Article

Adverse reproductive and child health outcomes among people living near highly toxic waste water drains in Punjab, India

School of Public Health, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector 12, Chandigarh 162001, India.
Journal of epidemiology and community health (Impact Factor: 3.5). 10/2009; 64(2):148-54. DOI: 10.1136/jech.2008.078568
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Environmental influence plays a major role in determining health status of individuals. Punjab has been reported as having a high degree of water pollution due to heavy metals from untreated industrial effluent discharge and high pesticide consumption in agriculture. The present study ascertained the association of heavy metal and pesticide exposure on reproductive and child health outcomes in Punjab, India.
A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted in which 1904 women in reproductive age group and 1762 children below 12 years of age from 35 villages in three districts of Punjab were interviewed on a semistructured schedule for systemic and general health morbidities. Medical doctors conducted a clinical examination and review of records where relevant. Out of 35 study villages, 25 served as target (exposed) and 10 as non-target (less exposed or reference). Effluent, ground and surface water, fodder, vegetables and milk (bovine and human) samples were tested for chemical composition, heavy metals and pesticides.
Spontaneous abortion (20.6 per 1000 live births) and premature births (6.7 per 1000 live births) were significantly higher in area affected by heavy metal and pesticide pollution (p<0.05). Stillbirths were about five times higher as compared with a meta-analysis for South Asian countries. A larger proportion of children in target area were reported to have delayed milestones, language delay, blue line in the gums, mottling of teeth and gastrointestinal morbidities (p<0.05). Mercury was found in more than permissible limits (MPL) in 84.4% samples from the target area. Heptachlor, chlorpyriphos, beta-endosulfan, dimethoate and aldrin were found to be more than MPL in 23.9%, 21.7%, 19.6%, 6.5% and 6.5% ground water samples respectively.
Although no direct association could be established in this study, heavy metal and pesticide exposure may be potential risk factors for adverse reproductive and child health outcomes.

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    • "After they penetrated into air and water, they can spread in environment far from sources of their emission. Therefore they were found at levels above the permissible limits in ground water in India (Thakur et al., 2010) as well as in waste sites in USA (Stern, 2014). Moreover, dieldrin was measured in follicular fluid of cows in Greece (Kamarianos et al., 2003) and both are still detected in bovine Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 285 (2015) 23–31 Abbreviations: Act D, actinomycin D; AA, arachidonic acid; COX-2, cyclooxygenase 2; DDE, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; DDT, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane; E2, oestradiol; KRS, Krebs–Ringer's solution; MTT, tetrazolium salt; OT, oxytocin; P4, progesterone ; PCBs, polychlorinated biphenyls; PG(s), prostaglandin(s); PGFM, 13,14-dihydro-15- keto-PGF2α; PGES, prostaglandin E synthase; PGFS, prostaglandin F synthase; T, testosterone; TBP, TATA box binding protein. "

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    • "Synthetic insecticides were also used to control adult mosquitoes by fogging [13]. The continuous use of synthetic insecticide such as malathion, DDT, HCH and deltamethrin for controlling mosquitoes has created diverse environmental problems such as toxicity to non target organisms [14], development of genetic resistance in mosquitoes [15], environment pollution [16] and their non degradable nature results in biomagnifications. Herein, the worldwide continuous efforts to eradicate and control this vector were found ineffective. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides to eradicate mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance. Plants provide a reservoir of biochemical compounds; among these compounds some have inhibitory effect on mosquitoes. In the present study the larvicidal, adulticidal and genotoxic activity of essential oil of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. against Culex quinquefasciatus Say was explored. Methods Essential oil was isolated from the seeds of P. corylifolia Linn. Larvicidal and adulticidal bioassay of Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out by WHO method. Genotoxic activity of samples was determined by comet assay. Identification of different compounds was carried out by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry analysis. Results LC50 and LC90 values of essential oil were 63.38±6.30 and 99.02±16.63 ppm, respectively against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The LD50 and LD90 values were 0.057±0.007 and 0.109±0.014 mg/cm2 respectively against adult Cx. quinquefasciatus,. Genotoxicity of adults was determined at 0.034 and 0.069 mg/cm2. The mean comet tail length was 6.2548±0.754 μm and 8.47±0.931 μm and the respective DNA damage was significant i.e. 6.713% and 8.864% in comparison to controls. GCMS analysis of essential oil revealed 20 compounds. The major eight compounds were caryophyllene oxide (40.79%), phenol,4-(3,7-dimethyl-3-ethenylocta-1,6-dienyl) (20.78%), caryophyllene (17.84%), α-humulene (2.15%), (+)- aromadendrene (1.57%), naphthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetra hydro-1,6-dimethyle-4-(1-methyl)-, (1S-cis) (1.53%), trans- caryophyllene (0.75%), and methyl hexadecanoate (0.67%). Conclusion Essential oil obtained from the seeds of P. corylifolia showed potent toxicity against larvae and adult Cx. quinquefasciatus. The present work revealed that the essential oil of P. corylifolia could be used as environmentally sound larvicidal and adulticidal agent for mosquito control.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Parasites & Vectors
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    • "In addition, epidemiological studies suggest that women's reproductive health could also be harmed by the presence of heavy metals like mercury in water. In the Punjab, a higher risk of still births and abortion was noticed in contaminated areas (Thakur et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Populations in Bolivian Amazonia are exposed to mercury contamination through fish ingestion. A group of 170 Amerindian women living along the banks of the Beni River were examined in order to detect any adverse effects on their health consistent with the toxic effects of mercury. The mercury content of the women's hair (H-Hg) was used as the bio-indicator of mercury exposure. The women answered a 24-h food recall questionnaire on the frequency of their fish consumption. They also underwent a clinical examination with their weight, stature, hemoglobin concentration in blood, and blood pressure being recorded. Significant relationships were found between fishing practices, the frequency of fish consumption and H-Hg levels with mercury contaminated women (H-Hg > 5g/g) being more likely to present neurological abnormalities (paresthesia, static and dynamic imbalance, poor motor coordination) than non-contaminated women. No relationship was found between blood pressure and mercury levels. Women with higher H-Hg reported more infant deaths than did women with lower levels. A logistic regression analysis which included socio-cultural traits, fish consumption habits and health characteristics was performed in order to determine the risks of contamination. Contaminated women were more likely to belong to those communities pursuing traditional fishing activities; moreover these women tended to be younger and frailer than other. They also exhibited mild neurological abnormalities and reported more infant deaths. These findings should stimulate local communities to take preventive actions directed towards the more traditional and vulnerable groups of population. (résumé d'auteur)
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · International journal of hygiene and environmental health
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