Article

A social justice epistemology and pedagogy for Latina/o students: Transforming public education with participatory action research

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The article reports on Latina/o high school students who conducted participatory action research (PAR) on problems that circumscribe their possibilities for self-determination. The intention is to legitimize student knowledge to develop effective educational policies and practices for young Latinas/os. PAR is engaged through the Social Justice Education Project, which provides students with all social science requirements for their junior and senior years. The mandated curriculum is supplemented with advanced-level readings from Chicana/o studies, critical race theory, critical pedagogy, and, most important, PAR. The intention is for students to meet the requirements for graduation and to develop sophisticated critical analyses to address problems in their own social contexts.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Similarly, researchers have investigated the epistemological beliefs of preservice teachers (Bråten and Ferguson 2015;Brownlee 2001;Gill, Ashton, and Algina 2004). One study reported the influence of social justice pedagogy on the epistemological beliefs of high school students (Cammarota and Romero 2009). Such studies are not available in the context of teacher education. ...
... The study findings are consistent with studies that have reported a change in the epistemological beliefs of the teachers as a result of the constructivist (learner-centered) teaching approach (Howard et al. 2000;Gill, Ashton, and Algina 2004). The findings are also consistent with Cammarota and Romero's (2009) research who noticed a transformation in the epistemological beliefs of the students who participated in community-based research projects. As seen in Cammarota and Romero (2009), this study included the university, community, and neighborhoods, which served as sites for learning and research. ...
... The findings are also consistent with Cammarota and Romero's (2009) research who noticed a transformation in the epistemological beliefs of the students who participated in community-based research projects. As seen in Cammarota and Romero (2009), this study included the university, community, and neighborhoods, which served as sites for learning and research. Participants gathered data from different places. ...
Article
The study aimed at investigating the transformative potential of undergraduate research in teacher education. The study was built on an assumption that undergraduate research can lead to transforming epistemological beliefs. The researchers designed an action research project to engage the preservice teachers in research activities including small-scale, empirical investigations into societal issues; and research-based discussions over a period of eleven weeks. The study was done with twenty-seven preservice teachers studying in a public sector university of Pakistan. The data were mainly collected qualitatively through field notes, a critical friend, and participants’ interviews. The data indicated that two forms of undergraduate research—research-based and research-tutoring—collectively lead to the epistemological development of preservice teachers. Initially, participants believed that knowledge was fixed. However, in time, they started viewing uncertainty in knowledge. The findings imply that undergraduate research has the potential to serve as a transformative pedagogy and can change preservice teachers’ epistemological beliefs.
... Schools likely shape youth CC in many ways, including youth anti-racism action, via curriculum, classroom discussions, and school norms (Cammarota & Romero, 2009;Godfrey & Grayman, 2014;Seider et al., 2017;Watts & Flanagan, 2007). Schools, directly and indirectly, transmit a range of racial messages that emphasize, or deemphasize, the importance of interracial relations, mainstream US ideals, cultural knowledge and competence, and the relevance of race and racism in society (Aldana & Byrd, 2015;Seider et al., 2018b). ...
... Research on youth participatory action research, intergroup dialogue, ethnic studies, and youth CC suggests that racial messages that highlight race and racism (i.e., CC messages) contribute to youths' critical reflection of perceived inequality and critical action (Aldana, Rowley, Checkoway, & Richards-Schuster, 2012;Cabrera et al., 2013;Cammarota & Romero, 2009;Richards-Schuster & Aldana, 2013). These studies indicate that the more youth are exposed to messages about the reality of racism through school curricula, programmatic and dialogic efforts, the more they report an awareness of the structural underpinnings of racism and act to disrupt racism. ...
... Consistent with previous research on youths' exposure to CC messages in schools and community-based intergroup dialogues (Cammarota & Romero, 2009;Richards-Schuster & Aldana, 2013), CC messages were related to both forms of anti-racism action. That is, youth who were encouraged to reflect on how race/ ethnicity contributes to who is successful in society, the presence of racial inequality in the United States, social justice and other social issues from their teachers, classes and school opportunities were likely to challenge racism from their family and friends, participate in community organizing initiatives at school and contact political officials on issues related racism, for example. ...
Article
The current study examined whether youth perceptions of school racial messages that acknowledged the reality of racism (critical consciousness [CC] messages) or denied racism (color‐blind messages) predicted youth anti‐racism action through interpersonal and communal/political means. We further tested whether youths’ critical reflection of perceived inequality and anger toward social injustice—psychological aspects of CC development—mediated relations between school messages and youth actions. These questions were explored using structural equation modeling with 372 racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (Mage = 17.00; standard deviation = 1.29; female = 51.0%). Results indicated that youth perceptions of CC messages predicted their involvement in both interpersonal and communal/political anti‐racism action. Youths’ anger toward social injustice mediated links between school racial messages and anti‐racism action, albeit in unique ways. These findings underscore the power of schools in prompting youth anti‐racism action. Implications of the importance of partnerships between schools and youth community organizing groups to stimulate youth anti‐racism action were discussed.
... Compared to traditional PYD programs, YVPs are less likely to be manualized, instead consisting of a set of principles that guide practice, including power-sharing, youth ownership, and engagement in social change (Cammarota & Romero, 2009;Ginwright & James, 2002;Ozer & Douglas, 2015;Rodriguez & Brown, 2009). Given both rising interest in YVPs and increasing fiscal emphasis on implementation quality in routine practice, researchers must come to some agreement on the roles of fidelity and adaptation in YVP delivery and evaluation. ...
... Depending on their audience and interests, some YELL groups have chosen to create videos that highlight individual narratives, whereas other groups found it more strategic to use quantitative data and engage in survey development and aggregate analyses. It has not been possible to predict all of the research methods or funds of knowledge youth may elect to draw upon, necessitating the development of new activities beyond the most common approaches to information gathering that were included in the original program manual (e.g., surveys, interviews, and focus groups; Cammarota & Romero, 2009). ...
... The focus is then on helping youth develop their understanding of the way they exist in the world and their potential for transformation within it (Wagaman, 2015;Wong, Zimmerman, & Parker, 2010). Common approaches include dissemination of products that share youths' research and recommendations via presentations, videos, exhibits, or other types of events to raise awareness of an issue and highlight youths' ideas about how it can be solved (Cammarota & Romero, 2009;Larson & Walker, 2010;Soleimanpour et al., 2008;Wagaman, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the field of prevention science, some consider fidelity to manualized protocols to be a hallmark of successful implementation. A growing number of scholars agree that high-quality implementation should also include some adaptations to local context, particularly as prevention programs are scaled up, in order to strengthen their relevance and increase participant engagement. From this perspective, fidelity and adaptation can both be seen as necessary, albeit mutually exclusive, dimensions of implementation quality. In this article, we propose that the relationship between these two constructs may be more complex, particularly when adaptations are consistent with the key principles underlying the program model. Our argument draws on examples from the implementation of a manualized youth voice program (YVP) in two different organizations serving six distinct communities. Through a series of retreats, implementers identified examples of modifications made and grouped them into themes. Results suggest that some adaptations were actually indicators of fidelity to the key principles of YVPs: power-sharing, youth ownership, and engagement in social change. We therefore offer suggestions for re-conceptualizing the fidelity-adaptation debate, highlight implications for measurement and assessment, and illustrate that the de facto treatment of adaptation and fidelity as opposing constructs may limit the diffusion or scaling up of these types of youth programs.
... Schools likely shape youth CC in many ways, including youth anti-racism action, via curriculum, classroom discussions, and school norms (Cammarota & Romero, 2009;Godfrey & Grayman, 2014;. Schools directly and indirectly transmit a range of racial messages that emphasize, or deemphasize, the importance of interracial relations, mainstream U.S. ideals, cultural knowledge and competence, and the relevance of race and racism in society . ...
... Research on youth participatory action research, intergroup dialogue, ethnic studies, and youth CC suggests that racial messages that highlight race and racism (i.e., CC messages) contribute to youths' critical reflection of perceived inequality and critical action Cammarota & Romero, 2009;. These studies indicate that the more youth are exposed to messages about the reality of racism through school curricula, programmatic and dialogic efforts, the more they report an awareness of the structural underpinnings of racism and act to disrupt racism. ...
... Consistent with previous research on youths' exposure to CC messages in schools and community-based intergroup dialogues (Cammarota & Romero, 2009;, CC messages were related to both forms of anti-racism action. That is, youth who were encouraged to reflect on how race/ethnicity contributes to who is successful in society, the presence of racial inequality in the U.S., social justice and other social issues from their teachers, classes and school opportunities were likely to challenge racism from their family and friends, participate in community organizing initiatives at school and contact political officials on issues related racism, for example. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Racism remains a deep-seated and pressing social issue in the United States today. Youth may develop a “psychological armor” against racial oppression, referred to as a critical consciousness (Phan, 2010; Watts, Diemer, & Voight, 2011). Critical consciousness has been described as youths’ ability to recognize social issues in their social contexts and throughout society, and attribute their causes to structural issues, sense of confidence that they can create social change, and involvement in behaviors that challenge social injustice (Diemer, Rapa, Voight, & McWhirter, 2016; Watts & Flanagan, 2007). The majority of critical consciousness research has not focused on how youth develop beliefs, feelings and actions that challenge specific systems of oppression, including racism (Anyiwo, Bañales, Rowley, Watkins, & Richards-Schuster, 2018). The purpose of this dissertation is to deepen the conceptualization and understanding of youths’ critical racial consciousness—a domain-specific aspect of youths’ critical consciousness that involves youths’ beliefs about racism, perceptions of racial messages in their social contexts, emotional responses towards racism, and involvement in actions that challenge racism. Comprised of two stand-alone studies, this study investigates different aspects of youths’ critical racial consciousness. Study 1 is a qualitative investigation that explores how 384 youth of color and White youth explain the nature of racism. I also explore how youths’ beliefs about racism potentially differ based on youths’ racial/ethnic background. This study draws on developmental theory and research on children’s beliefs about race (McKown, 2004; Quintana, 1994, 2008) and youths’ awareness and explanations of racial inequality (Bañales et al., 2019; Hope, Skoog, & Jagers, 2014). Through the use of an inductive-deductive approach (Fereday & Muir-Cochrane, 2006) that incorporates grounded theory (Charmaz, 1996), I find that youth believe that racism involves people’s involvement in physical acts of racial discrimination and endorsement of prejudice that occur on the basis of people’s physical, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics. Second, youth believe that racism, in the form of physical acts of racial discrimination, has negative consequences on people’s lives and/or society. Finally, youth who display a critical reflection of racism describe racism as a system of oppression that is perpetuated by majority groups, often White people, that effects the life opportunities and outcomes of minority groups, often people of color. With the same sample of youth, Study 2 is a quantitative investigation that explores how youths’ perceptions of racial messages transmitted in their schools inform aspects of their critical consciousness (e.g., critical reflection of perceived inequality, anger towards social injustice) and critical racial consciousness (e.g., anti-racism action). This chapter is informed by the conceptual frameworks of critical consciousness (Diemer et al., 2016) and sociopolitical development (Watts & Flanagan, 2007) and associated bodies of literature relevant to research questions. Using structural equation modeling, this study finds that youth perceive messages in school that encourage them to reflect on the reality of race and racism in U.S. societal outcomes (i.e., critical consciousness messages) as well as messages in school that encourage them to not consider the role of race and race in U.S. societal outcomes and relations (i.e., color-blind messages). Although youths’ perceptions of these different racial messages in school were correlated, they related to youths’ critical consciousness and critical consciousness in unique ways. Findings from this dissertation have implications for how youth and adults discuss racism in the context of a school-based intergroup dialogue.
... University-based researchers engaging in YPAR have begun to build a body of empirical evidence that demonstrates a link between YPAR and various youth development outcomes, such as increased engagement, motivation, and sociopolitical awareness (Cammarota & Romero, 2009;Ozer & Douglas, 2013), as well as academic outcomes in subjects such as literacy (Van Sluys, 2010) and math (Yang, 2009). An emergent body of studies using quantitative and quasi-experimental designs have also begun to amass evidence about the impact of YPAR on student outcomes, including engagement, attendance, graduation, and academic achievement scores (Cabrera, Milem, Jaquette, & Marx, 2014;Voight & Velez, 2018). ...
... University-based researcher Dr. Julio Cammarota has also written extensively about YPAR implementation in academic classrooms in the Mexican American Studies program across several high schools in Tucson, Arizona. However, he has typically focused primarily on what students were doing (e.g., Cammarota, 2016;Cammarota & Romero, 2009;Romero, Cammarota, Dominguez, Valdez, Ramirez, & Hernandez, 2008). This is critically important work, but it differs substantially from my study, in which the primary focus was on the understandings and actions of teachers. ...
... They have argued that YPAR increases motivation and engagement among youth because research topics are relevant to their lives and the process is empowering since students are able to take actions that have positive effects on their communities (Cammarota & Fine, 2008;Duncan-Andrade & Morrell, 2008). In addition, they believe that when students reimagine themselves as both scholars who conduct research and activists who can create change in the world through YPAR, students strengthen their identity development and critical consciousness (Cammarota & Romero, 2009;Yang, 2009). In one of the four studies in the academic literature focusing on teachers implementing YPAR projects in core academic classes without substantial in-class support from university-based researchers, Mirra et al. (2015) wrote, "We find the most revolutionary part of YPAR to be this re-envisioning of the capabilities and power of students" (p. ...
Article
YPAR seeks to position youth as experts on their worlds, investigating issues that affect their lives and then taking action to create solutions. As such, one of the key epistemological principles underpinning YPAR is the robust participation of youth throughout the knowledge creation process. A growing body of literature examines what youth participation looks like in the context of YPAR that is enacted in school settings. Building on this recent work, this paper drills down on the concept of participation as the authors examine the tensions around adult and youth participation that we faced as we engaged with youth and teachers in different participatory studies in urban Ireland, urban USA, and suburban USA. We conclude that, while those who engage in YPAR should seek collective action throughout the process, more often than not YPAR is a dance of intra-action, always shifting and flowing to respond to and take up the evolving and entangled needs, knowledges, and understandings of those involved.
... Students met daily for a class period over two years to engage both typical content material and their research projects. Drawing on the work of Paolo Freire, students in the program utilized poetry as a means of documenting and exploring their contexts, ultimately generating themes for research projects (Cammarota & Romero, 2009, which ranged from immigration policies to discrimination faced by Latinx students. Students were guided through research methodologies and were exposed to Chicanx and critical race theory as frameworks for their analyses. ...
... Students were guided through research methodologies and were exposed to Chicanx and critical race theory as frameworks for their analyses. Students presented their research results to families, teachers, school administrations, and local elected officials, with the intention of validating their knowledge, identifying policies and practices that underlie structural inequities in their social contexts, and ultimately improving their conditions (Cammarota & Romero, 2009. ...
... SJEP enabled simultaneous focus on resources and the organization of resources (Seidman & Tseng, 2011;Tseng & Seidman, 2007) through YPAR projects that provided opportunities for students to explore their sociocultural context and engage in personal and institutional transformation (see Cammarota & Romero, 2011). The project contributed to the development of critical consciousness, academic identity, and academic achievement of students as well as the development of students' abilities to illustrate structural injustices facing their communities (Cammarota, 2015; Cammarota & Romero, 2009). Despite being suspended, SJEP demonstrates how educational settings can facilitate immigrant resistance. ...
Article
Full-text available
In 2018, in response to increasingly oppressive and widespread federal immigration enforcement actions in the United States (U.S.) and around the globe – including family separation, immigration raids, detention, deportation of people who have lived in the country for much of their lives – the Society for Community Research & Action produced a statement on the effects of deportation and forced separation on immigrants, their families, and communities (SCRA, 2018). The statement focused exclusively on the impacts of deportation and forced family separation, documenting the damage done by oppressive U.S. policies and practices. We felt it was imperative to document this harm, and yet were uncomfortable producing a narrow paper that focused solely on harm. There are multiple ways immigrants and their allies resist deportation and other forms of oppression. This resistance is done individually, collectively, and in settings that vary in size and scope, including community‐based, faith‐based, direct care, and educational settings, as well as entire municipalities and transnational organizing settings. Settings facilitate resistance in many ways, focusing on those who are oppressed, their oppressors, and systems of oppression. In this statement, we describe the unique and overlapping ways in which settings facilitate resistance. We situate this review of the scientific and practice literature in the frameworks of change through social settings, empowering settings, healing justice, and decolonization. We also document recommendations for continued resistance. Companion guides for stakeholders: https://www.communitypsychology.com/supporting-immigrants-resistance-to-injustice/
... Although educational research on building beloved communities in public school classrooms is scarce, a large body of research demonstrates the cruciality of the cultivation of critical consciousness when working as a collective toward personal and social transformation (Camangian, 2013;Cammarota, 2008Cammarota, , 2011Cammarota & Romero, 2009;Clay, 2012;Duncan-Andrade & Morrell, 2008;Ginwright, 2010Ginwright, , 2016Mirra & Morrell, 2011;Stovall, 2013;Stovall et al., 2009). A study conducted by Shawn Ginwright (2010) demonstrated the building of a beloved community while simultaneously cultivating critical consciousness. ...
... For example, Ginwright (2010) explored how Black youth cultivated a community with and for each other, and concluded that community building is a crucial component for radical healing to occur. Similarly, studies have demonstrated how cultivating a critical consciousness inspired the dismantling of oppressive policies and practices (Camangian, 2013;Cammarota, 2008Cammarota, , 2011Cammarota & Romero, 2009;Stovall, 2016). How youth engaged in personal and social transformation collectively reflected how educational researchers and/or theorists discussed what the process of building a beloved community entailed (Ginwright, 2010;hooks, 1995;Kelley, 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
This qualitative study examined the building of a beloved community in a seventh grade life science classroom while teaching and learning in a constricting institutional context (U.S. public school). Guided by a Critical Race Praxis for Educational Research lens (CRP-Ed), the findings demonstrated how building a beloved community while situated within an oppressive U.S. schooling system, supported students and teacher toward cultivating love and trust—with a collective commitment toward social-eco justice. As a result, this study contributes toward expanding the possibilities for teaching and learning toward social-eco justice in U.S. public schools that honors students’ and teachers’ agency, relationships, and cultivation of critical consciousness, while simultaneously pushing back on dehumanizing schooling policies and practices.
... In this perspective, students' voices must be meaningfully included in any policy discussion or knowledge production process that seeks to improve educational environments and agendas (Kemmis, 2006;Leitch et al., 2007). However, many of today's university students and professionals have been socialized into a "positivist image of what is legitimate social science" (Greenwood, 2007, p. 256), and reorienting them to a radically different perspective rooted in equity, democracy, and cooperation can be a significant challenge (Cahill, 2010;Cammarota & Romero, 2009;Torre, 2009). PAR's stance contrasts starkly with the positivist paradigm that dominates research (Carspecken, 1996) and the neoliberal commodification of education (Lister, 2010;Mirra & Rodgers, 2016), which together often determine which knowledge is valid and valuable and reify existing hierarchies of power and systems of oppression. ...
... Incorporating a PAR perspective in teacher education can better prepare new teachers to recognize students' unmet needs, adapt their practice in response, and advocate for change (Fals-Borda & Rah- man, 1991). Because of the stark differences of this perspective with dominant ideas of schooling, this requires a thorough introduction to the theoretical and philosophical underpinnings of the methodology (Cahill, 2010;Cammarota & Romero, 2009;Torre, 2009). Indeed, grounding teacher education in the epistemological commitments of PAR offers future educators the potential to act not just as consumers of others' ostensibly useful or valuable knowledge but as producers of knowledge in their own right. ...
Chapter
Participatory action research (PAR) is a community-based form of inquiry conducted with individuals affected by an issue or problem being studied rather than about them. Rather than a method of inquiry, PAR is an epistemological stance towards knowledge and knowledge creation that is rooted in critical, emancipatory pedagogy. Because it is an orientation, rather than a discrete method, PAR is difficult to teach. Here the authors explore the experiences of both undergraduate pre-service teachers and doctoral students as they seek to reconcile PAR principles and practice with their personal and professional backgrounds. The purpose is not to present the best approach for teaching PAR in the university classroom; rather, it is a reflective exploration of the experiences of the authors' participants, which reveals rich insights into what it feels like to become researchers within the ‘culture' of formal higher education in the United States.
... 126). Henceforth, it is not surprising that several scholars have employed YPAR to assist youth, both in and out of school, in order to address a variety of issues such as community violence, school segregation, the prison-industrial complex, juvenile justice, and educational inequity (Akom et al., 2008;Alberto et al., 2011;Cammarota & Romero, 2009;Desai, 2017;Desai & Abeita, 2017;Fine, 2009;Ginwright, 2007;Grace & Langhout, 2014;Yang, 2009). Cammarota & Romero (2009) presented three student cases that demonstrate how YPAR can be used as a bridge between the classroom and students' realities. ...
... Henceforth, it is not surprising that several scholars have employed YPAR to assist youth, both in and out of school, in order to address a variety of issues such as community violence, school segregation, the prison-industrial complex, juvenile justice, and educational inequity (Akom et al., 2008;Alberto et al., 2011;Cammarota & Romero, 2009;Desai, 2017;Desai & Abeita, 2017;Fine, 2009;Ginwright, 2007;Grace & Langhout, 2014;Yang, 2009). Cammarota & Romero (2009) presented three student cases that demonstrate how YPAR can be used as a bridge between the classroom and students' realities. Cerecer et al. (2013) had youth conduct interviews, create a video-docudrama, and use social media such as a blog to disseminate their findings on undocumented immigrants. ...
Article
Background Black youth are five times more likely, Latinx twice as likely, and Native American youth three times as likely to be incarcerated as their White peers. One of the dire consequences of the prison-industrial complex is that countless youth of color have been disenfranchised and cast out of society. Purpose The purpose of this study is to document the features of a Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) project conducted by Leaders Organizing 2 Unite & Decriminalize (LOUD) youth members, which is made up of allies, formerly incarcerated youth, and youth on probation, to provide a model that could be adaptable in similar other contexts. Setting This study takes place in the American Southwest in a state where marijuana is only medically legalized. Participants I worked primarily with five Latina women and three Latino men, one African American man, and one Diné woman. The ages of the LOUD members ranged from 15 to 20 years old and from a high school freshman to a first-year college student. Research Design As a co-facilitator for LOUD, I investigated how this YPAR project provided youth with the opportunity to shape and challenge current juvenile justice policies that detrimentally impacted youth for three years. YPAR endorses a collective process between the researcher and youth, allowing both parties to contribute meaningfully to all areas of research. Data Collection and Analysis Data were analyzed from three sets of semistructured interviews and 40 field notes taken over three years. I used a conventional content analysis approach to analyze both individual interview and weekly meeting transcriptions. Line-by-line coding was conducted through the use of Dedoose qualitative software. Results Through their YPAR investigation of the juvenile justice system, LOUD members were able to identify several key issues that affected system-involved youth such as being dehumanized, the mental, emotional, and spiritual toll, access to their lawyers, and unfair burdens placed on their families. LOUD members found their voice, became empowered to recommend changes in juvenile justice policies, and became social justice advocates for incarcerated youth through this process. Conclusions This project demonstrates how vulnerable marginalized youth became empowered by conducting and analyzing research, developing important recommendations, and being able to share their stories to change the juvenile justice system. We could choose to be a nation that extends care, compassion, and concern to those who are locked up and locked out or headed for prison before they are old enough to vote. We could seek for them the same opportunities we seek for our own children; we could treat them like one of “us.” We could do that. Or we can choose to be a nation that shames and blames its most vulnerable, affixes badges of dishonor upon them at young ages, and then relegates them to a permanent second-class status for life. That is the path we have chosen, and it leads to a familiar place. (Alexander, 2010, p. 206)
... The research element of YPAR, conducted within a critical pedagogy and social justice framework (Cammarota & Romero, 2009), invites students to act within their social environments to initiate change. More specifically, Cammarota and Romero (2009) designed and executed a YPAR program with a focus on the opportunity gap for Latino/a students in their junior and senior years of high school by supplementing curriculum requirements with studies in critical pedagogy and critical race theory; the intention of their YPAR work supported the opportunity to "reclaim the political space that silence[d] their voices by filling in the missing element, student knowledge, for developing effective policies for young people" (p. ...
Article
Full-text available
Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) is an emancipatory practice that may be used to facilitate meaningful discourse related to exploring post-secondary, college, and career pathways among youth. Through collaborative processes and consensus decision making, youth engage in YPAR as a process that develops collaborative research, teamwork, and shared leadership skills. We describe the applications of YPAR where school counselors work alongside youth to collectively examine constraints and opportunities related to college and career access. Engaging youth in YPAR has the potential to elevate young people's perspectives and experiences and give them a voice in promoting change in their local school communities. Often, outcomes of YPAR projects lead to action taken in the local school community, such as curricula changes and school-community projects. When youth feel empowered through these efforts, they may also feel more connected, thereby enhancing a sense of school community. In this essay and discussion article, we describe YPAR, including implications for school counselor practice.
... Examples of yPAR include Vecchio et al.'s. (2017) photovoice research with middle school and teenage migrant youth in rural New York; Turner, Hayes, and Way's (2013) use of hip hop production and critical media literacy; and the Social Justice Education Project with Latinx youth in Tucson, Arizona (Cammarota & Romero, 2009). For further reading on yPAR, Cammarota and Fine's (2008) edited book, Revolutionizing education: Youth participatory action research in motion, provides exemplars, insights, and responses by highly-regarded scholars. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Given that teachers face a daily reality constrained by standardized tests, accountability measures, curriculum mandates, and neoliberal policies, this chapter examines the role of curriculum, specifically middle school social studies curriculum, as part of the larger struggle, a contested site, for social justice in education. This chapter is based on three related assumptions located across the academic literature relevant to the topic: (1) Questions about curriculum are questions about knowledge and power. Students and society benefit from critiquing so-called “rational,” “common-sense,” and “value-free” curricular decisions, (2) middle school students can not only recognize and name injustice but can also reflect on the deep institutional, structural, and sociocultural rationale behind endemic inequality, and (3) the notion of curriculum as a space, a material, and relational site of action presents a fruitful path forward in resisting conventional assumptions about what should be taught. The organization of the chapter is as follows. First, the author presents current academic literature that expands upon the three assumptions mentioned, specifically links between curriculum, power, and social justice in middle grades social studies education, and the potential of conceptualizing curriculum as a contested space. The author builds on the outlined assumptions by presenting established models specific to teaching for social justice in the social studies. The chapter continues with a brief introduction to five broader pedagogical and curriculum frameworks that are neither social studies nor middle school specific but are commonly used by educators to support, complement, or conceptualize a middle school, social justice, and social studies curriculum. Finally, a conclusion outlines future opportunities and challenges for the middle grades social studies curriculum as a site of struggle for social justice in education.
... At the very least, such dialectical lines of pursuit strike one as essential to the praxis of Ethnic Studies in particular, which, in the wake of HB 2281, has found itself caught in a double-bind in relation to the question of its legitimacy as a veritable branch of academic study. In light of the attacks from those on the political right, some scholars and advocates of TUSD's MAS program have maintained that it is possible to square the objectives of Ethnic Studies with both the Common Core standards as well as the more traditional metrics of measuring student achievement (Cammarota & Romero, 2009; De los Rios, Lopez, & Morrel, 2015;Romero, 2010). However, scholars such as Cacho (2010) have argued that these efforts to establish legitimacy would set the terms for a 'victory in defeat' (p. ...
Article
Full-text available
This conceptual paper examines the question of the political imaginary in the neoliberal moment, and the crucial role that Ethnic Studies can play in realizing critical pedagogy’s promise of emancipatory social transformation. After Arizona House Bill 2281, educational scholarship has paid renewed attention to Ethnic Studies classrooms as key sites of politically transformative praxis. Attending to recent literature that contextualizes Ethnic Studies within broader contemporary struggles against neoliberal educational reform, this analysis traces the contentious relationship between Ethnic Studies and the advancements of neoliberal multicultural ideology.This essay extends these critical dialogues by arguing for a dialectical description of the Ethnic Studies, which emphasizes its ability to stage productive confrontations between traditions in Marxist philosophy, decolonial theory, and critical race theory. The epistemological and ontological tensions that arise here, I argue, are central to reframing our understanding of consciousness raising and the formation of radical subjectivities in the present.
... For example, the Social Justice Education Project capitalizes on Latina/o students' "funds of knowledge" through youth participatory action research using photography and poetry to reclaim political spaces that have traditionally excluded their voices and influence decision makers (Cammarota & Romero, 2009). This practice can create both institutional and individual transformation in what Cammarota and Romero term a social justice epistemology in which students learn and create personal and social transformation. ...
Article
The community school strategy calls on teachers, families, and school staff to take on new and more challenging roles to collaboratively address existing educational inequities. For example, deepened family and community engagement in the schools can help incorporate the rich funds of community knowledge and experience, both in the classroom and in making plans and decisions about the school. As school and community stakeholders work together, they can develop learning opportunities and access to services that support student learning and development. Community schools are particularly well-positioned to take advantage of research-backed strategies like integrated supports that help students come to class more prepared to learn, hands-on and innovative teaching and learning opportunities to deepen and extend learning, and sustainable workplace conditions to promote teacher satisfaction and retention. Embracing the link between learning and community, teachers and community school staff ensure that students and communities have opportunities to access rich, challenging, and culturally relevant curriculum and pedagogy, while accessing resources and supports. This expanded conception of what it means to teach in a community school presents new ways for researchers to study and help advance the field as well as the larger community schools movement.
... Los objetivos del conjunto de experiencias identificadas comparten el papel crítico y emancipador (Álvaro y del Pozo, 2004) que justifica su inclusión en la presente revisión sistemática. No obstante, en un análisis detallado es posible establecer una clara división en dos categorías: por un lado, experiencias cuyo objetivo fundamental se cierne sobre una alfabetización crítica, relacionada con la materia de referencia en la que desarrollan su marco de acción ( Stoval, 2006); por otro lado, experiencias cuyo objetivo trasciende la alfabetización crítica, con un afán transformador de la realidad o contexto de origen (Cammarota y Romero, 2009;García, 2012;Gibson, 2018;Hones, 2007;Schindel, 2016). Entre el primer grupo se podría hacer mención de cómo la materia de Educación Física, en dos institutos estadounidenses, es el substrato para suscitar una reflexión crítica sobre la influencia de los medios de comunicación en relación a la autoimagen (Azzarito et al., 2017); o como en las materias de Historia y de Ciencias Sociales, ambas también en institutos norteamericanos, se pretende fomentar la conciencia crítica a través del desarrollo de un currículum significativo, ya sea analizando las formas en que la ideología hegemónica moldea el sentido común y, en extensión, la conciencia personal (Parkhouse, 2018) o identificando desigualdades sociales a través de canciones (Stoval, 2006). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
En la dualidad señalada por McLaren y Kincheloe (2008) entre una educación democrática, inclusiva y sensible con los asuntos sociales (crítica) y la que defiende un programa estandarizado, exclusivo y socialmente regulativo al servicio de los intereses del poder dominante (tradicional/tecnológica), este trabajo tiene como objetivo conocer, analizar y valorar la presencia y características de experiencias prácticas de pedagogía crítica (educación como resistencia) que se desarrollen en el ámbito de la educación secundaria. Un nivel tradicionalmente poco sensible a prácticas innovadoras en el que la transmisión de saber ha primado sobre la educación ciudadana. Metodológicamente se recurre a una revisión sistemática a través de la declaración PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses). Los resultados apuntan, por una parte, a una escasa presencia de experiencias educativas transformadoras en la educación secundaria en general, y particularmente en el caso español; por otra, se recoge una importante diversidad y riqueza en la concreción del marco crítico en propuestas específicas educativas difícilmente asimilables a un patrón común.
... As a few examples, Lee (2006) found that when teachers link African American students' knowledge (e.g., cultural scripts and contexts) with academic subject matter (e.g., literary analysis strategies), students engaged in much higher levels of cognition than is the case with a traditional curriculum. Cammarota and Romero (2009) taught in and evaluated the Social Justice Education Project in Tucson, Arizona, where over 40% of its Chicano students left school during the high school years. Cammarota and Romero created a four-semester social studies curriculum that was historically relevant to Chicano students, focused on racism in their school and community, and grounded in authentic care. ...
... Some qualitative research has identified associations between specific experiences and civic dispositions. For example, Latino and African-American high school students reported that the opportunity to collaborate with adult community members and actively address local community issues increased their connections to their neighborhoods, which fostered their commitment to future participation (Cammarota & Romero, 2009;Ozer & Wright, 2012;Rubin, 2007). However, researchers have continued to call for more qualitative investigations into the contextual factors that influence the development of students' civic identities (Cohen & Chaffee, 2013;Kahne & Middaugh, 2008;Saavedra, 2016;Voight & Torney-Purta, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Using both quantitative and qualitative data, the study discussed in this article examined the effects of participating in an action civics service-learning program on civic commitment and civic competence. The sample consisted of 393 eighth-grade students in three diverse middle schools from urban and rural contexts. Though previous research has demonstrated positive influences of service-learning on youth civic development, few studies have focused on younger adolescents and underrepresented populations, particularly Latino students. The results of this study indicated that a school-based action civics service- learning program may support the development of middle school students’ civic commitment and competence. A significant effect was found in relation to gender, with females reporting significantly higher levels of civic commitment and competence than males. The results demonstrated the complexity of developing civic dispositions, as project characteristics and implementation procedures influenced students’ participation levels and civic outcomes.
... Moreover, these must expose, and seek to abolish, Eurocentric curriculum, policies, and practices rooted in White supremacy. Decades of educational research have demonstrated the urgent need for decentering whiteness and abolishing White supremacy in US public schools immersed in a hegemonic society dependent on reproducing systems of oppression (Apple 2017;Au et al. 2016;Duncan-Andrade and Morrell 2008;Cammarota and Romero 2006;Freire 1993;Giroux 1996;Love 2019;Stovall 2016). Additionally, studies have shown that the practice of critical pedagogy in the classroom has the potential to dismantle injustices students and teachers experience and foster personal and social transformation (Camangian 2013;Cammarota 2011;Duncan-Andrade and Morrell 2008;Peterson 2003;Stovall et al. 2009;Stovall 2013). ...
... Extant literature overwhelmingly indicates that when teachers do enact CRI, they also tend to acquire positive student outcomes. For example, Howard and Rodriguez-Minkoff (2017) in their review of CRI and research across various content areas (e.g., language arts, mathematics, social studies) and student groups, illustrate the benefits of CRI, including, but not limited to: cultural referents for Black students' text analysis and comprehension (Lee, 2007), funds of knowledge for Mexican American student engagement (Gonz alez et al., 2005), Mexican American/Raza studies for Chicano/a achievement and graduation rates (Cammarota & Romero, 2009), and culturally relevant tools and artifacts for mathematical knowledge (Nasir, 2000). Furthermore, Abdulrahim and Orosco (2020), in their review of thirty-five studies conducted in the U.S., found culturally responsive mathematics instruction to be a promising practice for fostering equitable and inclusive learning environments for mathematics. ...
Article
Full-text available
Schools are becoming increasingly diverse. While observing teaching is critical for improving and evaluating teacher practice, few studies have explored how culturally responsive instruction (CRI) might expand dominant understandings of good teaching. Using classroom observations of teachers (U.S.: n ¼ 10, Netherlands: n ¼ 8), we compare an observational measure of CRI with a more common measure of good teaching. Findings indicate that instruments measuring good teaching and CRI provide unique information about teaching practices. High-CRI teachers are particularly strong in providing emotional support, however, good teachers are not always culturally responsive teachers and vice versa. Implications are discussed.
... Although there is no comprehensive review of YO impact, a "field scan" provided descriptive information on 160 YO organizations and detailed the types of projects, youth ages, location, and impacts on communities (Torres-Fleming et al., 2010). YO empirical work primarily characterizes how YO affects youth development, indicating that it strengthens sense of efficacy (Gambone & Connell, 2004), can reengage youth in school (Cammarota & Romero, 2009;Rogers & Terriquez, 2016), can build civic, political, and leadership skills (Christens & Dolan, 2011;Gambone, Yu, Lewis-Charp, Sipe, & Lacoe, 2006), and can promote civic and political involvement (Rogers & Terriquez, 2016;Terriquez, 2015). These outcomes are dimensions of psychological and political empowerment (Zimmerman & Eisman, 2017) and can be seen as indicators and predictors of well-being and positive youth development. ...
Article
There is an array of youth participatory approaches relevant to health equity efforts in community psychology, adolescent health, youth development, and education. While they share some commonalities, they also reflect important distinctions regarding key processes and intended level of impact. Here, we consider the following: (a) youth‐led participatory action research (YPAR), (b) youth organizing (YO), (c) youth‐led planning, (d) human‐centered design, (e) participatory arts, and (f) youth advisory boards. Informed by community psychology theories on empowerment and levels of change and social epidemiology frameworks that focus on the social determinants of health inequities, we aim to promote greater clarity in the conceptualization, implementation, and evaluation of youth participatory approaches; frame the “landscape” of youth participatory approaches and their similarities and differences; present an integrative review of the evidence regarding the impact of youth participatory approaches; and describe several illustrative cases so as to consider more deeply how some youth participatory approaches aim to influence the social determinants of health that lead to the physical embodiment of health inequities. We conclude by identifying areas of future policy‐ and practice‐relevant research for advancing youth participation and health equity. Highlights • We review multiple youth participatory approaches relevant for the promotion of health equity. • We identify commonalities and distinctions on processes including power and level of impact. • We review evidence for impact and consider illustrative cases for addressing health inequities. • We identify research directions for advancing youth participation and health equity.
... However, most educators lack access to such high-quality training opportunities (Ball & Cohen, 1999;McIntosh et al., 2020). This is concerning given the established links between culturally responsive practices (Gay, 2002) and improved behavioral (Fallon et al., 2018;Larson et al., 2018), academic (Cammarota & Romero, 2009;Powell et al., 2016), and socialemotional (Castro-Olivo, 2014) outcomes for students. ...
Article
Full-text available
It is important to explore the relationship between teachers' perceptions of their cultural responsiveness as well as students' classroom behavior and risk, as these relationships may impact decisions about equitable access to school behavioral health supports. This paper includes two studies conducted with teachers in two large suburban school districts. Study 1 investigated the relationship between teachers' (n = 20) ratings on a measure of cultural responsiveness, the Assessment of Culturally and Con-textually Relevant Supports (ACCReS), and students' classroom behavior. Results indicated that higher ACCReS scores significantly predicted lower classwide disruptive behavior. Study 2 investigated the relationship between teachers' (n = 30) ratings on the ACCReS and ratings of their students' risk on the Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener. For social behavior, higher ACCReS scores predicted teachers perceiving lower social risk; however, identification as a Black student and a student with a disability predicted higher risk. Findings are preliminary , yet implications include recommendations for high-quality professional development to promote teacher cultural responsiveness. Such support could guide teachers to create educational environments in which fewer
... The ability for marginalized communities to provide a privileged knowledge and analyses from their own experiences and social contexts is clearly linked to a development of critical consciousness necessary to empower individuals for social change. Cammarota and Romero (2009) spoke to the role of CPAR in developing a critical consciousness, which allows individuals to identify "contexts that circumscribe their opportunities and possibilities for selfdetermination, produce greater social justice, and reclaim the political space that silences their voices by filling in the missing element, [their own] knowledge" (p.54). Therefore, the bridging of CNA with CPAR allows us to explore the ways in which narratives impact, develop, and sustain the norms and assumptions that we use to order our worlds. ...
Article
Full-text available
Available at: https://vc.bridgew.edu/jiws/vol21/iss7/5 This paper seeks to explore Critical Narrative Analysis (CNA) and Critical Participatory Action Research (CPAR) as valuable methodologies in research for their potential to challenge the inherent absoluteness of master narratives through the personal and counter-narratives of research participants, while also providing participants an action-oriented emancipatory opportunity to lead the change needed in their organizations, communities and society at large. Citing a previous study which explored how patriarchal, colonially-structured master narratives have played a significant role in reproducing the limited views which dominate American understanding of working mothers, the author will demonstrate how CNA and CPAR combined can expose how these master narratives have been particularly damaging to working, mothers of color. Additionally, the CNA and CPAR approach allowed for the participating women of color to analyze their own personal experiences as well as provide a societal analysis that advocates for broader social change through the transformational action of the women themselves. Finally, the author makes the case for the potential of a combined CNA and CPAR approach across other content areas beyond mothering and work. Thus, by creating research that is centered on the specific lived experiences of our participants, we can support the development of critical consciousness, the self-reflection of others while also creating meaningful change that can inform our communities, organizations and society. This approach also has the capacity to create space for diverse perspectives to be included in knowledge and meaning making, which has invaluable implications in scholarship, research, practice and policy.
... SJYDT offers several advantages pertinent to our work, most significantly its attention to the positive consequences of educators and students working together to critically research policies like those that uphold the STPP. In this way, research informed by SJYDT can help reveal how educational and youth policies enhance or impede outcomes-including, for example, the effects of stop and frisk policies (Fox & Fine, 2013), bans on Raza studies (Cammarota & Romero, 2009), and racialized school closings (Kirshner, 2015;Stovall, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Most students released from detention never return to school. This study uses youth participatory action research and Social Justice Youth Development Theory to explore the experiences of those who do. Findings demonstrate that formerly incarcerated students want to return to school but face institutionalized resistance that amounts to racialized exclusion, violence, and state-sanctioned neglect at Chicago's school/prison nexus. We offer recommendations on how to "reverse" the school-to-prison pipeline by shifting educational and youth policies from surveillance and control to care, harm reduction, and greater youth and community
... In a different, yet significantly structured context, Cammarota and Romero (2009) developed the Mexican American Studies program at a public high school within the Tucson Unified School District to engage predominantly Latinx students in Mexican American Studies and Ethnic Studies curricula. Via opportunities for critical learning, Latinx students engaged PAR as a tool for political action that led them to document their education experiences of inequity and disenfranchisement. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Community psychology is deeply committed to the liberation and wellbeing of communities. Seemingly missing from the discipline, however, is an explicit interrogation of coloniality. In keeping with the decolonial process, one paradigm that allows for the disruption of hegemonic knowledge is Participatory Action Research (PAR). PAR facilitates opportunities for critical consciousness, self and collective determination, shared decision-making, and social change as defined by communities. This chapter engages two questions: What does it mean to decolonise PAR within community psychology? What are key elements toward the development of a decolonial PAR praxis? Pursuing these questions requires centering decolonial Global South and Indigenous cosmologies in relation to a PAR paradigm. PAR in community psychology must disrupt the coloniality of power. Thus, to engage with elements of decoloniality this chapter proposes ten axioms toward a decolonial PAR praxis in community psychology that align with the decolonial turn.
... These long-lasting policy and practice constrictions have been a result of U.S. public schools at all levels (re)producing and upholding a legacy of white supremacy [109][110][111][112]. Educational research spanning close to a century has documented the struggle to humanize U.S. public schools that honor the identities, backgrounds, and contributions of BIPOC by exposing and working to abolish racist policies and practices [107,109,[113][114][115][116][117][118][119][120][121][122]. At the crux of these studies, several crucial dispositions that educators developed and engaged with included, but were not limited to: the cultivation of a critical consciousness [109]; the development of a curriculum that exposed, examined, and confronted all forms of racial injustice guided by a CRT lens; and the building of healthy and humanizing relationships with students, colleagues, families, and community members toward healing and racial justice. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the context of ongoing antagonism on college campuses, attacks on Critical Race Theory, and widespread backlash against racial justice initiatives, this paper underscores the growing need to recognize co-optation and other counterinsurgent strategies used against racial justice to make room for transformative scholarship. By presenting qualitative interviews from 15 white HBCU students, we illustrate how diversity research, advocacy, and organizing previously used to advocate for racial justice has instead constructed distorted understandings of race and racism and has been used to expand ideologies of whiteness. The findings show what CRT scholars have cautioned about for decades—when left uninterrupted, ahistorical approaches to racial diversity programming and research may lend to the co-optation of justice-focused diversity language and the appropriation of BIPOC strategies of resistance. This not only inhibits and detracts from racial justice work, but can function to expand white supremacy. We relate these narratives to an emerging racial backlash whereby white people attempt to distort understandings of structural racism to claim a “persecuted” status—a delusion that we argue warrants a new ideological frame. We posit this work lays the foundation for advancing equity in one of the most counterinsurgent eras in higher education (Matias & Newlove, 2017).
... And, indeed, youth-centered PAR projects often investigate particular aspects of everyday life as a result of inequality. For instance, there is a growing body of PAR projects on policing and youth experiences of/resistances to aggressive and racist policing Cahill et al., 2017;Stoudt, Fine, Fox, 2011, 2012Fine et al., 2010), there are PAR projects on youth experiences of discipline (Chmielewski, Belmonte, Fine, & Stoudt, 2016), studies on inequities in schooling and community (Ruglis & Vall ee, 2016;Kirshner, 2015;Caraballo et al. 2017;Galletta & Jones, 2010;Mirra, Filipiak, & Garcia 2015;Fine, Roberts, & Torre, 2004) immigrant experience, ethnic studies, and indigeneity (Ayala, 2009;Cahill 2010;Cammarota & Romero, 2009;Irizarry, 2009;Tuck, 2009), and projects on gentrification (Cahill, 2006;McIntyre, 2000). As Caraballo et al. (2017) point out, YPAR projects include action by design in a variety of ways that can include further research, community-accessible products, performances, and collaborations with organizing projects. ...
Article
This article tells the story of two exploratory youth-centered participatory action research (PAR) projects to consider how youth-centered research can resist inequality. In this paper, I focus on the findings and process of two PAR projects that took place within one geographically isolated neighborhood in Brooklyn, New York. The studies focused on neighborhood experiences of educational inequality and everyday experiences of crossing the street in and out of the neighborhood. The process and findings of the research identified tensions and connections around the lived experiences of inequality. Ultimately we found the process of conducting research collaboratively and across generation was itself a form of resistance. © 2019
Chapter
Although the findings from a 2018 Rand Corporation study reported that restorative practices positively influenced classroom and school-wide socio-emotional attainments, it, however, had little impact upon advancing the academic outcomes of learners of color. The source of this regression emerges through the feedback reported from teachers interviewed. Their feedback revealed that a “lack of time” constrained the development of restorative practices in the classroom. This occurs as the time needed to develop the community through restorative practices was made to compete against the time needed to deliver core academic instruction. As such, the conditions that influence the student's learning are isolated from the conditions that influence the teacher's teaching. This dichotomy routes the routine of planning, preparing, organizing, and executing restorative practices as happing either “TO” or “FOR” rather than “WITH” the delivery of core academic instruction and “THROUGH” epistemological inclinations of culturally-responsive teaching practices.
Article
This qualitative systematic review examined the context‐specific factors that influence the implementation of youth participatory action research (YPAR) projects in high schools within the United States. Thematic synthesis was conducted to identify and analyze the YPAR implementation factors that were present in 38 peer‐reviewed studies. Results indicate the following two analytic themes concerning YPAR implementation in high schools: (a) pedagogical strategies and (b) stakeholder dynamics and needs. The themes provide support for existing ecological frameworks of implementation factors and demonstrate that adult researchers’ project‐specific decisions are nested within educational power structures. This paper will discuss the implications of these YPAR implementation themes in executing YPAR projects in high schools. Review of 38 studies of YPAR in U.S. high schools and factors that affect implementation. Two analytic themes emerged: pedagogical strategies, and stakeholder dynamics and needs. Adult researchers make pedagogy choices related to time, course, curriculum, and youth needs. Stakeholder dynamics and needs in schools create added power dynamics influencing implementation.
Chapter
This mixed-method study examines the interaction between teacher sense of efficacy (TSE) in the use of culturally responsive teaching practices (CRTP). Framework analysis confirms a significant relationship between the affective dimensions of a teacher's sense of efficacy in using the methods of culturally responsive teaching. The achievement orientation of teaching efficacy mediates the use of culturally sensitive teaching practices. Accumulated teaching efficacy in using non-indigenous cultural practices interrupts the fractal interconnectedness of culturally responsive teaching practices.
Article
This special section examines the enactment of participatory action research (PAR) across three distinct educational contexts: a public library program for teens, an after-school program in Japan, and a prison-based adult language and literacy program. This introduction provides an overview of the principles associated with PAR and outlines potential tensions and challenges associated with partnering with the community as co-researchers. Building on the interest in anthropology to challenge traditional research approaches, these studies emphasize how PAR can provide opportunities to positively impact the communities that are the focus of the research, including how PAR impacts those community members who become co-researchers. Additionally, these three studies critically examine the challenges and tensions introduced through PAR, challenging romanticized notions of PAR with the reality of the demands that participating in research placed on community members.
Chapter
Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) challenges traditional social science research because it teaches young people how to inquire about complex power relations, histories of struggle, and the consequences of oppression directly related to their lives. More significantly, YPAR provides marginalized youth with an opportunity to exercise their agency by being civically engaged, developing their critical consciousness, and learning how to advocate for oppressed communities. The purpose of this chapter is to do the following: (1) discuss the historical origins of YPAR and demonstrate how it is part of Indigenous/decolonizing methodological traditions, (2) provide key characteristics of YPAR and how it has been utilized in the field, (3) explain the central critiques of YPAR, and (4) provide key significant insights and challenges from my own YPAR study with system-involved youth.
Article
Full-text available
Over the last twenty years, research on the impact of engaging children and adolescents in the generation of new knowledge about their lives, schools, and communities, has grown tremendously. This systematic review summarizes the findings from empirical studies of youth inquiry approaches in the United States, with a focus on their environmental outcomes. Searches of four interdisciplinary databases retrieved a total of 3,724 relevant articles published between 1995 and 2015. Sixty‐three distinct studies met the systematic review inclusion criteria, of which, 36 (57.1%) reported that the youth inquiry approach contributed to positive changes among adults, peers, organizations, and/or institutions. These environmental outcomes were qualitatively recorded, inductively categorized, and then organized into Bronfenbrenner's ecological framework. Youth inquiry approaches led to practitioner growth and changes in peer group norms at the micro‐system level, program development or improvement and research benefits at the meso‐system level, and school, city, and state level policy adoption at the exo‐system level. Qualitative methods, especially case studies, were most commonly used to evaluate the impact of youth inquiry approaches on environmental outcomes. Studies of approaches that utilized advocacy to create change, targeted decision‐makers as the audience for the youth's work and convened for a longer duration were more likely to report improved environmental outcomes. This systematic review suggests that youth inquiry approaches are a promising strategy for ecological systems change. Environmental outcomes reported in 36 US studies of youth inquiry approaches. Outcomes included changes to practitioners, policies, programs, research, and peer group norms. Long term, advocacy‐oriented groups targeting decision‐makers were more likely to report outcomes.
Chapter
This mixed-method study examines the interaction between teacher sense of efficacy (TSE) in the use of culturally responsive teaching practices (CRTP). Framework analysis confirms a significant relationship between the affective dimensions of a teacher's sense of efficacy in using the methods of culturally responsive teaching. The achievement orientation of teaching efficacy mediates the use of culturally sensitive teaching practices. Accumulated teaching efficacy in using non-indigenous cultural practices interrupts the fractal interconnectedness of culturally responsive teaching practices.
Article
Full-text available
The assumed achievement gap between students of color and their counterparts continues to be a source of public concern. Educators have reacted to this difference in achievement by allocating more and more instructional time to covering instructional content through direct instruction, remediation and memorization of lower order skills without regarding the contextual factors that influence instructional delivery. For more than three decades Geneva Gay has advocated for teachers to match instruction. However, despite best practices culturally responsive teaching still continues to be under-used by teachers. This article explores the use of restorative practices as a mediator for improving teacher sense of efficacy or future facing self-evaluations of knowing what and how to use culturally responsive teaching practices.
Chapter
This mixed-method study examines the interaction between teacher sense of efficacy (TSE) in the use of culturally responsive teaching practices (CRTP). Framework analysis confirms a significant relationship between the affective dimensions of teacher's sense of efficacy in using the methods of culturally responsive teaching. The achievement orientation of teaching efficacy mediates the use of culturally sensitive teaching practices. Accumulated teaching efficacy in using non-indigenous cultural practices interrupts the fractal interconnectedness of culturally responsive teaching practices. The chapter concludes with suggestions of future practices for facilitating the further development of culturally restorative teaching practices among educational professionals.
Chapter
The assumed achievement gap between students of color and their counterparts continues to be a source of public concern. Educators have reacted to this difference in achievement by allocating more and more instructional time to covering instructional content through direct instruction, remediation and memorization of lower order skills without regarding the contextual factors that influence instructional delivery. For more than three decades Geneva Gay has advocated for teachers to match instruction. However, despite best practices culturally responsive teaching still continues to be under-used by teachers. This article explores the use of restorative practices as a mediator for improving teacher sense of efficacy or future facing self-evaluations of knowing what and how to use culturally responsive teaching practices.
Article
Full-text available
While research indicates that critical professional development (CPD) can function as an alternative to dominant forms of top-down, anti-dialogical professional learning in K-12 settings, there is limited research on CPD in higher education, or among teacher education faculty specifically. In this article, we examine how participation in a year-long social justice-oriented faculty learning community (FLC) impacted faculty members’ identities and trajectories as social justice teacher educators and scholars. Our findings indicate that CPD can meet university-based educators’ hunger for community, professional learning, and strategic alliances, as well as increase their sense of efficacy and authenticity as social justice educators.
Chapter
This mixed-method study examines the interaction between teacher sense of efficacy (TSE) in the use of culturally responsive teaching practices (CRTP). Framework analysis confirms a significant relationship between the affective dimensions of teacher's sense of efficacy in using the methods of culturally responsive teaching. The achievement orientation of teaching efficacy mediates the use of culturally sensitive teaching practices. Accumulated teaching efficacy in using non-indigenous cultural practices interrupts the fractal interconnectedness of culturally responsive teaching practices. The chapter concludes with suggestions of future practices for facilitating the further development of culturally restorative teaching practices among educational professionals.
Chapter
Just as the design, delivery, and development of culturally responsive teaching are constantly informed by di-unital, both/and, mindfulness, this, then, means that restorative practices are, also, capable of developing a similar intersubjectivity. Moving restorative practices beyond the dichotomous underuse of being designed, delivered, and developed apart from conveying academic instruction allows this body of work, presented here, to instead evoke cultural responsiveness to inter-subjectively filter restorative practices within instructional planning, instructional preparation and instructional delivery. Doing so conveys academic content “through” restorative practices while restorative practices simultaneously happen “with” learners of color.
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the possibilities and problematics of Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) within two elite independent schools located in the USA. The data presented were gathered from broader research that sought to identify new educative approaches to supporting social justice in schools. The paper provides an account of two YPAR projects that focused on the contentious topics of (1) micro-aggressions and (2) boy–girl relationships. It draws attention to the difficulties these schools encountered with the ‘action’ component of YPAR. These difficulties were associated with key contextual factors in each school and led to inaction and a schoolification of youth research. In light of such factors, the paper draws attention to the necessity, but tensions, of schoolifying YPAR in order to maximize the generative possibilities of this form of research.
Article
The purpose of this paper is to utilize systematic review methodology to describe how Latinx youth engage in youth participatory action research (YPAR) in the secondary school context. Of the 961 articles in the database search, 13 studies were included in the final sample. I analyzed the studies thematically and coded for YPAR characteristics and principles. I analyzed the literature review corpus deductively according to Rodríguez and Brown's three guiding principles of participatory action research: situated and inquiry-based, participatory, and transformative and activist. All studies demonstrated various ways the principles apply to YPAR with Latinx youth. In conclusion, this systematic review describes the knowledge and skills Latinx students develop through PAR. This paper offers recommendations on how future research can empower Latinx communities to address and overcome obstacles in education.
Book
Full-text available
This book chronicles the author’s application of critical pedagogy in Hong Kong secondary schools serving students from working-class families of South Asian heritage, so-called ‘ethnic minorities’ in the local context. Soto used concepts such as banking pedagogy, generative themes, liberatory dialogue, and transformative resistance, to first understand students’ school, online, and community experiences, and then to reshape his teaching of English and humanities subjects to address the students’ academic, social, and emotional needs. This critical ethnography is set against educational reforms in Hong Kong, which re-orientated schools towards developing a knowledge-economy workforce, increased privatization and competition in the school system, aimed to build national identification with China, and sought to address growing inequality in a territory known for wealth disparity. While these reforms opened opportunities for implementing student-centered pedagogies in schools and increased student access to tertiary education, ethnic minority youth faced ongoing economic and social marginalization on top of academic difficulties. The central narrative captures everyday struggles and contradictions arising from intersections of neoliberal reforms, institutional school histories, students’ transnational realities, and collective efforts for equity and social justice. In the course of the book a parallel story unfolds, as the author explores what it means to be a critical teacher and researcher, and is reborn in the process. The book’s ‘on the ground’ story is hopeful, yet tempered, in discussing the limits and possibilities for critical pedagogy. It will be of a great resource for researchers, teacher educators, and pre-service and in-service teachers who are interested in the topic.
Chapter
Although the findings from a 2018 Rand Corporation study reported that restorative practices positively influenced classroom and school-wide socio-emotional attainments, it, however, had little impact upon advancing the academic outcomes of learners of color. The source of this regression emerges through the feedback reported from teachers interviewed. Their feedback revealed that a “lack of time” constrained the development of restorative practices in the classroom. This occurs as the time needed to develop the community through restorative practices was made to compete against the time needed to deliver core academic instruction. As such, the conditions that influence the student's learning are isolated from the conditions that influence the teacher's teaching. This dichotomy routes the routine of planning, preparing, organizing, and executing restorative practices as happing either “TO” or “FOR” rather than “WITH” the delivery of core academic instruction and “THROUGH” epistemological inclinations of culturally-responsive teaching practices.
Chapter
This mixed-method study examines the interaction between teacher sense of efficacy (TSE) in the use of culturally responsive teaching practices (CRTP). Framework analysis confirms a significant relationship between the affective dimensions of teacher's sense of efficacy in using the methods of culturally responsive teaching. The achievement orientation of teaching efficacy mediates the use of culturally sensitive teaching practices. Accumulated teaching efficacy in using non-indigenous cultural practices interrupts the fractal interconnectedness of culturally responsive teaching practices. The chapter concludes with suggestions of future practices for facilitating the further development of culturally restorative teaching practices among educational professionals.
Article
As the generation and use of big data becomes more prevalent in youth work, young people grow up in a world that “knows” more about their lives than ever before. Beyond school attendance and grades, these systems know about out-of-school program participation, social service resources, therapeutic interventions, and more. Though data historically was used to understand and improve program achievements, communicate with funders, and track participants, it is increasingly used to suggest and even perform interventions in young peoples’ lives. Young people are rarely asked how they feel about these systems. This study, presented as a counter-narrative from their perspective, differentiates the big data collected and analyzed about them from the “big data” - or stuff that they feel really matters about who they are and the challenges they face. It concludes by offering four questions to help youth-serving organizations consider the ways they generate and use data, in light of the many issues young people raise about new big data trends.
Chapter
Recently a randomized study over two years within a large urban school system has confirmed that restorative practices can positively impact classroom and schoolwide socio-emotional attainments, as evidenced by reduced school suspensions and increased attendance. However, many of the teachers surveyed in this study overwhelmingly reported that having a “lack of time” was the biggest constraint to developing community through restorative practices as this “time” was considered distinctly separate from the “time” needed to deliver instruction. This perceived dichotomy revealed that restorative practices existed as a competing opposite to the design, delivery, and development of academic instruction, as the current routine of planning, preparing, organizing, and executing restorative practices happens either “TO” or “FOR” rather than “THROUGH” core academic content and “WITH” instructional delivery practices.
Thesis
Full-text available
This two-year research examines the possibilities and the barriers raised on a participatory action research in a critical literacy educational program in the first two years of the Junior High School, which aimed at the promotion of the “student’s voice’’. Main component of the research is the ways, with which the teacher – writer of the PhD thesis collaborated with the students in order to co-design and co-analyse the present research through reflectional practices and analyses. Teaching is conceived as a curriculum macro-genre constructed be other genres (Christie, 2002). The genres derive both from the polyphonic critical literacy approach and from the student’s participation in the data production and analysis. Specifically, the students participated actively in the decision making, the data production and the data analyses itself through the promotion of their interpretations and their unique insights. The validity of the research is based on the methodological values of the participatory action research and the values of the qualitative research in general combined with polyphonic critical literacies educational program. The participation was beneficial since the students were motivated and participated actively, by dealing with the contradictions that were raised, deciding about the educational processes and taking decisions. Through this engagement the feeling of ownership was enhanced, transforming them from active learners to active citizens.
Chapter
Just as the design, delivery, and development of culturally responsive teaching are constantly informed by di-unital, both/and, mindfulness, this, then, means that restorative practices are, also, capable of developing a similar intersubjectivity. Moving restorative practices beyond the dichotomous underuse of being designed, delivered, and developed apart from conveying academic instruction allows this body of work, presented here, to instead evoke cultural responsiveness to inter-subjectively filter restorative practices within instructional planning, instructional preparation and instructional delivery. Doing so conveys academic content “through” restorative practices while restorative practices simultaneously happen “with” learners of color.
Article
In this introduction to the special issue, Youth Participatory Action Research on Puerto Rican Students’ Experiences with Hurricane Maria: Shifting from Resilience to Resistance, we outline the theoretical foundations of youth participatory action research (YPAR) and explicate the guiding principles that are seminal in the corpus of YPAR literature. We propose a synthesized model based on these guiding principles called the arc of transformation in YPAR. The model is used to examine points of convergence and divergence in how these principles are employed across YPAR methods and pedagogies. We close by discussing the rising emergence of arts-based YPAR methods and how they encourage young people to engage in artistic, creative, and innovative approaches to youth-driven inquiry alongside community members, educators, scholars and researchers.
Article
This article discusses how an experimental social science curriculum has influenced Latina/o students' perspectives of their potential to graduate high school and attend college. The curriculum, which is called the Social Justice Education Project (SJEP), requires students to adopt a serious academic subjectivity to analyze and address social conditions that may undermine their future opportunities. The curriculum reflects graduate-level seminars in critical theory and participatory action research. Many students in the first cohort to participate in the program were labeled "at risk" of dropping out. These students not only graduated but also excelled with the advanced-level course work. Their exposure to advanced-level work was the best measure for preventing their premature departure from high school as well as preparation for college. The article concludes with recommendations for how universities can work with local schools to foster the type of academic climate that is conducive to success.
Article
For too long, the histories, experiences, cultures, and languages of students of color have been devalued, misinterpreted, or omitted within formal educational settings. In this article, the author uses critical race theory (CRT) and Latina/Latino critical theory (LatCrit) to demonstrate how critical raced-gendered epistemologies recognize students of color as holders and creators of knowledge. In doing so, she discusses how CRT and LatCrit provide an appropriate lens for qualitative research in the field of education. She then compares and contrasts the experiences of Chicana/Chicano students through a Eurocentric and a critical raced-gendered epistemological perspective and demonstrates that each perspective holds vastly different views of what counts as knowledge, specifically regarding language, culture, and commitment to communities. She then offers implications of critical raced-gendered epistemologies for both research and practice and concludes by discussing some of the critiques of the use of these epistemologies in educational research.
Article
Conceptualizing the households of working-class Latino students as being rich in funds of knowledge has had transformative consequences for teachers, parents, students, and researchers. Teachers' qualitative, ethnographic study of their own students' households has unfolded as a viable method for bridging the gap between school and community. The focus of the home visit is to gather details about the accumulated knowledge base that each household assembles in order to ensure its own subsistence. Teachers also participate in study groups that offer a forum for the collective analysis of the household findings, and they form curriculum units that tap into the household funds of knowledge. New avenues of communication between school and home foster confianza, or mutual trust.
Article
What can be learned fromthe Puente experience about identifying and incor porating local funds of knowledge of Latino communities into precollege preparation? This article focuses on how Puente teachers and students can enhance their practice and mutual learning through ethnographic fieldwork in the students’home community. Through investigating the many local funds of knowledge that can be utilized to validate students’ identities as knowledgeable individuals who can use such knowledge as a foundation for future learning, both teachers and students can engage in a critical pedagogy predicated on resources and not deficits.
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
This chapter discusses current theories in educational anthropology that attempt to explain Chicano low academic achievement and changes in achievement as a result of successful educational interventions. Educational researchers have not been able to present adequate justification for the differential achievement levels of minorities. Recent studies of English literacy acquisition analyzing the use of culturally and linguistically congruent instructional approaches reveal the intimate relationship of language and culture to the school adjustment of minority students. In addition, research indicates strong relationships between culture and both cognitive development and literacy acquisition. The South San Diego Writing Project illustrates some difficulties in creating culturally congruent literacy activities in the school setting and their successful outcomes. This project collected ethnographic data over a 4-year period in the San Diego South Bay area along the U.S.-Mexican border. The intent was to explore more effective ways of teaching Chicano youth how to write in English. Classes were organized into small groups, and these work teams took full control of their writing activities. Results of the study suggest that the writing groups empowered Chicano students within the school environment and offered them a unique opportunity to express their collective feelings and to reinforce cultural values acquired in the home. Research of this nature demonstrates that culture is closely related to the acquisition of knowledge and to motivation to achieve, both at the social level (as it affects the family, school, and society) and at the personal level. In addition, students' perception of school activities as enhancing cultural goals and values acquired in the home can be instrumental in converting failure into success. Implications for literacy and dropout research are discussed. Contains 54 references. (LP)
Article
Young people are joining together to demand a voice in the decisions that affect their lives. In the process, they are transforming policies and making institutions more accountable.
Towards a critically compassionate intellectualism model of transformative urban education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation
  • A Romero
Romero, A. (2008). Towards a critically compassionate intellectualism model of transformative urban education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona.
Education is politics: Paulo Freire's critical pedagogy
  • I Shor
Shor, I. (1996). Education is politics: Paulo Freire's critical pedagogy. In P. McLaren & P. Leonard (Eds.), Paulo Freire: A critical encounter (pp. 25-35). New York: Routledge.
Beyond resistance! Youth activism and community change: New democratic possibilities for practice and policy for America's youth
  • S Ginwright
  • P Noguera
  • Cammarota
Ginwright, S., Noguera, P., & Cammarota, J. (Eds.). (2006). Beyond resistance! Youth activism and community change: New democratic possibilities for practice and policy for America's youth. New York: Routledge.
Critical race theory: An introduction The Chicano studies reader: An anthology of Atzlan
  • R Delgado
  • J Stefancic
Delgado, R., & Stefancic, J. (2001). Critical race theory: An introduction. New York: NYU Press; Noriega, C. A. (2001). The Chicano studies reader: An anthology of Atzlan, 1970–2000. Los Arnulfoes, CA: UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center.
a derogatory term for a Mexican who is a recent immigrant to the United States. He also used the word raza, which literally means " his people
  • Arnulfo Romero
  • The
  • Guacho
Arnulfo Romero used the word Guacho (pronounced " watcho " ), a derogatory term for a Mexican who is a recent immigrant to the United States. He also used the word raza, which literally means " his people, " or people of Mexican descent.
Beyond resistance! Youth activism and community change: New democratic possibilities for practice and policy for America's youth From failure to success: The roles of culture and cultural conflict in the academic achievement of Chicano students
  • S Ginwright
  • P Noguera
  • J Cammarota
Ginwright, S., Noguera, P., & Cammarota, J. (Eds.). (2006). Beyond resistance! Youth activism and community change: New democratic possibilities for practice and policy for America's youth. New York: Routledge. 8. Trueba, H. T. (1991). From failure to success: The roles of culture and cultural conflict in the academic achievement of Chicano students. In R. R. Valencia (Ed.), Chicano school failure and success: Research and policy agendas for the 1990s (pp. 149–201). New York: Falmer Press. 9. Trueba. (1991). P. 156.
The critical pedagogy reader Critical race theory: An introduction
  • A Darder
  • M Baltodano
  • R D Torres
  • R Delgado
  • J Stefancic
Darder, A., Baltodano, M., & Torres, R. D. (2003). The critical pedagogy reader. New York: RoutledgeFalmer Press; Delgado, R., & Stefancic, J. (2001). Critical race theory: An introduction. New York: NYU Press; Noriega, C. A.
The Chicano studies reader: An anthology of Atzlan
  • C A Noriega
Noriega, C. A. (2001). The Chicano studies reader: An anthology of Atzlan, 1970-2000. Los Arnulfoes, CA: UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center.
Funds of knowledge: Theorizing practices in households, communities and classrooms
  • N González
  • L C Moll
  • C Amanti
González, N., Moll, L. C., & Amanti, C. (2005). Funds of knowledge: Theorizing practices in households, communities and classrooms. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum;
Youth, social justice, and communities: Toward a theory of urban youth policy
  • S Ginwright
  • J Cammarota
  • P A Noguera
Ginwright, S., Cammarota, J., & Noguera, P. A. (2005). Youth, social justice, and communities: Toward a theory of urban youth policy. Social Justice, 32(3), 24-40;
In Arizona, third-and sometimes second-generation Mexican Americans often perceive first-generation Mexican immigrants as a "different" community. Valenzuela discusses how schools often reinforce this perception to the detriment of the both communities
  • A Valenzuela
In Arizona, third-and sometimes second-generation Mexican Americans often perceive first-generation Mexican immigrants as a "different" community. Valenzuela discusses how schools often reinforce this perception to the detriment of the both communities. Valenzuela, A. (1999). Subtractive schooling: U.S.-Mexican youth and the politics of caring. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. julio cammarota is an assistant professor in the Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology and the Mexican-American Studies and Research Center at the University of Arizona.
  • Wyte