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Application of Food Safety Management Systems (ISO 22000/HACCP) in the Turkish Poultry Industry: A Comparison Based on Enterprise Size


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The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of food safety management systems (ISO 22000/HACCP) implementation in the Turkish poultry industry. A survey was conducted with 25 major poultry meat producers, which account for close to 90% of national production, and a comparison was made between the procedures of small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) and large firms (LFs). The survey revealed that there is a high level of application of ISO 22000 (72%), which is seen to aid the export market. LFs were shown to adopt more stringent schemes and make better use of governmental support services than SMEs. LFs were also more aware of, and able to deal with, risks from a greater range of contaminants.
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Research Note
Application of Food Safety Management Systems
(ISO 22000/HACCP) in the Turkish Poultry Industry: A Comparison
Based on Enterprise Size
Abant I
˙zzet Baysal University, Department of Food Engineering, 14280 Bolu, Turkey
MS 09-102: Received 2 March 2009/Accepted 12 June 2009
The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of food safety management systems (ISO 22000/HACCP)
implementation in the Turkish poultry industry. A survey was conducted with 25 major poultry meat producers, which account
for close to 90%of national production, and a comparison was made between the procedures of small-to-medium enterprises
(SMEs) and large firms (LFs). The survey revealed that there is a high level of application of ISO 22000 (72%), which is seen to
aid the export market. LFs were shown to adopt more stringent schemes and make better use of governmental support services
than SMEs. LFs were also more aware of, and able to deal with, risks from a greater range of contaminants.
In today’s global economy, agribusinesses compete not
only in their capacity to lower production costs but also in
their ability to offer safer and higher-quality products.
Regulations aimed at increasing food safety standards,
which were first established in developed countries, have
rapidly spread into developing countries (12, 15, 32).
Poultry meat is one of the main products involved in
foodborne infections because of its susceptibility to
infection by pathogens as well as physical and chemical
contamination (6, 19). The hazard analysis and critical
control point (HACCP) system, developed by the Codex
Alimentarius Commission, has long been internationally
accepted as the system of choice for food safety manage-
ment (23). It is a preventative approach to food safety based
on the principles of identifying critical control points
(CCPs) and establishing procedures at each CCP to monitor
and maintain food safety (4). However, it is not the HACCP
system itself that makes food safe, but its correct application
(17, 18). HACCP is most effective when used with other
control systems. Total quality management programs and
standard operating procedures should be used along with
HACCP to improve product safety, product quality, and
plant productivity (19). In 2005, a new standard for food
safety management systems (FSMS), the International
Organization for Standardization (ISO) 22000:2005, was
introduced with the intention of bridging the gap between
ISO 9001:2000 and HACCP. The ISO 22000 series
integrates the principles of the HACCP system with
prerequisite programs, such as good manufacturing practic-
es (GMP) and good hygiene practices (GHP), thus ensuring
that there are no weak links in the food supply chain. The
standard can be applied with or without independent
certification of conformity. The benefits for the users are
many, including improved communication between trade
partners, better use of resources, and more effective hazard
analysis. For stakeholders it provides a greater confidence in
the organization and a reference for the whole food chain (9).
Although it has been internationally accepted and increas-
ingly used, there is not as yet any legislative obligation within
Europe to use it and it is applied on a voluntary basis with the
initiative coming from the food industry.
The poultry industry in Turkey is of major economic
importance in terms of both domestic and export markets,
although it has suffered from recent food safety scares (3).
The annual turnover of the sector is currently worth over
US$3 billion. In the first 4 months of 2009, total poultry
meat exports of 8,000 tons (US$10 million) have been
reported (2).
The majority of production in the Turkish broiler sector
comes from integrated enterprises, which control all the
stages from breeding through marketing of the final product.
There is a total of 89 integrated broiler firms in Turkey, but
over 90%of the total production is accounted for by the top
20 firms. The top five firms have a market share of 47%,
which is beneficial in terms of food quality, safety, and price
for the consumer (31). These developments have increased
poultry meat consumption per head of population and at a
national level by making it more affordable and available
The poultry sector in Turkey has significantly improved
its systems of documentation and controls of stock. All
poultry farms, hatcheries, slaughterhouses, and feed mill
plants are subject to official annual inspections from the
* Author for correspondence. Tel: z90 538 567 10 06; Fax: z90 0374
253 45 58; E-mail:
Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 72, No. 10, 2009, Pages 2221–2225
Copyright G, International Association for Food Protection
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Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) (1).In
September 2003, the technical mission from the European
Union (EU) completed an inspection at six slaughterhouses
in Turkey approving the establishments as suitable for
export (8).
In this research, major poultry meat–producing firms in
Turkey were surveyed to assess their use of HACCP and
ISO 22000. The results of the survey were analyzed in terms
of small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), i.e., employ-
ing fewer than 250 staff, and large firms (LFs) with 250 or
more staff, as defined by the EU. The practices of the five
biggest employers (BEs) have also been analyzed as a
separate category
The survey was conducted with 25 poultry companies from
February 2007 to June 2007. The companies were based in Ankara,
˙zmir, Bolu, I
˙stanbul, I
˙zmit, Balıkesir, Sakarya, Us¸ak, Manisa,
Bilecik, Eskis¸ehir, and C¸ ankırı provinces of Turkey. Some
companies were visited by personnel trained in HACCP and
prerequisite programs, who conducted face-to-face interviews and
administered the questionnaire. Others were completed by
responsible staff on site and returned by post. Business managers
were asked about their company details, food safety details, food
safety management systems, and updating and training schedules.
Part I included questions related to food businesses (number of
employees, education level of directors, and capacity of production
units). Part II included 11 items related to implementation of the
food safety system, training programs, and assessment of major
risks to food safety. In addition to general information, the
questionnaires asked about aspects related to the costs, benefits,
and difficulties of implementing HACCP and ISO 22000. All
statistical analyses were conducted using Microsoft Office Excel
for Windows (version 97-2003).
The demographic details of the firms surveyed are
summarized in Table 1. All of the organizations surveyed
contained at least one director educated to university level
with a degree in food engineering as required by Turkish
law. LFs accounted for 76%of the firms surveyed;
however, they made up 94%of the employment and 96%
of production capacity, whereas the SMEs made up 24%of
the firms surveyed and accounted for only 6%of
employment and 4%of production capacity. The BEs
accounted for 59%of the employment and 38%of the
production capacity. This highlights the move that has
occurred in Turkey from small producers to large-scale
integrated ones (3).
The major characteristics of the companies’ implemen-
tation of FSMS are presented in Table 2. All of the 25
poultry companies surveyed had implemented some form of
FSMS. The vast majority use ISO 22000 (72%), with about
one-third (28%) operating exclusively on HACCP, showing
a very high level of voluntary scheme compliance within
this industry. ISO 22000 provides businesses with the
opportunity to benefit from both the food safety aspects of
HACCP and the additional benefits of the management
responsibilities, which ensures the commitment from
management to make the FSMS effective (20). This is a
strategy adopted by the LFs, which show 100%adherence
to using ISO 22000, whereas the SMEs have a lower level
of application (67%). Variation in FSMS application can be
used by enforcement officials to distinguish between high-
and low-risk establishments and focus inspection efforts
accordingly (10). When asked to compare ISO 22000 with
HACCP in terms of perceived advantages, the respondents
who implemented only HACCP indicated that they required
more knowledge of ISO 22000.
All firms conform to expected standards of disinfection
and traceability, and all have their own quality department
to control the day-to-day FSMS. In addition to this, regular
input by MARA is utilized by 60%of firms, with the
remainder using accredited companies. The five BEs all opt
for ministry involvement, whereas only 33%of the SMEs
use their services, the majority using independent accredited
companies. The application of ISO 22000 has been widely
promoted, especially as a tool to aid exports, but it is clear
that the quality of ISO application will depend on the
organization involved in its setup and monitoring. It can be
hard, with the proliferation of new schemes, to find
competent auditors (33).
Almost one-half of the firms update their Food Safety
Handbook every 6 months, with the same number doing so
annually. Only one company conducts a more frequent
monthly update. It is clear that the LFs conduct more
frequent updates, with 63%doing so biannually or more
often compared with only 17%of the SMEs. The BEs again
show best practice with 80%opting for biannual updates.
The majority of SMEs (83%) have annual updates
compared with a lesser percentage (37%) for the LFs. This
confirms findings of other researchers indicating that
smaller firms need more incentives and have difficulty in
allocating resources to apply food safety systems (28, 34).
Staff training is also conducted internally and in
partnership with accredited companies by all firms, with a
smaller percentage (36%) also involving MARA and
universities. Again the involvement of the government
institutions is differentiated by size, with 80%of the BEs,
42%of the LFs, and only 17%of the SMEs making use of
the expertise offered by the government and universities. In
TABLE 1. Demographic details of firms surveyed
All firms LFs SMEs BEs
No. of firms surveyed 25 100 19 76 6 24 5 20
No. of employees 15,870 100 14,985 94 885 6 9,350 59
Capacity (units/h) 134,950 100 129,000 96 5,950 4 51,000 38
2222 KO
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Spain a study of HACCP implementation in food companies
showed that meetings with inspectors and visits to their
establishments did the most to facilitate HACCP develop-
ment and application (22). A founder of the HACCP
system, in a recent review of existing practices, recommends
that food safety professionals in the food industry,
academia, and regulatory agencies must collaborate with
other concerned stakeholders to improve this situation by
creating effective science-based food safety rules and
policies (26).
The frequency of staff training is varied, with only 24%
conducting training every 3 months or more and the
majority limiting training to biannual (32%) or annual
(44%) courses. This is a potential weakness in the effective
maintenance of FSMS. Complete and routine implementa-
tion of HACCP will happen only when there is adequate,
complete, and routine education and training of manage-
ment and employees in understanding the meaning and
function of HACCP, proper and continuous application of
its principles, and importance of control of foodborne
hazards (25). The BEs are more likely to conduct training at
least biannually (80%) with fewer of the LFs (54%) and
even fewer of the SMEs doing so. The majority of SMEs
(67%) operate with annual training, indicative of the greater
financial burden that FSMS constitute for them and their
inability to maintain more frequent training programs (28).
Although this alone is not indicative of the quality of staff
training, it does increase the risk of staff being insufficiently
In response to questions about aspects related to costs
and benefits of the FSMS in operation, all the firms gave
positive replies confirming that the cost of application is
justified by the benefits. The main costs for SMEs were
identified as being in the initial setup (67%), whereas
implementation is the major cost factor for 52%of LFs and
100%of BEs. Firms that operated with ISO 22000 also
found difficulties in the initial setup, especially as it is a new
system and it is extremely difficult to find literature in
Turkish and certified consultants to aid in setting up. Those
applying ISO 22000 find it more comprehensive, but its
main strength is in export compliance. The cost of applying
food safety management schemes can be a deterrent;
however, there is a clear advantage to those firms that
apply HACCP in both the domestic and international
markets (15). In contrast to Henson et al. (13) but in
agreement with Maldonado et al. (15), the SMEs found ISO
22000 to be more beneficial for microbial safety than for
customer assurance.
TABLE 2. Characteristics of food safety management systems (FSMS) in major Turkish poultry meat producers
All firms LFs SMEs BEs
HACCP only 7 28 5 26 2 33 0 0
ISO 22000 18 72 14 74 4 67 5 100
Control of FSMS
Internal zAC 10 40 6 32 4 67 0 0
Internal zMARA 15 60 13 68 2 33 5 100
Frequency of updating of food safety handbook
Monthly 1 4 1 5 0 0 0 0
Biannually (every 6 mo) 12 48 11 58 1 17 4 80
Annually 12 48 7 37 5 83 1 20
Responsibility of staff training
Internal zAC 16 64 11 58 5 83 1 20
Internal zAC zMARA zuniversities 9 36 8 42 1 17 4 80
Frequency of staff training
Monthly 3 12 2 11 1 17 0 0
Quarterly (every 3 mo) 3 12 2 11 1 17 2 40
Biannually (every 6 mo) 8 32 8 42 0 0 2 40
Annually 11 44 7 37 4 67 1 20
Main costs of FSMS*
Setup 6 24 2 11 4 67
Training 9 36 7 37 2 33
Implementation 10 40 10 52 5 100
Benefits of ISO 22000
Customer reassurance 4 16 2 11 2 33
Microbial safety 10 40 6 32 4 67
Export compliance 11 44 11 58 5 100
n, number of companies total n~25; AC, accredited companies.
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The survey asked for the companies’ own assessment
of the greatest risks to food safety from a limited list,
categorized under physical, chemical, and biological risks
(Table 3). Metal was regarded as the greatest physical risk
factor by 47%of the LFs and 67%of SMEs. Interestingly,
16%of LFs and 33%of SMEs felt there were no potential
physical risks. This could be interpreted as meaning that
either they are confident in their processing systems or there
is a lack of monitoring. It is recognized that larger firms
generally have better food safety systems in place (11).
Other physical risks identified by LFs were hair (21%),
plastics (11%), and freeze burns (5%). No firms identified
glass as a risk. All firms identified potential chemical
contaminants, with by far the majority (92%) choosing
chemical residues, including disinfectants and ammonia, as
the greatest risk, the remainder selecting antibiotics. In both
physical and chemical risk categories, the LFs identified a
greater range of contaminants than the SMEs, suggesting
that they have a greater awareness of, and capability to
detect, contaminants. Investment in new equipment and
microbiological tests of products were found to account for
most of the implementation and operational costs (15). All
firms (100%) selected Salmonella as the greatest biological
risk. The adoption of the HACCP system can lead to a
reduction of hazards but cannot eliminate all hazards,
because existing technology is not yet capable of achieving
this desirable objective (16, 29). The absence of an effective
stage of killing microorganisms (e.g., pasteurization or
cooking) during slaughter means that poultry meat may
contain pathogenic microorganisms (5, 6, 14, 24, 27).
However, greater automation of the processes has been
shown to reduce the risk of contamination (30).
The use of FSMS for the meat and poultry industry
must begin at the farm because certain safety concerns
cannot be controlled without the longitudinally integrated
safety assurance as incorporated in the EU general food law
(7). In this respect the integrated firms, which control the
processes from hatching all the way through sales, have a
significant advantage in terms of increased communication
and control between stages of production (3).
With respect to Turkish poultry meat production, this
survey shows that ISO 22000 and HACCP are widely
implemented and high levels of food safety have been
achieved. However, there is a difference in application in
terms of development, control, and training between LFs
and SMEs. Success in implementing and maintaining a
HACCP program depends on how its four basic pillars
(commitment, education and training, availability of re-
sources, and external pressure) are prioritized and organized
in a company (21).
The larger firms show a better practice with more
application of voluntary schemes and more frequent training
and updating of records. They also make better use of the
support facilities provided by universities and regulatory
agencies. This suggests that more effort should be made on
the part of the government institutions to engage with SMEs
in helping them improve standards within the industry as a
whole and increase the levels of exports.
The author thanks Mrs. Zehra Kadas¸, Abant Food Ltd., Bolu, and Mr.
Erkan Gu¨ nes¸, MARA, Department of Quality Control, Bolu, Turkey, for
administering the survey. Special thanks to Mrs. Sara Ann Wigglesworth
for proofreading and editing, and finally thanks to Karl Ropkins for
scientific editing.
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TABLE 3. Self-assessment of potential food safety risk factors in
major Turkish poultry meat producers
Risk factor
All firms LFs SMEs BEs
Metal 13 52 9 47 4 67 2 40
Carcass freezing
burn 1 4 1 5
Hair 4 16 4 21 1 20
Plastic materials 2 8 2 11 1 20
None 5 20 3 16 2 33 1 20
Disinfectants 4 16 2 11 2 33 1 20
Residue 18 72 14 73 4 67 4 80
Antibiotics 2 8 2 11
(Salmonella) 25 100 19 100 6 100 5 100
n, number of companies total n~25.
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... Microbiological requirements for mozzarella cheese. 11.Establish verification procedure: The term "verification" refers to the systematic and diligent approach to methods, procedures, checks, and other appraisals, as well as the scrutiny of the HACCP plan to ensure compliance with it. The verification of contingency procedures is done on a daily, weekly, and monthly basis by a quality analyst and supervisor of the food safety team to ensure there are adequate procedures in place when critical limits are exceeded. ...
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... Young managers are perceived as more innovative and risk-oriented when compared with veteran managers(Galati et al., 2017;Pekkirbizli Zemestani et al., 2019). 3. Commitment: Management commitment and willingness to produce safe food mitigate their perceptions about FSS adoption(Arpanutud et al., 2009;Kök, 2009;Maldonado-Siman et al., 2012;Maldonado-Siman et al., 2014;Ab Talib and Chin, 2018;Abebe et al., 2020). ...
... HACCP has long been globally documented and recognized as an effective food safety organization system [1,2]. It provides a preventive framework for recognizing the probable contamination and subsequent assessing that the procedure is in control of these steps of the food chain essential for food safety [3]. ...
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The paper aims to evaluate the critical success factors for the implementation of the food safety management system in accordance with the international standard (ISO 22000:2018) and analyze the gap between the actual reality in the Abu Ghraib dairy factories and the critical success factors that assist in the implementation of the food safety management system. The international standard (ISO 22000:2018) has been divided according to the checklists into two types of critical success factors, the internal factors (leadership, training, performance evaluation, planning, financial resources) and external factors (organization context, risks and opportunities, stakeholders, support), The research relied on the case study approach, and the weighted arithmetic mean and percentage of application and documentation were used to express the extent of the difference and congruence with the critical success factors derived from the standard, The most important results reached by the researcher were that the percentage of applying and documenting these factors amounted to (46.7%), while the percentage of the gap amounted to (53.3%).
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:المستخلص الهدف: تهدف الدراسة الى تقييم عوامل النجاح الحرجة لتطبيق نظام ادارة سلامة الغذاء على وفق المواصفة الدولية (ISO 22000:2018) وتحليل الفجوة بين الواقع الفعلي في مصانع البان أبي غريب ومتطلبات المواصفة التي تساعد في تطبيق نظام ادارة سلامة الغذاء. المنهجية: تم تجزئة المواصفة الدولية (ISO 22000:2018) الى نوعين من عوامل النجاح الحرجة والتي تمثلت بالعوامل الداخلية المتضمنة (5) عوامل وهي القيادة, والتدريب , وتقييم الاداء , والتخطيط , والموارد المالية , والعوامل الخارجية المتضمنة (4) عوامل وهي سياق المنظمة , والمخاطر والفرص, واصحاب المصلحة , والدعم, و اعتمدت الدراسة على منهج دراسة الحالة واستخدام قوائم الفحص للحصول على البيانات اللازمة عن نسبة التطبيق والفجوة في مصانع البان أبي غريب, وقد استخدم الوسط الحسابي المرجح والنسبة المئوية للتطبيق والتوثيق للتعبير عن مدى الاختلاف والتطابق مع عوامل النجاح الحرجة المستنبطة من المواصفة. النتائج: أكدت النتائج وجود فجوة بين الواقع الفعلي و عوامل النجاح الحرجة المنبثقة من نظام ادارة سلامة الغذاء على وفق المواصفة بنسبة (53.3%) وقد اوصت الدراسة بتعزيز عوامل النجاح الحرجة التي تسهم في تبني وتطبيق نظام ادارة سلامة الغذاء على وفق المواصفة الدولية (ISO 22000:2018). القيمة المضافة: تساعد هذه الدراسة في تحديد وتعزيز عوامل النجاح الحرجة التي تسهم في تمكين مصانع ألبان أبي غريب لتبني نظام ادارة سلامة الغذاء على وفق المواصفة الدولية (ISO 22000:2018) , فضلا عن تقديم توصيات للإفادة من نظام ادارة الجودة على وفق المواصفة الدولية (ISO 9001:2015) المطبق فعليا في مصانع الالبان وتعزيز متطلباته بالتكامل مع متطلبات المواصفة الدولية (ISO 22000:2018). الكلمات المفتاحية: عوامل النجاح الحرجة, ادارة سلامة الغذاء (FSMS) ,المواصفة الدولية , ISO 22000:2018 .
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Objective: to evaluate and compare the effect of lingualized occlusion and monoplane occlusion on the peri-implant bone level of mandibular overdenture retained by two splinted mini-implants using Cone Beam Computed Tomography(CBCT). Methodology: Fourteen completely edentulous patients were divided randomly into two equal groups: Group I received splinted Mini-implant retaining mandibular overdentures with their occlusal scheme set according to the lingualized concept.Group II received splinted Mini-implant retaining mandibular overdentures with their occlusal scheme set according to the monoplane concept.The peri-implant marginal bone loss was evaluated at zero, six and twelve months from the time of loading using CBCT. Findings: The crestal bone loss around mini-implants in Monoplane group is higher than Lingualized group with no significant difference. Conclusion: In case of splinted mini-implants retaining mandibular overdenture ,type of occlusion has no effect on the supporting structures. Keywords: Mandibular Overdenture - Mini-Implants - Occlusion
The agrifood system has a huge impact on several features concerning sustainability, including food safety and food security policies. In this vein, investigating why and how companies’ business models incorporate these issues, has been gaining momentum within the scientific, political and managerial agenda. Do agrifood companies only implement strategies addressed to product quality and their characteristics of health, hygiene and sanitation or, in a broader sense, do they incorporate aspects relating to environmental and social sustainability? To answer these questions, this chapter introduces a case study relative to an Italian agrifood company (Fileni Group) that is among the leading European chicken farm and meat producers. The Group has embraced a circular economy putting into practice several strategies of eco-innovation through a regeneration production system based on the use of renewable sources, respect for animals, minimising waste, protecting the environment and generating socio-economic benefits to the territory and the local community. The case analysis allows us to point out the sunken reasons for food safety that rest on an ethical-driven business model, rather than on opportunistic reasons.
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The key objective of this research review is to elucidate the mechanisms for applying a food safety scheme based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system and to identify the difficulties and benefits of this technique (HACCP) in Algeria. Characterization of food processing companies around the capital of Algeria was carried out on the basis of questionnaires and direct interviews with the manager in charge of these companies. Forty-six agri-food firms working in the Algiers region and operating in the field for more than 15 years (80.5%) with Joint Stock company (JSC) status (23.9%), Limited Liability Company (LLC) (63%) and multinational companies (26.1%). The establishment of a transparent and effective framework for food safety controls will enable compliance with customer requirements, improved product quality and a stronger commitment to food safety managers. This is favorably correlated with the age as well as the level of education of the managers of the different surveyed companies. The survey conducted in the Algerian region showed that the key barriers to the introduction of the food safety management system (FSMS) in general are inadequate knowledge and competence of the HACCP and a long time to be developed FSMS, a lack of expertise and technical support and a lack of specialized expertise, intelligence and technological assistance to help the small and medium-sized enterprises (SME). The findings of the survey also revealed that the key reason for the introduction of the FSMS is to strengthen product protection, recognize the strengths and shortcomings of the business, enhance relationships with suppliers and enhance government and consumer confidence.
In this study, the new methodologies of the ISO 22000:2018 and HACCP systems were fully implemented in an organization from the pre‐prepared postpartum meal industry. One of the organization’s dishes was chosen as an example dish. The Critical Control Points (CCPs) were identified as the acceptance of raw materials, cooking, and reheating steps in the preparation process. The impacts before and after applying these food safety systems to the end product were evaluated. The results indicated that the monthly average aerobic plate count and coliforms levels in the dish samples tested in 2018 and 2019 (before and after the implementation of the systems) had gradually decreased. The Chinese herbal medicinal materials were subjected to rapid testing and a periodic rotation scheme with enhanced intensity of monitoring. We found that the presence of aflatoxin residues in the Chinese herbal medicinal materials reflected the importance and necessity of rapid testing and third‐party testing in small‐ and medium‐sized food and beverage establishments. Meanwhile, following the full implementation of the systems, the quality and safety of the organization’s dishes had gradually improved, and the number of customer complaints had decreased. The customers also increased their positive feedbacks and recommendations, so as to provide more opportunities for the organization. We expect that the methodologies, principles, and models used by the organization in this study could be applied on its other dishes as well as on other similar small‐ and medium‐sized food and beverage establishments in the industry, so as to elevate their image and boost sales. This study examined the strategies, methodologies, and programs as per the ISO 22000:2018 clauses implemented by a small and medium enterprise in the pre‐prepared postpartum meal industry. Pig trotter soup with peanuts was selected as an example dish.
The first chapter statesglobal supply chains a general overview of the book such as the background, objectives, and structure. It briefly outlines the incentives for the book. The chapter describes the main value of the book in reducing the complexities of decision-making and managing FSMS. Compared to other studies of CSFs for FSMS, this book not only applies CSFcritical success factors (CSF) approach proactively to identify the enabling mechanism for continuous improvement of the FSMS implementationFSMS implementation but also provides dynamic roadmaps based on the status of each firm’s key FSMSFood safety management system (FSMS) characteristics. The enhanced understanding of the best practice of FSMS implementation would help to mitigate failure risk and lead to safer food supply chains. The approaches presented in the book can be an easy-to-use and practical method for food managers in their routine operation management.
Production technology used in the Turkish broiler sector is well developed. Eighty percent of production is mostly carried out at integrated facilities, using internationally competitive techniques that are employed in developed countries. Broiler slaughter capacities are 15 000-17 000 units/h. The increase in the concentration ratio of top four firms (CR4) in the broiler sector has caused doubts about the competitiveness. According to 2004 data, the top 20 firms produce 84% of the total production and CR4 is 38.7%. In this study, a differentiated product oligopoly model has been applied to the Turkish broiler sector, and the price competition from 1998 to 2004 has been analysed. The top five firms, which have the highest competitive power and which are the only firms that meet the European Standards and are exporting broiler meat to the EU countries, have been included in the analysis. The results show that these firms have elastic demand and positive price cost margin.
Production technology used in the Turkish broiler sector is well developed. Eighty percent of production is mostly carried out at integrated facilities, using internationally competitive techniques that are employed in developed countries. Broiler slaughter capacities are 15000-17000 units/h. The increase in the concentration ratio of top four firms (CR4) in the broiler sector has caused doubts about the competitiveness. According to 2004 data, the top 20 firms produce 84% of the total production and CR4 is 38.7%. In this study, a differentiated product oligopoly model has been applied to the Turkish broiler sector, and the price competition from 1998 to 2004 has been analysed. The top five firms, which have the highest competitive power and which are the only firms that meet the European Standards and are exporting broiler meat to the EU countries, have been included in the analysis. The results show that these firms have elastic demand and positive price cost margin.
During the last three decades, Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) has been progressively introduced and applied for the benefit of the food industry. However, it should be recognised that HACCP systems have not been homogeneously implemented across all food industry sectors. Reasons for not implementing, maintaining and updating HACCP programmes cannot be explained purely in terms of unwillingness by manufacturers but rather by the presence of technical barriers that may impede the application of the system. Technical barriers represent all those practices, attitudes and perceptions that negatively affect the understanding of the HACCP concept and hence the proper and effective implementation and maintenance of the HACCP principles. This paper describes the potential barriers that may impede the correct use of HACCP before it has been implemented, during the process of implementation and after it has been implemented. Until barriers impeding HACCP have been resolved, HACCP systems will not be implemented throughout the whole food chain and it will not be able to reach its full potential as prerequisite for the international trade of foodstuffs.
An international consensus now exists for the principles of HACCP and how they should be implemented. The relative roles of industry and regulatory agencies has been described. A generic flow diagram is outlined and briefly discussed. A questionnaire for use in HACCP verification is provided. A rationale is suggested for determining when HACCP should be mandatory. The transition from theory to practice and regulatory involvement raises a variety of issues, some of which are discussed.
Despite the acknowledged contribution of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to the food industry there is increasing evidence that Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) implementation is limited in this sector, with the burden of implementation perceived as potentially insurmountable. Using an action research methodology, this in-depth, government funded research project took the form of a two stage, 18 month investigation into methods of reducing burdens of HACCP on SMEs. Stage one indicted that SMEs see HACCP as a difficult, complex set of activities requiring great amounts of time effort and with few, if any, perceived benefits. In stage two, however, with the help of research tools developed, a number of SMEs completed HACCP and many made good progress on a tight timescale. This research thus concludes that SMEs can achieve HACCP if they are provided with sufficient guidance and support in a context of general consensus of HACCP terminology and requirements. Recommendations are made, many of which have been subsequently adopted by the UK Food Standards Agency.
This article addresses the role and impact of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement on prospects for export trade by developing countries. The SPS Agreement aims to facilitate discussion under the aegis of the World Trade Organization (WTP). It provides an enquiry and dispute settlement procedure; it also offers certain concessions and aid to developing and least developed countries. The article presents data on participation and several objective measures of the way the Agreement works for developing countries. Participation in the Agreement by developing countries is relatively low, despite the fact that several current issues (for example aflatoxins, salmonella) impact directly on such countries. The article suggests ways that developing countries can benefit further from the operation of the SPS Agreement, and explores how the standards operated by certain countries might act as a trade barrier to exports from developing countries. [Econ-Lit citations: L660, F100, Q170] © 1999 John Wiley & Sons.
A methodology for food quality control, consisting of several consecutive concentric stages, is shown. It deals with a systematic and concentric study method, based on statistical results. The aim of this technique is to find the source of dissemination of a defined risk along the operations of a food process. It has been applied to the location of the presence of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) within the different stages in a poultry slaughterhouse. By means of application of statistical techniques like chi-square test, the classifying stage, where the carcasses are greatly handled, has been identified as the main source of the Lm in the studied poultry slaughterhouse. Besides, by means of the application of logistic regression the Lm psychrotropic behavior has been confirmed.