make autonomous decisions is shown to be limited, the study explores covert strategies used to avoid pregnancy, which also tend to increase women's risk of experiencing domestic violence.
Article
Full-text available
Violence against women is pervasive in South Africa where, as in many other countries, cultural values and norms serve to condone and reinforce abusive practices against women. Primary health care nurses, who are widely distributed throughout the rural areas, may appear to be an ideal network for addressing this issue in resource-poor settings. However, based on a qualitative and quantitative study of a class of 38 PHC nurses, this paper emphasises that the nurses are women and men first—and as such, experience the same cultural values, and indeed, similar or higher levels of violence, as the clients they are expected to counsel and treat.
Article
Despite numerous studies that report the preponderance of domestic violence is perpetrated by men against women, other empirical studies suggest that rates of domestic violence by women and men are equivalent. This article explores these claims of gender symmetry in intimate partners' use of violence by reviewing the empirical foundations of the research and critiquing existing sources of data on domestic violence. The author suggests methods to reconcile the disparate data and encourages researchers and practitioners to acknowledge women's use of violence while understanding why it tends to be very different from violence by men toward their female partners.
Chapter
This chapter discusses the impact-moral, emotional, psychological, and behavioral-of long-term stays in refugee camps. It also attempts to identify those factors that lead refugees to stay for years at a time in camps and suggests some solutions, such as protecting their freedom of movement and enabling their speedier integration into host country economics.
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Book
It is estimated that at least 33 million people around the world have been displaced from their homes by war or persecution. Numerous studies have documented high rates of psychological distress among these survivors of extreme violence and forced migration, yet very few have access to clinic-based mental health care. In any case, clinic-based services cannot adequately address the constellation of displacement-related stressors that affect refugees daily, whether in a new region of their homeland or a new country--stressors such as social isolation, the loss of previously valued social roles, poverty and a lack of employment opportunities, and difficulties obtaining education and medical care. Additionally, many refugees from non-western societies find western methods of psychiatric and psychological healing culturally alien or stigmatizing, and therefore underutilize such services. This book brings together an international group of experts on the mental health of refugees who have pioneered a new approach to healing the psychological wounds of war and forced migration. Their work is guided by an ecological model, which, in contrast to the prevailing medical model of psychiatry and clinical psychology, emphasizes the development of culturally grounded mental health interventions in non-stigmatized community settings. The ecological model also prioritizes synergy with natural community resources to promote adaptation, prevention over treatment, the active involvement of community members in all phases of the intervention process, and the empowerment of marginalized communities to address their own mental health needs. Drawing on their expertise in community psychology, prevention science, anthropology, social psychology, social psychiatry, public health and child development, the authors present a variety of highly innovative, culturally grounded interventions designed to improve the mental health and psychosocial well-being of communities that have survived the nightmares of political repression, civil war, and genocide. They discuss the various conceptions of well-being and distress that have informed their projects, their own integrations of western and indigenous approaches to understanding and relieving psychological distress, and in several instances their creative use of well-trained paraprofessionals. They examine with remarkable candor the challenges they have faced in carrying out their work in extraordinarily demanding conditions. An extended introductory chapter reviews and analyzes what we know about the impact of political violence and exile on mental health, and lays out the ecological model in rich theoretical and empirical context. The first of two concluding chapters addresses the critical and often-neglected issue of the evaluation of community-based interventions in conflict and post-conflict settings; the second sums up the implications of the achievements and limitations of the programs described, poses questions that must be answered, such as "How adequate is the PTSD construct in capturing the nature of refugee trauma?", and suggests numerous directions for future research and practice. The Mental Health of Refugees: Ecological Approaches to Healing and Adaptation is an essential reference for all professionals who seek to serve members of this vulnerable population, for those who train and supervise them, and for program administrators and policymakers concerned with refugee well-being. It is also an excellent resource for graduate courses in public mental health, community psychology and psychiatry, refugee and immigrant studies, psychological trauma, medical anthropology, and ethnopolitical violence.
Article
This article examines the problem of insecurity in two refugee-populated areas of Kenya: Kakuma, in the north-west of the country, and Dadaab, in the north-east. It provides a typology of the security incidents which occur most commonly in these areas and examines the steps which UNHCR and other humanitarian organizations have taken to address the problem. Explaining why these measures have failed to reduce the high level of violence that takes place in and around the country's refugee camps, the article focuses on three related issues: the political economy of the Kenyan state; the manner in which the government and other actors have sought to manage the country's refugee situation; and the characteristics and circumstances of the refugees themselves.
Article
Despite numerous studies that report the preponderance of domestic violence is perpe- trated by men against women, other empirical studies suggest that rates of domestic vio- lence by women and men are equivalent. This article explores these claims of gender sym- metry in intimate partners' use of violence by reviewing the empirical foundations of the research and critiquing existing sources of data on domestic violence. The author sug- gests methods to reconcile the disparate data and encourages researchers and practi- tioners to acknowledge women's use of violence while understanding why it tends to be very different from violence by men toward their female partners. Domestic violence has emerged as one of the world's most pressing problems. The United Nations estimates that between 20% and 50% of all women worldwide have experienced physical violence at the handsof intimate partnersor family members(Leeman, 2000; United NationsPopulation Fund, 2000). In the United States, more than 1 million cases of intimate partner violence are reported to police each year according to the U.S. Department of Justice (see Goldberg, 1999). One of the major platforms for action adopted at the World Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995 wasthe prevention and elimination of violence agains t women and girls. Efforts to prevent domestic violence and to facilitate the suc- cessful prosecution of batterers have followed research and
Article
For children, who comprise approximately half the population of Angola, the war has imposed heavy emotional and social burdens. Internally displaced children, for example, have suffered the loss of their homes and the stable routines that provide a sense of security, support, and continuity. Many children have lost parents or family members, and experience profound grief, insecurity, and uncertainty about how their needs will be met. Amidst the daily challenges of survival in Angola, there may be little space for grieving and coming to terms with what has happened. Traumatic distress is prevalent, as recent research indicates 70% to 90% rates of post-traumatic stress disorder among Angolan teenagers who have had extensive exposure to war (Eyber, 2002; Mclntyre & Ventura, in press). This chapter describes an intervention project, which was part of a much larger program focused on youth and addressed five key problems: community disruption and destabilization; material deprivation; weak supports for children in camps and settlement areas; destructive conflict between displaced groups and relatively stable communities; and inappropriate supports for orphans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Supervisor: Dr. Cathie Lloyd. Thesis (M. Phil.)--University of Oxford, 2004. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 93-100).
Article
Migrating to another country, and settling there as refugees, has practical implications for the lives of men and women, and for social relations. Women face social vulnerability as a result of changed gender relations, despite opportunities to challenge existing stereotypes concerning women's and men's roles and identities. This article describes the coping strategies adopted by Sudanese refugees in Ikafe, Uganda, and the effect of these on social relations, and suggests policy changes that could alleviate the situation.
Article
Men's gender roles have contributed to family violence, but the ramifications of these roles in the development of community-based programmes for men have not been given much attention. A small-scale qualitative examination of the familial context of Filipino men's positions and roles, and their domestic violence experiences and attitudes was carried out using eight discussion groups, each group with seven to eight members. Verbatim tape-recorded transcripts were analysed using accepted techniques for theoretical analysis to establish emergent themes. Discussants saw themselves as being at the helm of their families. Men were knowledgeable of and took responsibility for their gender roles exerting control over the focus and direction of all their family affairs, including the gender roles of their wives/partners. This control demonstrated facets of their hegemonic masculinity such as sexual objectification and dominance. Men in this society come from a traditional position of power, dominance and privilege. They will be particularly sensitive to interventions aimed at reducing violence against women which will inquire into their private lives. In their view, such interventions were both a direct challenge to their family leadership and a basis for 'losing face'. Strategies for positive interventions include the need for male-sensitive and male-centred approaches which avoid demonising or stereotyping men.
Article
In recent years, a growing literature has emerged that explores the role of culture in domestic violence for ethnic minority populations, including immigrants and refugees. This article presents qualitative data collected from Vietnamese refugee women through a research project in partnership with the Refugee Women's Alliance in Seattle, Washington. Through the women's stories, their own self-awareness of domestic violence as Vietnamese women residing in the United States is available for reflection and review. Issues of acculturation, changing gender roles, examples of strength, and cultural persistence constitute the thematic structure within which these women articulate their needs for creating and sustaining a life free of abuse for themselves and their children.
Article
This article discusses the experiences of domestic violence among Ethiopian refugees and immigrants in the United States. A subset (n=18) of the larger study sample (N=254) participated in three focus groups with Amharic-speaking survivors of domestic violence who were currently in or had left abusive relationships. The research was conducted through a public health department, University, and community agency partnership. Findings show domestic violence as taking place within a context of immigration, acculturation, and rapid changes in family and social structure. Participants expressed a need for language and culture-specific domestic violence support and advocacy as well as education programs regarding U.S. laws and resources.
Article
The purpose of this paper is to explore events and factors that lead to conflict in the home in the Afghan refugee setting, and the current status of the health sector's ability to respond to evidence of conflict. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 20 women of reproductive age and 20 health workers serving these women in an Afghan refugee camp near Peshawar, Pakistan, during the summer of 2004. In particular, this paper analyses women's explanations of how various marriage traditions may be linked to conflict in the home and how the interactions of different family members may be related to conflict. The relationships of women with their parents-in-law and husbands are highlighted in particular, and a model developed to explore the choreography of their relationships and the ways in which these dynamics may encourage or inhibit violence. The perspectives of health workers on the ways in which the health system responds to family conflict and violence are also presented. Finally, this paper provides information that helps to frame the issues of family violence and conflict in long-term refugee populations for intervention designers and those who are working to craft a health sector response to this problem.
New opportunities: angry young men in a Tanzanian refugee camp Refugees and the transformation of societies: Agency, policies, ethics and politics
  • S Turner
Turner, S. (2004). New opportunities: angry young men in a Tanzanian refugee camp. In P. Essed, G. Frerks, & J. Schrivers (Eds.), Refugees and the transformation of societies: Agency, policies, ethics and politics. New York\Oxford: Berghahn Books.
The mental health of refugees: Ecological approaches to healing and adaptation
  • M Wessells
  • C Monteiro
Wessells, M., & Monteiro, C. (2004). Internally displaced Angolans: a child-focused, community-based intervention. In K. E. Miller, & L. M. Rasco (Eds.), The mental health of refugees: Ecological approaches to healing and adaptation (pp. 67-94).
Evaluation of UNHCR's efforts to prevent and respond to sexual and gender-based violence in situations of forced displacement
  • S Rothkegel
  • J Poluda
  • C Wonani
  • J Papy
  • E Engelhardt-Wendt
  • B Weyermann
Rothkegel, S., Poluda, J., Wonani, C., Papy, J., Engelhardt-Wendt, E., Weyermann, B., et al. (2008). Evaluation of UNHCR's efforts to prevent and respond to sexual and gender-based violence in situations of forced displacement. Geneva, Switzerland: UNHCR.
Analysis of refugee protection capacity Operational Protection in Camps and Settlements: A Reference Guide of Good Practice in the Protection of Refugees and Other Persons of
  • D Turton
Turton, D. (2005). Analysis of refugee protection capacity: Kenya. Geneva, Switzerland: UNHCR. UNHCR (2006) Operational Protection in Camps and Settlements: A Reference Guide of Good Practice in the Protection of Refugees and Other Persons of Concern Geneva: UNHCR.
There is more than one way of dying: An Ethiopian perspective on the effects of long-term stays in refugee camps Seeking Protection: Addressing Sexual and Domestic Violence in Tanzania's Refugee Camps
  • A Feyissa
  • R Horn
Feyissa, A., & Horn, R. (2008). There is more than one way of dying: An Ethiopian perspective on the effects of long-term stays in refugee camps. In D. Hollenbach (Ed.), Refugee rights: Ethics, advocacy and Africa (pp. 13–26). Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press. Human Rights Watch. (2000). Seeking Protection: Addressing Sexual and Domestic Violence in Tanzania's Refugee Camps USA: Human Rights Watch.
Costs of intimate partner violence at the household and community levels: An operational framework for developing countries
  • N Duvvury
  • C Grown
  • J Redner
Duvvury, N., Grown, C., & Redner, J. (2004). Costs of intimate partner violence at the household and community levels: An operational framework for developing countries. Washington, DC, U.S.: International Center for Research on Women.
Study on Traditional Practices Used to Mediate Incidents of Gender-Based Violence Ethiopia Food shortages and gender relations in Ikafe settlement
  • D Mulu
Mulu, D. (2007). Study on Traditional Practices Used to Mediate Incidents of Gender-Based Violence Ethiopia: IRC. Payne, L. (1998). Food shortages and gender relations in Ikafe settlement, Uganda. Gender and Development, 6(1), 30–36.
Camps versus settlements (forced migration online research guide).: refugee studies centre, University of OxfordLike a bird in a cage': Viet-namese women survivors talk about domestic violence
  • A Schmidt
  • S Shiu-Thornton
  • K Senturia
  • M Sullivan
Schmidt, A. (2003). Camps versus settlements (forced migration online research guide).: refugee studies centre, University of Oxford. Shiu-Thornton, S., Senturia, K., & Sullivan, M. (2005). 'Like a bird in a cage': Viet-namese women survivors talk about domestic violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20(8), 959–976.
Study on Traditional Practices Used to Mediate Incidents of Gender-Based Violence Ethiopia: IRC
  • D Mulu
Mulu, D. (2007). Study on Traditional Practices Used to Mediate Incidents of Gender-Based Violence Ethiopia: IRC.
Camps versus settlements (forced migration online research guide).: refugee studies centre
  • A Schmidt
Schmidt, A. (2003). Camps versus settlements (forced migration online research guide).: refugee studies centre, University of Oxford.
Seeking Protection: Addressing Sexual and Domestic Violence in Tanzania's Refugee Camps USA: Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch. (2000). Seeking Protection: Addressing Sexual and Domestic Violence in Tanzania's Refugee Camps USA: Human Rights Watch.
Refugee Consortium of Kenya
Refugee Consortium of Kenya. (2003). Refugee management in Kenya. Forced Migration Review, 16, 17-19.
Analysis of refugee protection capacity: Kenya
  • D Turton
Turton, D. (2005). Analysis of refugee protection capacity: Kenya. Geneva, Switzerland: UNHCR.
Operational Protection in Camps and Settlements: A Reference Guide of Good Practice in the Protection of Refugees and Other Persons of Concern Geneva
UNHCR (2006) Operational Protection in Camps and Settlements: A Reference Guide of Good Practice in the Protection of Refugees and Other Persons of Concern Geneva: UNHCR.