Adolescent Immunization Delivery in School-Based Health Centers: A National Survey

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045-0508, USA.
Journal of Adolescent Health (Impact Factor: 3.61). 11/2009; 45(5):445-52. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.04.002
Source: PubMed


Vaccinating adolescents in a variety of settings may be needed to achieve high vaccination coverage. School-based health centers (SBHCs) provide a wide range of health services, but little is known about immunization delivery in SBHCs. The objective of this investigation was to assess, in a national random sample of SBHCs, adolescent immunization practices and perceived barriers to vaccination.
One thousand SBHCs were randomly selected from a national database. Surveys were conducted between November 2007 and March 2008 by Internet and standard mail.
Of 815 survey-eligible SBHCs, 521 (64%) responded. Of the SBHCs, 84% reported vaccinating adolescents, with most offering tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis, meningococcal conjugate, and human papillomavirus vaccines. Among SBHCs that vaccinated adolescents, 96% vaccinated Medicaid-insured and 98% vaccinated uninsured students. Although 93% of vaccinating SBHCs participated in the Vaccines for Children program, only 39% billed private insurance for vaccines given. A total of 69% used an electronic database or registry to track vaccines given, and 83% sent reminders to adolescents and/or their parents if immunizations were needed. For SBHCs that did not offer vaccines, difficulty billing private insurance was the most frequently cited barrier to vaccination.
Most SBHCs appear to be fully involved in immunization delivery to adolescents, offering newly recommended vaccines and performing interventions such as reminder/recall to improve immunization rates. Although the number of SBHCs is relatively small, with roughly 2000 nationally, SBHCs appear to be an important vaccination resource, particularly for low income and uninsured adolescents who may have more limited access to vaccination elsewhere.

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    • "Some countries such as Australia, the United Kingdom and parts of Canada, are achieving high HPV vaccine coverage through school located immunization programs [26] [27]. However, these programs may not be as feasible in the US as vaccine is not routinely delivered in schools, there are few schools with health clinics, limited availability of personnel to vaccinate, and complicated reimbursement issues [28]. Another important component to implementation success is provider, parental and adolescent acceptability of the vaccine. "
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    ABSTRACT: some of the experience of CDC and its associated partners in preparing for the availability and implementation of newly licensed vaccines to further this dialogue. This paper summarizes the presentations on some lessons for future HIV vaccine implementation from the introduction of hepatitis B vaccine, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the annual influenza virus vaccine strain selection, a potential annual HIV vaccine strain selection, as well as planning for next steps in Thailand in response to the RV144 trial, and highlights from the moderated discussions with the audience on issues relevant to low/middle income countries and developed countries (Table 1). Hopefully these ideas will facilitate preparations for the introduction of a future licensed HIV vaccine.
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    • "Initiating school-based HPV vaccination programs in the U.S. is likely to be challenging, as the nature and extent of health care offered at schools varies widely [22]. Even when community vaccinators are brought into schools to provide services or school-based programs are coordinated through health departments, barriers include obtaining vaccination records to see which vaccines are needed, billing private insurance, covering students who do not qualify for the federal Vaccines for Children program, and obtaining parental consent for vaccination [13]. Although schools with health centers will receive increased federal funding through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act [23], many of these barriers will remain and will be undoubtedly amplified for programs that will not receive additional funding through the new law. "
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    ABSTRACT: HPV vaccination rates among adolescents in the United States lag behind some other developed countries, many of which routinely offer the vaccine in schools. We sought to assess mothers' willingness to have their adolescent daughters receive HPV vaccine at school. A national sample of mothers of adolescent females ages 11-14 completed our internet survey (response rate=66%). The final sample (n=496) excluded mothers who did not intend to have their daughters receive HPV vaccine in the next year. Overall, 67% of mothers who intended to vaccinate their daughters or had vaccinated their daughters reported being willing to have their daughters receive HPV vaccine at school. Mothers were more willing to allow their daughters to receive HPV vaccine in schools if they had not yet initiated the vaccine series for their daughters or resided in the Midwest or West (all p<.05). The two concerns about voluntary school-based provision of HPV vaccine that mothers most frequently cited were that their daughters' doctors should keep track of her shots (64%) and that they wished to be present when their daughters were vaccinated (40%). Our study suggests that most mothers who support adolescent vaccination for HPV find school-based HPV vaccination an acceptable option. Ensuring communication of immunization records with doctors and allowing parents to be present during immunization may increase parental support.
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