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Efficacy of 1% geraniol (Fulltec ® ) as a tick repellent

  • Terpenetech Ltd


A field trial on the efficacy of 1% geraniol (Fulltec) spray against ticks has been carried out in two farms near Rabat (Morocco). Results clearly revealed that 1% geraniol has a preventive effect against Hyalomma ticks. Comparison of geraniol sprayed cows with control herd showed a reduction of mean number of ticks per animal of 98.4%, 97.3% and 91.3% at respectively day 7, 14 and 21 post-spraying. These data give evidence that the geraniol, natural product extracted from plants, could be an alternative to limit use of chemical acaricides, which efficacy is compromised by development of resistance.
Note de recherche
Parasite, 2009, 16, 223-226
A field trial on the efficacy of 1 % geraniol (Fulltec®) spray against
ticks has been carried out in two farms near Rabat (Morocco).
Results clearly revealed that 1 % geraniol has a preventive effect
against Hyalomma ticks. Comparison of geraniol sprayed cows
with control herd showed a reduction of mean number of ticks per
animal of 98.4 %, 97.3 % and 91.3 % at respectively day 7, 14
and 21 post-spraying. These data give evidence that the geraniol,
natural product extracted from plants, could be an alternative to
limit use of chemical acaricides, which efficacy is compromised
by development of resistance.
Un essai de pulvérisation d’un lot de bovins avec du géraniol
(Fulltec®) à 1 %, en comparaison avec un lot similaire dans deux
fermes de la région de Rabat au Maroc, a montré que le géraniol
à 1 % avait un effet préventif important contre les tiques du genre
Hyalomma. Des réductions du nombre moyen de tiques par
animal de 98,4 %, 97,3 % et 91,3 % par rapport au lot témoin
ont été observées à J7, J14 et J21 respectivement après la
pulvérisation. Ces données indiquent que le géraniol à 1 %,
produit naturel d’origine végétal, pourrait représenter une
alternative pour limiter l’usage des acaricides habituels dont
l’efficacité est parfois compromise du fait du développement de
KEY WORDS : geraniol, tick, control, prevention, resistance.
MOTS CLÉS : géraniol, tique, contrôle, prévention, résistance.
* Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, Département de Para-
sitologie, BP 6202 Rabat-Instituts, Maroc.
** Fulltec France, 33, rue Galilée, 75116 Paris, France.
*** Chimitechnic, 102, rue Jaâfar El Barmaki, Casablanca 20 300,
**** UMR 5175 CEFE (Centre d’écologie fonctionnelle et évolutive),
Université Paul Valéry Montpellier III, Route de Mende, 34199 Mont-
pellier Cedex 5, France.
Correspondence : Gérard Duvallet
E-mail :
Ticks and tick-borne diseases cause considerable
economic loss to cattle breeding (McLeod, 1995;
Willadsen, 2006). Over the past ten years, global
changes, especially anthropic impacts on the environ-
ment, have contributed to the development of tick
populations in many parts of the world (Eisen, 2008).
In most countries, tick control is based exclusively
upon the regular and frequent use of synthetic acari-
cides. Inappropriate and abusive use of these mole-
cules often leads to the development of chemoresis-
tance. As a result, many Ixodidae have developed
resistance to common acaricides, which has made
control difficult in some breeding areas (George et al.,
2004; Kunz & Kemp, 1994; Li et al., 2004; Fragoso-San-
chez et al., 2008). Furthermore, beside their potential
toxic effects on the animals, these products can gene-
rate residues in animal products and have serious
impact on the consumer’s health and the functioning
of ecosystems (Laffont et al., 2001; Graf et al., 2004).
To alleviate this constraint, an increasing interest is now
oriented toward the development of non-toxic envi-
ronmentally safe repellents. Geraniol is reported to be
a potential repellent against insects, and especially a
key component in commercial mosquito repellents
(Xue et al., 2003). It is a main product of essential oil
extracts of different plants (Pelargonium sp., Eucalyptus
sp., Cymbopogon sp., etc.), which can be used as
mosquito repellents (Matsuda et al., 1996).
Up to now, there has been no previous report on use
of geraniol for preventing tick infestation in cattle. The
purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of
a spray solution of 1 % geraniol as a preventative mea-
sure in cattle naturally infested with ticks.
Over a month, a dozen of cattle farms in the
vicinity of Rabat, Morocco, were visited to
identify animals infested with ticks. Ticks were
searched on parts of the animals’ bodies most sus-
ceptible to ticks, such as utters and the anal-genital
fold. Two relatively similar farms were selected on the
basis of their number of cattle, breed and level of tick
infestation. Both farms are located in Tiflet, at approxi-
mately 50 km Northeast of Rabat, and distant of 5 km
During this survey, a total of 234 ticks were collected
for species identification. All examined ticks were Hya-
lomma; among them 84.2 % were H. marginatum,
11.5 % H. dromedarii and 4.3 % H. detritum, and 4.3 %
of those ticks were female.
In the two selected farms, all cattle were of “Frisonne
pie-noire” breed, aged from two to nine years and had
an average weight of 250 to 300 kg. The animals were
in good health conditions and had not received any
acaricide treatment for more than three months.
At Day-7, each animal was identified by ear-tag, clini-
cally examined and the number of ticks present in each
part of the body recorded. The animals remained in
their own farms until the end of the study. In both
farms, feed was composed primarily of grazing with a
supplement of forage and hay. Each farm was consi-
dered as a group:
- Group A (11 cows): sprayed with 1 % geraniol.
- Group B (13 cows): placebo.
The sprayed solution of geraniol contains geraniol at
1 % (w/v), polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochlo-
ride at 0,025 % (w/v) and sufficient quantity of puri-
fied water for 100 % (w/v).
The placebo sprayed contains polyhexamethylene
biguanide hydrochloride at 0,025 % (w/v) and suffi-
cient quantity of purified water for 100 % (w/v).
The polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (Van-
tocil IB, Avecia Biologics Ltd) is a preservative com-
pound, used to prevent fungal and bacterial growth in
the solution. This compound does not have any insec-
ticide or acaricide propriety.
The geraniol was produced by Fulltec®company (Cha-
merStrasse 14, CH-6301 ZUG, Suisse) and marketed in
Morocco by Chimitechnic. This geraniol was prepared
by distillation from Palmarosa oil produced by Düll-
berg Konzentra (GmbH & Co, Obenhauptstrasse 3, D-
22335 Hamburg, Germany). The Palmarosa oil is pro-
duced by steam extraction from dried flowering parts
of Cymbopogon martinii var. motia. The crude Palma-
rosa oil containing 60-85 % geraniol is distilled under
vacuum. The fractions of the oil from the distillation
are continuously checked by gas liquid chromato-
graphy, which enables to get pure geraniol. This gera-
niol is processed by Fulltec AG and proposed as “Full-
tec insect killer concentrate 30 % geraniol” with the
following composition: dist. water 11.50 w-%; geraniol
30.00 w-%; polyglyceryl-6 oleate 35.00 w-%; polygly-
ceryl-2 oleate 23.00 w-%; citric acid 0.50 w-% (Fulltec,
pers. comm.)
The geraniol solution was applied by a 5 litre market
sprayer, directly on the entire body of the animal. Each
animal received approximately 250 to 300 ml of the
solution, corresponding at 2.5 to 3 g of geraniol. The
product was applied on all body parts, including utter,
inside thighs, anal area, etc. The sprayed animals were
kept inside the barn for 24 hours, and let to graze in
the afternoon of the following day. After applying the
product, the animals were observed for in the next two
hours to note any particular clinical sign which might
occur. Clinical examinations and tick counts of both
groups (geraniol and control) were made at D7, D14
and D21.
Tick infestation was monitored in each test group at
D-7, D0, D7, D14 and D21. Animals were handled in
the barn and each part of the body was scrupulously
examined for tick. To avoid any bias, search and
counting of ticks were done by the same individuals
during the trial.
Ticks found after application of geraniol were removed
with tweezers, examined with a magnifying glass to
check their state and then put in vials for laboratory
identification. When female ticks were found alive
after application of geraniol, they were incubated at
27 °C with a relative humidity (RH) of 85 % for at least
seven days. This procedure made it possible to verify,
if need be, their capacity to continue their evolution.
The effect of the product sprayed on cattle was evalua-
ted by calculating the reduction in the average number
of ticks compared with the control group on D7, D14,
and D21.
Statistical analysis was made with SPSS software. The
averages of tick density were compared by ANOVA.
The global threshold of signification was set at 5 %.
This study shows that 1 % geraniol was very well
tolerated by all sprayed cattle. No notable signs
of unusual reaction were noticed in groups A
or B, and three weeks after application of the product
the animals remained healthy and did not show any
abnormal clinical signs. Table I summarises the results
of tick counts in both groups made at D-7, D0, D7,
D14 and D21. It also shows the percentages of reduc-
tion in the average number of ticks. Figure 1 shows the
224 Note de recherche Parasite, 2009, 16, 223-226
evolution of tick infestations in sprayed group in com-
parison with the control group.
Clinical examination on the seventh day (D7) showed
that only one cattle was infested with four ticks (Table I).
Examination of these ticks after removing them revea-
led that they were male and very active. It was sup-
posed that these ticks come from a recent infestation,
which probably occurred on the same day or one day
prior to the visit.
On the fourteenth day (D14), three of the eleven cows
from group A were infested, and hosted respectively
one, two and four ticks. These ticks were alive, and
found in the utter area. At this time, the ticks were not
removed from the animals in order to monitor the kine-
tics of tick infestations.
At three weeks (D21) post-spraying, six of the eleven
cows from group A were infested, and each one had
between two and six ticks. All ticks were alive and atta-
ched to the skin of the utter area.
Avariety of organophosphates and synthetic pyre-
throids have been used as acaricides world-
wide. These chemicals may be highly toxic to
non-target organisms and chemoresistance has also
been developed in some tick populations. Botanically
active compounds against ticks and other pest arthro-
pods have been tested by several authors and are
considered to be an alternative to synthetic pesticides
Note de recherche
Parasite, 2009, 16, 223-226
(Panella et al., 2005). Recently, Cetin et al. (2009)
reported the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Ori-
ganum minutiflorum (Lamiaceae) against Rhipicepha-
lus turanicus.
We have tested in this study the effect of geraniol
extracted from Palmarosa essential oil by Fulltec®
laboratory against Hyalomma sp. ticks in Morocco. The
product was used as a 1 % spray on cattle.
In conclusion, it can be noticed that at 1 % dilution,
geraniol was well tolerated by cattle, which did not
show any adverse events. As repellent, geraniol redu-
ced tick infestation in grazing cattle in comparison to
control animals. Following application of the product,
a significant reduction in tick number of 98.4 %, 97.3 %
and 91.3 % was observed respectively on D7, D14, and
D21 compared to the placebo group (p < 0.0001).
In grazing cattle, application of 1 % geraniol maintained
tick infestation at a significantly low level in compa-
rison to the control group (1.9 vs 21.9) for a period of
three weeks. It is suggested that 1 % geraniol could
be effective product for preventing tick infestation in
cattle, and represent an alternative of choice to avoid
development of chemoresistance of ticks.
The authors would like to express their sincere
thanks to Dr Derouich (Breeding Department),
M. El Hasnaoui, M. Daddi and M. Ferrando for
their precious technical assistance. This study was
made as a part of the GDRI-CNRS-CNRST project.
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Group A: Group B: % Statistical
Days geraniol placebo reduction significance
D-7021.5 ± 12.5 22.4 ± 10.0
D0021.3 ± 12.5 22.2 ± 9.8
D700.4 ± 1.2 22.8 ± 10.2 98.4 P < 0.0001
D14 0.6 ± 1.3 23,2 ± 10,1 97.3 P < 0.0001
D21 1.9 ± 2.2 21.9 ± 9.9 91.3 P < 0.0001
Table I. – Activity of 1 % geraniol in cattle, determined by the reduc-
tion in average number of ticks (average number of ticks per ani-
mal: n ± standard deviation).
Group A: geraniol
Group B: placebo
Fig. 1. – Evolution of tick infestations in sprayed and control groups,
shown by number of ticks per animal. Only live ticks found on ani-
mals are reported on the figure.
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Reçu le 17 mars 2009
Accepté le 19 mai 2009
226 Note de recherche Parasite, 2009, 16, 223-226
... The bark is used to treat stomachaches, constipation, Guinea worm infection, febrile pains, eye diseases and hemorrhoids (Kerharo and Adam, 1974;Weiss, 2002). Interestingly, the preparation of a collyrium for treating filaria in the eye is recorded from Cameroon where the bark is also used in a vapor bath to relieve febrile lumbago, while the juice is expressed from it to paint over itch (Bouquet, 1969). ...
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... Tests resulted in LC 50 of 39.1 µL/L. It was suggested that the major oil compound, geraniol, plays a predominant role in this activity (Pavela et al., 2016), since it is used as tick repellent and acaricidal agent as reported by Khallaayoune et al. (2009). Moreover, geraniol was documented by Chen and Viljoen (2010) to possess larvicidal and repellent effects on mosquitos. ...
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... A spray formulation containing geraniol 1% was used against Hyalomma spp. and resulted in up to 98 % reduction in number of ticks in naturally infested cattle (Khallaayoune et al., 2009). Geraniol corresponds to 5% of the botanical concentrate formulation, and when diluted in water at the rate of 6.25 %, the final concentration of this essential oil is approximately 0.3 %, three times less than what was used against Hyalomma spp. ...
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... A spray formulation containing geraniol 1% was used against Hyalomma spp. and resulted in up to 98 % reduction in number of ticks in naturally infested cattle (Khallaayoune et al., 2009). Geraniol corresponds to 5% of the botanical concentrate formulation, and when diluted in water at the rate of 6.25 %, the final concentration of this essential oil is approximately 0.3 %, three times less than what was used against Hyalomma spp. ...
The resistance of Rhipicephalus microplus to pyrethroids is widely dispersed worldwide and has been associated with several nucleotide substitutions in its target site, the para-sodium ion channel (Na-channel) gene. The resistance of the tick to fipronil has been increasing in South America, and mutations in the GABA-gated chloride channel (GABA-Cl) have been described in fipronil-resistant tick strains. We developed a multiplex allele-specific PCR (mAS-PCR) to screen for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the resistance to pyrethroids (knockdown resistance or kdr) and fipronil (resistance to dieldrin or rdl) in susceptible tick populations from Uruguay (n = 11) and the Rio Grande do Sul state in Southern Brazil (n = 15). Toxicological in vitro assays with larvae and adults were used to confirm the resistance to cypermethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil. Three SNPs in the Na-channel gene were investigated (C190A, G215 T, and T2134A), and the mAS-PCR included the detection of an SNP (G858 T) coding a non-synonymous mutation in the GABA-Cl gene. C190A was present in all pyrethroid-resistant populations from Uruguay and Brazil, most frequently homozygous. The SNPs G215 T and T2134A were not found. Of the seventeen fipronil-resistant populations, fourteen presented at least one mutant GABA-Cl gene allele, more frequently in heterozygosis. Other mechanisms apart from target site insensitivity may be involved in fipronil resistance since in some resistant populations, the SNP G858 T was not detected. Sixteen (61,5%) of the populations presented individuals with simultaneous mutations in the Na-channel and GABA-Cl genes. This could be a significant problem for the future control of R. microplus. This study shows the wide dispersion of a pyrethroid resistance–associated SNP in high frequency in the region. Fipronil resistance mutations are also dispersed across the region and increasing.
Significant amounts of pesticides are used to control ectoparasites of humans, livestock, pets, and even domesticated honey bees. Thus it should not be surprising that many of these ectoparasites have evolved resistance to the pesticides. The various case studies in this chapter demonstrate that alternatives to pesticides must be considered. Improving integrated pest management through knowledge of the pest’s behavior should be the focus of future research.
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Essential oils and their components represent an appealing alternative strategy against parasitic mites. The chemical complexity and variability of essential oils limit their use and additional work is required to analyze the efficacy and application rate of essential oils’ individual components. In the present study, the activity of five terpenes (terpinen-4-ol, citral, linalool, eugenol, and geraniol) was evaluated against Psoroptes cuniculi motile stages and eggs collected from naturally infected rabbits. Eugenol presented the best acaricidal efficacy with a median lethal concentration (LC50) value of less than 0.1% at 24 h, followed by geraniol (0.33%), linalool (0.38%), citral (0.46%), and terpinen-4-ol (0.66%). Geraniol and eugenol were able to kill all mites within 5 min at 1% concentration. The effective concentration to inhibit 50% (EC50) of egg hatching was 0.65%, 0.66%, 0.85%, 1.47%, and 2.87% for eugenol, geraniol, citral, terpinen-4-ol, and linalool, respectively. In conclusion, eugenol, geraniol, citral, terpinen-4-ol, and linalool should be considered as promising agents for the development of botanical acaricides against Psoroptes cuniculi.
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A plant recently introduced into North America as the citrosa, Pelargonium citrosum ('Van Leenii'), has been marketed as a biological repellent against mosquitoes. Citrosa is claimed to repel mosquitoes within a 10 ft.2 (0.93 m2) area due to a continuous fragrant release of citronella oil. The total essential oil yield was 0.2 +/- 0.1% from fresh plant material. Chemical analysis by the authors revealed that combined essential oils of fresh greenhouse- and field-grown citrosa have 35.4 +/- 6.2% geraniol, 10.4 +/- 1.6% citronellol, 8.9 +/- 2.0% isomenthone, and 6.8 +/- 3.8% linalool. Both the morphology and essential oil of citrosa fall within the Pelargonium x asperum hybrid complex and are similar to 'Rosé', the commercial rose geranium. No character of morphology or essential oil of a Cymbopogon species yielding commercial citronella oil could be detected in the citrosa. The effectiveness of the citrosa as a repellent against field populations of spring Aedes spp. mosquitoes was evaluated and compared with a 75% deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) formulation. Deet provided > 90% reduction in mosquitoes biting subjects for up to 8 h post-treatment. There was no significant difference between citrosa-treated and nontreated subjects.
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Sixteen commercial insect repellents (6 botanical and 10 synthetic organic products) in spray formulations were evaluated in the laboratory for adult knockdown (KD) and mortality of laboratory-reared female Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. All tested products produced significant posttreatment KD and 24 h mortality of all 3 mosquito species. In our study, the synthetic organic repellents induced faster KD and KD of higher magnitude in adult mosquitoes than the botanical product repellents except geraniol-based MosquitoSafe. All tested formulations except 2 botanical repellent products caused 100% 24 h mortality of Ae. aegypti and all but 1 caused 100% 24 h mortality of Ae. albolpictus and An. quadrimaculatus.
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Amitraz, a formamidine acaricide, plays an important role in the control of the southern cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini), and other tick species that infest cattle, dogs, and wild animals. Although resistance to amitraz in B. microplus was previously reported in several countries, the actual measurement of the level of amitraz resistance in ticks has been difficult to determine due to the lack of a proper bioassay technique. We conducted a survey, by using a newly reported technique that was a modification of the standard Food and Agriculture Organization larval packet test, to measure the levels of resistance to amitraz in 15 strains of B. microplus from four major cattle-producing states in Mexico. Low-order resistance (1.68- to 4.58-fold) was detected in 11 of those strains. Our laboratory selection using amitraz on larvae of the Santa Luiza strain, which originated from Brazil, achieved a resistance ratio of 153.93 at F6, indicating the potential for high resistance to this acaricide in B. microplus. Both triphenylphosphate and piperonyl butoxide significantly synergized amitraz toxicity in both resistant and susceptible tick strains. Diethyl maleate synergized amitraz toxicity in one resistant strain but had no effect on the susceptible strain and had minor antagonistic effects on two other resistant strains. Target site insensitivity, instead of metabolic detoxification mechanisms, might be responsible for amitraz resistance observed in the Santa Luiza strain and possibly in other amitraz resistant B. microplus ticks from Mexico. The Santa Luiza strain also demonstrated high resistance to pyrethroids and moderate resistance to organophosphates. Multiple resistance shown in this strain and other B. microplus strains from Mexico poses a significant challenge to the management of B. microplus resistance to acaricides in Mexico.
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The development of new acaricides is a long and very expensive process. Worryingly, there is increasing resistance to available acaricides worldwide leading to the real possibility that our dwindling supply of effective acaricides will be exhausted unless action is taken to increase the number of new acaricidal products and reduce the rate of resistance development. In 1995, eight major animal health pharmaceutical companies formed the Veterinary Parasite Resistance Group (VPRG) to act as an expert consultative group to guide the FAO in resistance management and collaborate in the prudent use of acaricides. In this paper, members of the VPRG discuss the problems and processes in acaricide development, resistance in the field to commonly used acaricides and the different considerations when targeting the cattle and pet market, and give their view of the future for tick control from the perspective of the animal health industry.
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Toward the end of the nineteenth century a complex of problems related to ticks and tick-borne diseases of cattle created a demand for methods to control ticks and reduce losses of cattle. The discovery and use of arsenical solutions in dipping vats for treating cattle to protect them against ticks revolutionized tick and tick-borne disease control programmes. Arsenic dips for cattle were used for about 40 years before the evolution of resistance of ticks to the chemical, and the development and marketing of synthetic organic acaricides after World War II provided superior alternative products. Most of the major groups of organic pesticides are represented on the list of chemicals used to control ticks on cattle. Unfortunately, the successive evolution of resistance of ticks to acaricides in each chemical group with the concomitant reduction in the usefulness of a group of acaricides is a major reason for the diversity of acaricides. Whether a producer chooses a traditional method for treating cattle with an acaricide or uses a new method, he must recognize the benefits, limitations and potential problems with each application method and product. Simulation models and research were the basis of recommendations for tick control strategies advocating approaches that reduced reliance on acaricides. These recommendations for controlling ticks on cattle are in harmony with recommendations for reducing the rate of selection for acaricide resistance. There is a need to transfer knowledge about tick control and resistance mitigation strategies to cattle producers.
The acaricidal effects of the volatile essential oil Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz & P.H. Davis (Lamiaceae) against adult Rhipicephalus turanicus was evaluated at a variety of concentrations and exposure times. Generally tick mortality increased with concentration and exposure. Ticks exposed to vapors from cotton wicks containing at least 10mul/L resulted in complete (100%) mortality at 120min. The major constituent of essential oil obtained from the plant material of O. minutiflorum was carvacrol.
Insecticides continue to be the primary means of control for ectoparasites on livestock. Intensive use of these materials has led to resistance to organochlorines, organophosphates and pyrethroids among populations of Haematobia irritans irritans, H. irritans exigua and Lucilia cuprina. Similarly, use of acaricides has led to resistance in one-host Boophilus ticks to all currently-used organophosphate-carbamates, synthetic pyrethroids and amidines. Resistance in multi-host ticks is less widespread. New chemicals are available for the control of resistant ectoparasites, but there are concerns over resistance and residues problems, which prompt the authors to discuss new pest management strategies. Environmental concerns are raised regarding the use of pesticides on livestock.
A cost-benefit model is developed to estimate the costs of major parasites to Australian livestock industries and to evaluate the benefits from improving parasite management. The model disaggregates the Australian livestock industries into agro-climatic regions and various stock classes to estimate the total treatment and production loss costs of major parasites. Experimental trials and a computer simulation model are used to estimate the productivity of livestock under different treatment regimes. Using the model, the economic costs inflicted by cattle ticks, sheep gastrointestinal worms, sheep lice and sheep blowflies are discussed and the farm profitability resulting from improved sheep roundworm management is assessed.
Pour-on formulations of endectocides are extensively used to treat and control systemic parasitic diseases in cattle, worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of the natural licking behaviour of cattle on the plasma and faecal disposition of topically administered ivermectin. Twelve Holstein cattle were given one single intravenous (i.v.) (200 microg/kg) and topical (500 microg/kg) administration of ivermectin at a 5-month interval. For the pour-on administration, the animals were allocated into two groups (n=6): one control group (lickers) and one group where licking was prevented (non-lickers). Ivermectin plasma (total) clearance (270+/-57.4 ml/kg/day) was very homogeneous among the 12 cattle. In contrast, major differences between lickers and non-lickers were observed following pour-on administration. Prevention of licking resulted in an extended terminal plasma half-life (363+/-16.2 vs. 154+/-7.4 h in lickers) and in a lower and less variable systemic availability of ivermectin (19+/-4.9 vs. 33+/-18.5% in lickers). More importantly, nearly 70% of the pour-on dose was recovered as parent drug in the faeces of lickers vs. only 6.6% in non-lickers. Altogether, these results are consistent with an oral rather than percutaneous absorption of topical ivermectin in control animals, the non-systemically available fraction of ingested ivermectin providing a major contribution (80%) to the drug faecal output. The consequences of licking on the disposition of pour-on ivermectin are discussed in terms of environment, given the known ecotoxicity of this drug, and of cross-contamination. Animals licking themselves and each other could result in unexpected residues in edible tissues of untreated animals and in possible subtherapeutic drug concentrations, a factor in drug resistance. According to the Precautionary Principle, these considerations elicit concern over the use of topical drug formulations in cattle.
Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the activity of 15 natural products isolated from essential oil components extracted from the heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach., against Ixodes scapularis Say nymphs, Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothchild), and Aedes aegypti (L.) adults. Four of the compounds from the essential oil have been identified as monoterpenes, five as eremophilane sesquiterpenes, five as eremophilane sesquiterpene derivatives from valencene and nootkatone, and one as a sesquiterpene outside the eremophilane parent group. Carvacrol was the only monoterpene that demonstrated biocidal activity against ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes with LC50 values after 24 h of 0.0068, 0.0059, and 0.0051% (wt:vol), respectively. Nootkatone from Alaska yellow cedar was the most effective of the eremophilane sesquiterpenes against ticks (LC50 = 0.0029%), whereas the nootkatone grapefruit extract exhibited the greatest biocidal activity against fleas (LC50 = 0.0029%). Mosquitoes were most susceptible to one of the derivatives of valencene, valencene-13-aldehyde (LC50 = 0.0024%), after 24 h. Bioassays to determine residual activity of the most effective products were conducted at 1, 2, 4, and 6 wk after initial treatment. Residual LC50 values for nootkatone did not differ significantly at 4 wk posttreatment from the observations made at the initial 24-h treatment. The ability of these natural products to kill arthropods at relatively low concentrations represents an alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides for control of disease vectors.