Hohn, O. et al. Lack of evidence for xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in German prostate cancer patients. Retrovirology 6, 92

Robert Koch-Institute, Centre for Biological Safety 4, Nordufer 20, 13353 Berlin, Germany.
Retrovirology (Impact Factor: 4.19). 10/2009; 6(1):92. DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-6-92
Source: PubMed


A novel gammaretrovirus named xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been recently identified and found to have a prevalence of 40% in prostate tumor samples from American patients carrying a homozygous R462Q mutation in the RNaseL gene. This mutation impairs the function of the innate antiviral type I interferon pathway and is a known susceptibility factor for prostate cancer. Here, we attempt to measure the prevalence of XMRV in prostate cancer cases in Germany and determine whether an analogous association with the R462Q polymorphism exists.
589 prostate tumor samples were genotyped by real-time PCR with regard to the RNaseL mutation. DNA and RNA samples from these patients were screened for the presence of XMRV-specific gag sequences using a highly sensitive nested PCR and RT-PCR approach. Furthermore, 146 sera samples from prostate tumor patients were tested for XMRV Gag and Env antibodies using a newly developed ELISA assay. In agreement with earlier data, 12.9% (76 samples) were shown to be of the QQ genotype. However, XMRV specific sequences were detected at neither the DNA nor the RNA level. Consistent with this result, none of the sera analyzed from prostate cancer patients contained XMRV-specific antibodies.
Our results indicate a much lower prevalence (or even complete absence) of XMRV in prostate tumor patients in Germany. One possible reason for this could be a geographically restricted incidence of XMRV infections.

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    • "Furthermore, it is possible that the XMRV tropism is typical to the prostate due to the glucocorticoid response element present in the long terminal repeat of XMRV, which can activate transcription in response to various steroid hormones, maybe androgen, which is essential in the development, growth and maintenance of the prostate. [15] There is currently, a lot of controversy around XMRV and oncogenesis as evidenced by several studies [13,14] and studying its association with cancers from different sites and normal population will shed more light on its occurrence, habitat and oncogenic potential. XMRV may be circulating in the general population at a low rate as evidenced by its presence in 4% of benign controls [17,19] while other studies have found XMRV in respiratory secretions. "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Indian Journal of Cancer
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    • "An important finding in 2009 was that the cell line 22Rv1, derived from a human PC patient, harbored multiple copies of XMRV DNA and expressed it highly.32 However, other subsequent studies failed to detect XMRV in prostate tissue, serum or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with PC from the United States and Europe.33,34,35,36,37,38 "
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    ABSTRACT: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) was discovered in 2006 in a search for a viral etiology of human prostate cancer (PC). Substantial interest in XMRV as a potentially new pathogenic human retrovirus was driven by reports that XMRV could be detected in a significant percentage of PC samples, and also in tissues from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). After considerable controversy, etiologic links between XMRV and these two diseases were disproven. XMRV was determined to have arisen during passage of a human PC tumor in immunocompromised nude mice, by activation and recombination between two endogenous murine leukemia viruses from cells of the mouse. The resulting XMRV had a xentropic host range, which allowed it replicate in the human tumor cells in the xenograft. This review describes the discovery of XMRV, and the molecular and virological events leading to its formation, XMRV infection in animal models and biological effects on infected cells. Lessons from XMRV for other searches of viral etiologies of cancer are discussed, as well as cautions for researchers working on human tumors or cell lines that have been passed through nude mice, includingpotential biohazards associated with XMRV or other similar xenotropic murine leukemia viruses (MLVs).
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Emerging Microbes and Infections
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    • "In conclusions, several studies have used primers that simultaneously detect XMRV and related MLVs in prostate cancers (Hohn et al., 2009; Aloia et al., 2010; Robinson et al., 2011; Switzer et al., 2011; Das Gupta et al., 2012; Rezaei et al., 2013). But, XMRV or related gamaretroviruses (MLVs) were not detected in our samples. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Multiple etiologies have been hypothesized for prostate cancer, including genetic defects and infectious agents. A recently reported gamaretrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been reported to be detected in prostate cancer. However, this virus has not been detected in similar groups of patients in other studies. Herein, we sought to detect XMRV in prostate cancers and benign controls in Sanandaj, west of Iran. Materials and methods: In a case-control study, genomic DNA was extracted from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded prostate tissues from a total of 163 Iranian patients. We developed a conventional and a nested PCR assay using primers targeting to an env specific sequence of XMRV. PCR assays were carried out on 63 prostate cancers and 100 benign prostate hyperplasias. Results: Beta-actin sequences were successfully detected in the DNA extracts from all prostate tissues, confirming DNA extraction integrity. We did not detect XMRV in samples either from prostate cancers or benign prostate hyperplasias using XMRV specific primers. Conclusions: We conclude that in our population XMRV does not play a role in genesis of prostate cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP
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