Effect of honey and its major royal jelly protein 1 on cytokine and MMP-9 mRNA transcripts in human keratinocytes

Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.
Experimental Dermatology (Impact Factor: 3.76). 10/2009; 19(8):e73-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0625.2009.00994.x
Source: PubMed


Honey has been used since ancient times as a remedy in wound healing. However, even though the results from randomized clinical trials document that honey accelerates wound healing, no study dealing with its influence on human skin cells (epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblast) has been performed. We demonstrate that keratinocytes, which are known to be involved in wound healing, are responsible for elevated production of mediators including cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and TGF-beta) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) after incubation with honey. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of mRNA level of selected cytokines and MMP-9. Furthermore, we show that the increased level of MMP-9 in the epidermis following incubation with honey leads to degradation of type IV collagen in the basement membrane. These data indisputably demonstrate that honey activates keratinocytes and support the findings that honey may accelerate wound healing process.

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    • "Immunomodulatory properties of honey ( skin cells ) : in vitro studies Majtan et al . ( 2009 ) reported the ability of acacia honey obtained from Slovakia to stimu - late TNF - α , transforming growth factor - beta ( TGF - β ) , IL - 1β and matrix metalloproteinase"
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    • "This view was initially supported by a fi nding that the MRJP1 protein can be specifi cally degraded by serine proteases, generating a substantial number of MRJP1-related peptides [Rossano et al., 2012]. However, the degradation products of MRJP1 were also shown to have immune-stimulatory activities [Majtan et al., 2006; Tonks et al., 2003] and cell growth stimulatory activity [Watanabe et al., 1998; Kamakura et al., 2001; Majtan et al., 2009]. "
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    • "Fir honeydew honey contains the flavonoids apigenin and kaempferol, which inhibited TNF-a-induced production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 from keratinocytes (Majtan et al., 2013). In contrast, Acacia honey stimulated keratinocytes to release MMP9, together with TNF-a, IL-1b and TGF-b (Majtan et al., 2010). Manuka honey, and to a lesser extent kanuka and rewarewa contain the anti-microbial methyl glyoxal, which modifies the apalbumins, endowing them with an ability to inhibit phagocytosis by macrophages (Bean, 2012). "
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